Prior to 1846 there was no general law for taking a census of the Indians within the United States, Thomas Jefferson in 1782 gave a careful analysis of the location of tribes and their numbers the United States, which then comprised only the country east of the Mississippi and north of the Floridas.

It will be noticed that Mr. Jefferson made two lists: one of Indians beyond the United States of that date, part of whom were in territory which is still outside the United States, based upon the estimates of Croghan, Bouquet, and Hutchins, and a second of Indians within the limits of the, United States as bounded in 1782 based upon the estimates of the authorities above named and Dodge. In his “Notes on Virginia”, he writes of the Indian
Tribes as follows:

Indians Northward and Westward of the United States in 1782

(Thomas Jefferson)

Name of Tribe Croghan
Where they Reside
     Total 10,400 31,630 10,750
Oswegatchies 100 At Swagatchy, on the river St. Lawrence
Connasedagoes 200 300 Near Montreal
Orondoes 100 North Trois Rivlores
Ahenukies 350 160
Little Algonquins 100
Michmacs 700 River St. Lawrence
Amelisties 550
Chalas 130
Nipissins 400 Towards the heads of the Ottawa River
Algonquins 300
Round Heads 2,500 Riviere aux Totes Boules on the east side of Lake Superior.
Messasagues 2,000 Lakes Huron and Superior
Christiaux Kris 3,000 Lake Christian aux
Assinaboes 1,500 Lake Assinaboes
Blanes or Barbus 1,500 On the heads of the Mississippi and westward of that river.
Sioux of the Meadows 10,000 2,500 10,000
Sioux of the Woods 1,800
Ajones 1,100 North of the Padoneas
Panis, white 2,000 South of the Missouri
Panis, freckled 1,700
Padoncas 500
Grundes eaux 1,600
Canses 1,000 South of the Missouri
Osages 600
Missouris 400 3,000 On the river Missouri
Arkanzas 2,000 On the river Arkinzas
Caouitas 700 East of the Alibamous

Indians within the limits of the United States in 1782

(Thomas Jefferson)

Names of Tribes Croghan
Where they Reside
   Total 9,100 23,330 25,080 11,050
Mohocks 1,500 160 100 Mohocks River
Oneidas 300200 400 East side of Oneida Lake and head branches of Susquehanna
Tuscororas Between the Oneidas and Onondagoes
Onondagoes 260 230 Near Onondago Lake
Cayugas 200 220 On the Cayuga Lake, near the north branch of Susquehanna
Senecas 1,000 650 On the waters of Susquehanna, of Ontario and the heads of the Ohio
Aughquaghas 150 East branch of Susquehanna and on Aughquagah
Nanticoes 100 Utsanaugo, Chaghtnet, and Owegy, on the east branch of Susquehanna.
Mohiccons 100 In the same parts
Conoies 30
Sapoonies 30 At Diabago and other villages up the north branch of Susquehanna.
Munsies 150 *150
Delaware or Linnelinopies 600 600 150 Between Ohio and Lake Erie and the branches of Beaver Creek, Cayahoga and Muskingum.
Delaware or Linnelinopies 500 400 600 *500
Shawnees 300 300 Sloto and branches of Muskingum
Mingoes 60 On a branch of Sloto
Ouisenusings 550 Oniscousing River
Kickapous 600 300 4,000 250 On Lake Michigan and between that and the Mississippi
Otogumies, Foxes
Mascoutes 500
Muskoakies 200 250 250
Siox, Eastern On the eastern heads of the Mississippi and the islands of Lake Superior
Cherokees 1,500 2,500 3,000 Western parts of North Carolina
Chickasaws 750 500 Western parts of Georgia
Catawbas 150 On the Catawba River in South Carolina
Chacktaws 2,000 4,500 6,0003,000
Upper Creeks 1,800 Western parts of Georgia
Lower Creeks
Natchez 150
Alibamous 600 Alibama River, in the western parts of Georgia
Mohiccons *60
Cohunnewagos 300250 Near Sandusky
Wyandots 300 300 180 Near Fort St. Joseph’s and Detroit
Wyandots Miami River near Fort Miami
Twightwees 300 250
Miamis 350 300 Miami River near Fort St. Joseph
Ouiatonons 200 400 300 *300 On the banks of the Wabash, near Fort Ouiatenon
Piankishas 300 250 300 *400
Shakirs 200
Kaskaskias 400 600 300 Near Kaskaskia
Illinois 300 Near Cahokia Query: if not the same with the Mitchigamnis?
Piorias 800 On the Illinois River, called Pinnrias, but supposed to mean Piorias.
Pouteotamies 350 300 450*300 Near Fort St. Joseph’s and Fort Detroit
Ottawas 2,000 5,000 550
Chippawas 200 5,450
Ottawas On Saguinam Bay of Lake Huron
Chippawas Near Michillimackinae
Ottawas 400250400
Chippawas Near Fort St. Mary on Lake Superior
Chippawas Several other villages along the banks of Lake Superior, number unknown.
Chippawas 550
Shakies 200 400 Near Puans Bay on Lake Michigan