Important Eras And Dates Interesting Events In Indian History 544-1863.

A. D.
544 The Toltecs, according to ancient traditions, commenced their migration from the north to the vale of Anahuac, or Mexico.
648 The Toltecs arrived at Tollantzinco, in Anahuac.
982 Eirek the Red discovered Greenland, and planted a colony there.
985 Biarni Heriulfson discovered the American coast.
1008 Thorfmn Karlsefni planted a colony in New England.
1051 The Toltecs destroyed by a pestilence.
1070 The barbarous nation of the Chichimecas succeeded the Toltecs.
1170 The Nahuatlacas, or Seven Tribes, among whom were the Aztecs, commenced their migration from the north.
1325 The Aztecs founded the city of ancient Mexico.
1492 Oct. 12. Columbus landed at Guanahani, or Cat Island, on his first voyage of discovery.
1498 Columbus first touched the shores of South America, and held intercourse with the Arawaks.
1500 Jan. 26. Vicente Pinzon landed near Cape St. Augustine, at the eastern extremity of South America, and took formal possession.
1501 Portuguese discoverers, under Vespucius, landed at Brazil.
1509 Juan de Solis slain by the natives at the estuary of La Plata.
1518 L. Velasquez de Ayllon landed on the Carolina coast in search of Indian slaves and gold.
1519 Nov. 8. Cortez entered the city of Mexico, and held his first inter view with the Emperor Montezuma
1520 Night of July 1. The “Noche Triste,” on which the Spaniards made their disastrous retreat from the city of Mexico.
1521 Towards the close of May, the Spaniards, with reinforcements, having again advanced upon the Aztec capital, laid close siege to it.
1521 Aug. 13. Gautimozin, successor to Montezuma, was taken prisoner, and the city fell into the power of the Spanish invaders.
1524 Nov. Francisco Pizarro sailed on his first expedition to Peru.
1528 Expedition of Pamphilo de Narvaez to Florida, with a party of four hundred men. About forty horses were landed the first ever seen by the natives.
1531 Pizarro landed and established himself in Peru.
1532 Nov. 15. Entry of Pizarro into Caxamalca, and first interview of his officers with the Inca, Atahuallpa.
1532 Nov. 16. Horrible massacre of the Indians, and seizure of the Inca.
1533 Aug. 29. Atahuallpa infamously put to death, by the garrotte.
1533 Nov. Entry of the Spaniards into Cuzco, the capital of Peru.
1535 Almagro’s expedition into Chili.
1538 May. Fernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay. The bloody scenes attendant upon the conquest of Florida ensued.
1540 Pedro Valdivia s invasion of Chili.
1552 His progress through Arauco.
1553 Dec. 3. Great battle between the Spaniards and the Araucanians, in which the latter, under Caupolican, gained a signal victory.
1555 The Spanish town of Conception attacked and destroyed by the Araucanians, under Lautaro.
1556 Lautaro surprised and slain by Villagran.
1558 Expedition of Garcia de Mendoza to the archipelago of Chiloe.
1562 French refugees settled peaceably among the Indians on the St. John’s river, Florida.
1584 Amidas and Barlow opened a friendly intercourse with the Virginia Indians.
1585 Those belonging to Sir Richard Grenville’s expedition to Virginia commenced outrages and hostilities, which resulted in the destruction of several successive colonies.
1595 Raleigh entered the Orinoco, and held intercourse with the natives.
1598 Nov. Great rising of the Chilians, under the Toqui Paillamachu: expulsion of the Spaniards from the Araucanian territory.
1606 Bartholomew Gosnoll’s expedition to Virginia, with which the celebrated Captain John Smith was connected.
1608 June. Smith s exploration of the Chesapeake; his first meeting with the Massawomekes, or Iroquois
1608 In the autumn of this year, Powhatan was formally crowned the regalia having been sent over from England.
1608 Dec. Powhatan s conspiracy against Smith and his party, and their preservation by Pocahontas
1613 Pocahontas seized and detained by Captain Argall
1613 April . Marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe.
1614 Thomas Hunt landed at Monhegan, and enticed twenty-four Indians on board his vessel, whom he carried to Europe as slaves.
1617 Pocahontas died, at Gravesend, in England
1618 Powhatan died.
1620 Nov. 9. The May-Flower arrived
1620 ” Dec. 8. First skirmish of the N. England settlers with the natives.
1620 Dec. 22. Their landing at Plymouth.
1621 March 22. Treaty between the Plymouth settlers and Massasoit.
1622 March 22. Great massacre of the Virginia settlers by the Indians, set on by Opechancanough: three hundred and forty-seven killed.
1625 Great battle with the Caribs on the island of St. Christopher,two thousand of that nation destroyed.
1628 Firearms extensively diffused among the Indians of New England, by Dutch traders and one Thomas Morton.
1637 The Pequod War broke out: siege of the English garrison at Saybrook.
1637 June 5. A little before day the Pequod fort attacked and destroyed; barbarous destruction of women and children.
1640 Peace concluded between the Spanish colonists under Francisco Zuniga, and the Araucanians.
1643 Miantonimo put to death by, Uncas.
1644 Second Virginia massacre, planned by Opechancanough
1653 The nation of the Eries exterminated by the Iroquois.
1662 Philip, or Metacomet, succeeded his brother Alexander.
1665 Peace again concluded between the Spaniards and Araucanians.
1675 June 24, O. S. First blood shed in King Philip s war.
1675 Dec. 19. Destruction of the Narragansett fort
1676 Aug. 12. Philip killed by an Indian of Captain Church s party.
1676 Aug. Capture of Annawon, by Church, and end of the war.
1682 Dec. First treaty of William Penn with the Delawares.
1688 Invasion of Canada, and attack on Montreal by the Iroquois
1710 First deputation of Iroquois chiefs to the court of Queen Anne.
1711 Sept. 22. Massacre of whites in North Carolina by the Tuscaroras.
1713 March 26. The Tuscarora fort on Tar river destroyed by Colonel Moore eight hundred prisoners taken.
1713 Union of the main body of the Tuscaroras with the Iroquois.
1729 Nov. 30. Massacre of the French inhabitants of Natchez, by the Natchez Indians.
1738 Nearly one half of the Cherokees destroyed by the small pox.
1749 Singular intrigues of the Reverend Thomas Bosomworth and his wife, the half-breed, Mary Musgrove, among the Creeks.
1750 Settlement of difficulties between Spanish and Portuguese colonies on the river La Plata: thirty thousand Guarani Indians expatriated.
1755 July 9. Disastrous defeat of General Braddock, by the French and Indians, a few miles from Fort Duquesne.
1759 Winter. War between the Cherokees and the British colonists.
1760 Spring. Colonel Montgomery’s expedition against the Cherokees: destruction of all their towns east of the Blue Ridge.
1761 Spring. Colonel Grant s campaign against the Cherokees: their reduction, and the ravage of their towns in the interior.
1763 May. Siege of Detroit commenced by Pontiac.
July 30 Battle of Bloody Bridge, and terrible destruction of English troops under Captain Dalyell, by Pontiac and his warriors.
1773 Peace concluded between the Spaniards and the Araucanians.
1774 . In the spring of this year commenced the bloody war in Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, known as Cresap’s war.
1774 Oct. 10. Great battle at Point Pleasant, mouth of the Kanawha.
1777 July. Battle of Oriskany; General Herkimer mortally wounded.
1778 July 4. Destruction of the settlements in the valley of Wyoming.
1778 Nov. Massacre at Cherry Valley.
1779 Sept. General Sullivan s campaign against the Iroquois: destruction of all their towns, crops, fruit trees, and stores.
1780. Aug. Ravage of a portion of the Mohawk valley, by Brant.
1781 Great insurrection of the Peruvian Indians, under Tupac Amaru.
1781 June. Grand council of war held by the western tribes.
1781 Defeat of Colonels Todd, Trigg, and party, near the Blue Licks. ” Indian towns of Chilicothe, Pecaway, &c., destroyed by Gen. Clarke.
1785 Brant visited England, and was received with flattering attention.
1786 Dec. Grand Council of western Indians at Huron Village.
1791 Autumn. Unsuccessful expedition of General Harmar
1791 ” Nov. 4. Disastrous defeat of General St. Clair, by the Indians, under Little Turtle, near the Miami.
1794 Aug. 20. Battle of Presque Isle, in which the western Indians, under Blue Jacket, were signally defeated by General Wayne
1804 Elskwatawa, the prophet, brother of Tecumseh, engaged in intrigues among the tribes of the west.
1809 Sept. Cession of lands on the Wabash, obtained by General Harrison from the Indians.
1810 Departure of Tecumseh southward, for the purpose of rousing up the Creeks, Cherokees, &c.
1811 Night of Nov. 6. Battle at the Prophet s Town, in which Elskwatawa s forces were defeated and dispersed by General Harrison.
1813 Aug. 30. Sack of Fort Mimms, in the Tensau settlement, by the great Creek warrior Weatherford, with fifteen hundred Indians.
1813 Oct. 5. Battle of the Thames: the great Indian chief Tecumseh killed.
1813 Nov. 29. Battle of Autosse; destruction of two hundred Indians by General Floyd s forces, aided by Indian allies led by M’Intosh.
1814 March 27. Battle of Horse-shoe Bend, in the Tallapoosie: the Creeks and other southern Indians defeated by General Jackson.
1823 Sept. 18. Treaty of Moultrie Creek, by which the Seminoles were to remove within certain limits.
1829 Dec. 20. Acts passed by the Georgia legislature, annulling the Cherokee laws, and infringing upon the rights of that people.
1830 July. Treaty at Prairie du Chien, with the Sacs and Foxes, Iowas, Sioux, &c. concerning cession of lands east of the Mississippi.
1831 June. General Games’ expedition to compel removal of the Sacs.
1832 May 8. Treaty of Payne s Landing, by the provisions of which the Seminoles were to remove west of the Mississippi.
1832 May 14. Defeat of Major Stillman and his forces, by Black Hawk.
1832 Aug. 2. Black-Hawk s forces defeated by General Atkinson.
1832 27. Surrender of Black -Hawk and the Prophet.
1835 Oct. The Florida war commenced.
1835 Dec. Treaty of New Echota with the Cherokees, (known as Schermerhorn’s treaty) upon the subject of removal of that nation west of the Mississippi.
1835 Dec. 28. Destruction of Dade s detachment, by the Seminoles.
1836 March 14. Schermerhorn s treaty with the Cherokees ratified by Congress.
1836 Spring. General Scott s campaign in Florida.
1837 Jan. 22. General Jessup moved southward towards the everglades in pursuit of the Seminoles.
1838 Oct. 3. Black-Hawk died, at the age of 73.
1842 The Florida war at an end: several hundred Indians transported west of the Mississippi.
1850 Hostilities renewed with the remaining Seminoles, under Billy Bowlegs, in Florida.
1856 War with the Oregon Indians.
1856 Peace concluded. Treaties made with the various tribes.
1857 Annihilation of Indians through U. S. troops under Gen. Harney.
1857 Massacre of settlers in Minnesota.
1858 Billy Bowlegs and thirty Warriors, give themselves up to the U. States, and agree to settle west of the Mississippi.
1858 Renewal of hostilities with the Oregon Indians.
1862 Sioux Massacre in Minnesota.
1863 Sioux Massacre in Minnesota.