In 1898, Congress passed a bill creating the only ‘Institution for Insane Indians’ in the United States. The Canton Indian Insane Asylum, South Dakota (sometimes called Hiawatha Insane Asylum) opened for the reception of patients in January, 1903.

Many of the inmates were not mentally ill. Native Americans risked being confined in the asylum for alcoholism, opposing government or business interests, or for being culturally misunderstood. A 1927 investigation conducted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs determined that a large number of patients showed no signs of mental illness. The asylum was closed in 1934. While open, more than 350 patients were detained there, in terrible conditions. At least 121 died.

Land was set aside for a cemetery, but the Indian Office decided that stone markers for graves would be an unwarranted expense. Today, the cemetery (121 names) is located in the middle of a golf course in Canton. No one knows the cause of death of the incarcerated or why they were even at the asylum. The National Park Service has recently added the cemetery to the National Register of Historic Places.

This page covers all patients interred in Canton Asylum during the year of 1910.

June 28, 1910 Patients

Canton Asylum, 1910, List of Patients

Number Name Age Sex Family Relationship
1 Antone 39 Male Widower
2 Bigmane, Joseph 27 Male Single
3 Brings-the-Arroli, John 46 Male Married
4 Brown, John 43 Male Married
5 Clafflin, Charles 79 Male Widower
6 Danachonginiwa 34 Male Unknown
7 Deer, Amos 33 Male Single
8 Goforth, William 49 Male Divorced
9 Hall, John 40? Male Single
10 Harrison, Steve 35? Male Unknown
11 Hathorn, James 12 Male Single
12 Hedges, Edward 40 Male Divorced
13 Iron, Herbert 32 Male Single
14 Jordan, Joseph 51 Male Widower
15 McCarthy, Willie 28 Male Single
16 Marlow, George 24 Male Single
17 Marshall, Jos. D 31 Male Single
18 Nakai Yezza 33 Male Married
19 Omudis 19 Male Single
20 Peo 70? Male Unknown
21 Red Cloud 57 Male Single
22 Roubideaux, Davis 23 Male Single
23 Sheppard, Richard 37 Male Single
24 Smith, Frank 36 Male Widower
25 Starr, Frank 21 Male Single
26 Taylor, Joseph 21 Male Single
27 Thompson, Robert 32 Male Single
28 Three Striker 65 Male Single
29 Tom, Bob 45 Male Married
30 Turpin, Peter 17 Male Single
31 Two Crows, James 17 Male Single
32 Wolf, Arch 35 Male Single
33 Wolf, Howling 53 Male Married
34 Blue Sky 65? Male Married
35 Chee 35 Male Single
36 Unreadable 63 Female Married
37 Unreadable 61 Female Married
38 Unreadable 49 Female Married
39 Unreadable 44 Female Married
40 Unreadable 43 Female Married
41 Unreadable 27 Female Single
42 Unreadable 18 Female Single
43 Unreadable 70 Female Widow
44 Unreadable 101 Female Widow
45 McIntosh, Louisa 54 Female Widow
46 Magwon Female Widow
47 Maria, Lupe 20 Female Single
48 O-zowsh-quah 53 Female Married
49 Pidajoltaha 22 Female Unknown
50 Porlier, Louisa 34 Female Married
51 Porter, Isabella 22 Female Single
52 Sheayounena, Minnie 19 Female Married
53 Spicer, Kattie 21 Female Married
54 Taylor, Lulu 35 Female Married
55 Vipont, Lizzie 34 Female Married
56 Wah-be-she-she-quay 22 Female Single
57 Waite, Emily 41 Female Single
58 Wash, Rose 60 Female Widow
59 Washington, Nannie 22 Female Married
60 Wells, Josephine 26 Female Single
61 Womack, Mrs. 88 Female Widow
Source: Catalogue, United States Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Carlisle Indian Press, Printed by Students, 1912.