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Topic: Seminole

Narrative of the Escape of W. B. Thompson – Indian Captivities

John W. B. Thompson’s story of “captivity” is really a captive story about being attacked by Seminole Indians at the Cape Florida Lighthouse he manned with what appears to be his slave. Written by him to let his friends know that he was alive, though crippled, the letter to the editor of the Charleston (S. C.) Courier details the frightful event of 23 July 1836. The Seminole Indians who attacked him likely pillaged the premise for supplies as they were taking their families into the marsh around Cape Florida where they were attempting to hide from the forced migration of their tribe to Oklahoma.

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The End of the Florida War, The Fate of the Seminoles – Indian Wars

The close of the troubles with the Florida Indians resulted in their removal to a reservation almost within the shadow of the Rocky Mountains. The tribe, the Seminoles, lost much of their prestige, and became discouraged upon the death of Osceola. The last battle of those terrible swamp skirmishes could be called by the legitimate term of regular pitched battles and occurred December 8th, 1842. The first conflict occurred on the 19th of July, 1835. This second war followed closely upon the treaty which was supposed to have removed beyond any possibility the chance of another outbreak. But only with his total extinction will the Indian forget a wrong either fancied or real. They still brooded over their fancied wrongs. For them, as is told of those who wanted opportunity, the opportunity was made. A settler, newly arrived, and who had located near one of the largest of the Seminole towns, lost two or three of his horses, and entertaining the idea that the Indians were naturally thieves, at once proceeded to the nearest military post and made complaint with such additions and exaggerations to his story as he thought necessary to insure a prompt reprisal and rescue of his property from the depredators. This fermented the ill-feeling of the Indians, who in reality had not taken the horses, for they were afterwards found in a swamp some miles...

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War With The Modoc – Indian Wars

Early April 16th, the Modoc had a big fire in their camp. Major Thomas dropped a shell directly into it, provoking a frantic war whoop, and causing the sudden extinguishing of the fire. Another shell was dropped in the same locality, and was followed by yells of pain and dismay. The Modoc then appeared and challenged the soldiers to come out and fight. Another shell was the answer, and they were driven back. At 4 o’clock A. M. , after another fight, the Modoc gave up the attempt to break through the line and retired. Scattering shots were fired on the...

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Second Seminole War – Indian Wars

The second Seminole war against the Indians and runaway Blacks in Florida commenced in 1835. A treaty had been concluded with the Seminole warriors, by which they agreed to remove beyond the Mississippi. A party of the Indians had proceeded to the territory appointed for their reception, and reported favorably upon their return. Everything promised a speedy conformity to the wishes of the government. But at this juncture, John Hext, the most influential chief of the tribe, died, and was succeeded in power, by Osceola. This chief wielded his power for far different purposes. Being opposed to emigration, he...

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The Seminole War of 1816 and 1817 – Indian Wars

After the close of the war with Great Britain, in 1815, when the British forces were withdrawn from the Florida’s, Edward Nicholls, formerly a colonel, and James Woodbine, a captain in the British service, who had both been engaged in exciting the Indians and Blacks to hostility, remained in the territory for the purpose of forming combinations against the southwestern frontier of the United States. Nicholls even went so far as to assume the character of a British agent, promising the Creeks the assistance of the British forces if they would rise and assert their claim to the land...

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Guide to Using the Final Rolls

These pages can be searched to discover the enrollee’s name, age, sex, blood degree, type, census card number and roll number. Check the headings in each column. The letter guide was furnished by the National Archives. These letters can appear both on Type and Roll number

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Seminole Burial Customs

The Seminole, the immigrants from the Creek towns who settled in Florida during the eighteenth century, were little influenced by the whites until very recent years. Living as they did in the midst of the great swamps of the southern part of the peninsula, with no roads penetrating the tangle of semitropical vegetation, and with even the location of their settlements unknown to the occupants of other parts of Florida, they were never visited, and seldom seen except when they chose to make journeys to the traders near the coast. Consequently the burial customs of the people, as witnessed 40 years ago, were probably little different from those practiced during the past generations. The account written at that time referred particularly to the death and burial of a child: ” The preparation for burial began as soon as death had taken place. The body was clad in a new shirt, a new handkerchief being tied about the neck and another around the head. A spot of red paint was placed on the right cheek and one of black upon the left. The body was laid face upwards. In the left hand, together with a bit of burnt wood, a small bow about twelve inches in length was placed, the hand lying naturally over the middle of the body. Across the bow, held by the right hand, was laid an...

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Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President...

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Acts of a Supplemental Character

(7) Act of March 5, 1905 (33 Stat., 1048,1060} This act was supplemental to the regular enrollment acts and authorized the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, for 60 days following the approval of the act, to receive and consider the applications of certain newborn children for whose enrollment no provision had been made. This act was restrictive in three respects: (a) It restricted the right to make application to the offspring of persons whose enrollment had theretofore been approved by the Secretary of the Interior. This was probably an unintentional defect in the law, but nevertheless it operated to draw a sharp dividing line between claimants who were equitably entitled to exactly the same consideration. That this is true will be readily appreciated when it is recalled that, at .the date of said act, there were many worth citizens whose applications were pending and who were subsequently enrolled. There was no difference between such persons and others whose enrollment had been approved at an earlier date except that in the one case the administrative machinery had moved more slowly than in the other. (b) As the persons entitled to make application under the act must necessarily be the offspring of citizens whose enrollment had been approved by the Secretary of the Interior, there could be no question as to the citizenship of the children. Furthermore, it could not...

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Seminole Revoke Power of Attorney

We-Wo-Ka, Seminole Nation, ss: Be it remembered that on this 14th day of September, A. D. 1567, before me, E. J. Brown, Acting United States agent for the Seminole Indians, personally came the persons mentioned below, who, being first by me duly sworn, and having the oath duly interpreted to them by Robert Johnson, United States interpreter, depose as follows: We are members of the First Regiment Indian Home Guards, in the company and under the captain designated opposite our names, and were honorably discharged. Some time in the month of ___, A. D. 186-, we delivered to J. W. Weight our certificates of discharge, made and subscribed the necessary declaration for the purpose of obtaining bounty or back pay, to which we were entitled under the provisions of the act of Congress approved the – day of , A. D. 186, We also executed and delivered to the said J. W. Wright, a “power of attorney” to act as our attorney in fact, and draw the bounty or back pay for us. We further state that up to the present time we have not received the same or any portion thereof from the said J. W. ‘Wright, or from any person for him or from any source whatever. We make this declaration for the purpose of having the same paid to us as soon as possible through the...

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Bounty Declaration of 28 Seminole Indians

We-Wo-Ka, Seminole Nation , ss: Be it remembered that on this 13th day of September, A. D. 1867, before me, E. J. Brown, acting United States agent for the Seminole Indians, personally came the persons mentioned below, who, being by me first duly sworn, and having the oath duly interpreted to them by Robert Johnson, United States interpreter, depose as follows: We were members of the First Regiment Indian Home Guards, in the company and under the captain designated opposite our names, and were honorably discharged. Some time in the month of _____, A. D. 186-, we delivered to J. W. Wright our certificates of discharge, made and subscribed the necessary declaration for the purpose of obtaining bounty, or back pay, to which we were entitled under the provisions of the act of Congress approved ____day of___, A. D. 186-. We also executed and delivered to the said J. W. Wright a power of attorney to act as our attorney in fact, and draw the bounty, or back pay, for us. We further state that up to this time we have not received the same, or any portion thereof, from the said J. W. Wright, or from any person for him, or from any source whatever. We make this declaration for the purpose of having the same paid to us as soon as possible, through the agent of our...

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Mikasuki Indians

Mikasuki Tribe – Meaning unknown. Mikasuki Connections. These Indians belonged to the Hitchiti-speaking branch of the Muskhogean linguistic family. They are said by some to have branched from the true Hitchiti, but those who claim that they were originally Chiaha are probably correct. Mikasuki Location. Their earliest known home was about Miccosukee Lake in Jefferson County. (See also Oklahoma.) Mikasuki Villages. Alachua Talofa or John Hick’s Town, in the Alachua Plains, Alachua County. New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County. Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake. Mikasuki History. The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and therefore we know that their independent status had been established by that date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha. They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided, part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some writers denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it is quite likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from themselves, the Muskogee element blamed them for sins they themselves had committed. Old Mikasuki was burned by Andrew Jackson in 1817. Most Mikasuki seem to have remained in Florida where they still constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress band of Seminole. Those who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct Square Ground as late as 1912. Mikasuki Population. Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain Young...

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Treaty of January 4, 1845

Articles of a treaty made by William Armstrong, P. M. Butler, James Logan, and Thomas L. Judge, commissioners in behalf of the United States, of the first part; the Creek tribe of Indians, of the second; and the Seminole tribe of Indians, of the third part. Whereas it was stipulated, in the fourth article of the Creek treaty of 1833, that the Seminoles should thenceforward be considered a constituent part of the Creek nation, and that a permanent and comfortable home should be secured for them on the lands set apart in said treaty as the country of the Creeks; and whereas many of the Seminoles have settled and are now living in the Creek country, while others, constituting a large portion of the tribe, have refused to make their homes in any part thereof, assigning as a reason that they are unwilling to submit to Creek laws and government, and that they are apprehensive of being deprived, by the Creek authorities, of their property; and whereas repeated complaints have been made to the United States government, that those of the Seminoles who refused to go into the Creek country have, without authority or right, settled upon lands secured to other tribes, and that they have committed numerous and extensive depredations upon the property of those upon whose lands they have intruded: Now, therefore, in order to reconcile all...

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Treaty of March 28, 1833

Whereas, the Seminole Indians of Florida, entered into certain articles of agreement, with James Gadson, [Gadsden.] Commissioner on behalf of the United States, at Payne’s landing, on the 9th day of May, 1832: the first article of which treaty or agreement provides, as follows: “The Seminoles Indians relinquish to the United States all claim to the land they at present occupy in the Territory of Florida, and agree to emigrate to the country assigned to the Creeks, west of the Mississippi river; it being understood that an additional extent of territory proportioned to their number will be added to the Creek country, and that the Seminoles will be received as a constituent part of the Creek nation, and be re-admitted to all the privileges as members of the same.” And whereas, the said agreement also stipulates and provides, that a delegation of Seminoles should be sent at the expense of the United States to examine the country to be allotted them among the Creeks, and should this delegation be satisfied with the character of the country and of the favorable disposition of the Creeks to unite with them as one people, then the aforementioned treaty would be considered binding and obligatory upon the parties. And whereas a treaty was made between the United States and the Creek Indians west of the Mississippi, at Fort Gibson, on the 14th day...

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Treaty of March 21, 1866

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Washington, D.C., March 21, A.D., 1866, between the United States Government, by its commissioners, D.N. Cooley, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Elijah Sells, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Ely S. Parker, and the Seminole Indians, by their chiefs, John Chup-co, or Long John, Cho-cote-harjo, Fos-ha[r]-jo, John F. Brown. Whereas existing, treaties between the United States and the Seminole Nation are insufficient to meet their mutual necessities; and Whereas the Seminole Nation made a treaty with the so-called Confederate States, August 1st, 1861, whereby they threw off their allegiance to the United States, and unsettled their treaty relations with the United States, and thereby incurred the liability of forfeiture of all lands and other property held by grant or gift of the United States; and whereas a treaty of peace and amity was entered into between the United States and the Seminole and other tribes at Fort Smith, September 13 [10,] 1865, whereby the Seminoles revoked, canceled. and repudiated the said treaty with the so-called Confederate States; and whereas the United States, through its commissioners, in said treaty of peace promised to enter into treaty with the Seminole Nation to arrange and settle all questions relating to and growing out of said treaty with the so-called Confederate States; and whereas the United States, in view of said treaty of the Seminole Nation with...

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