Topic: Sauk

Governor Houston at His Trading Post on the Verdigris

In February, 1828, the vanguard of Creek immigrants arrived at the Creek Agency on the Verdigris, in charge of Colonel Brearley, and they and the following members of the McIntosh party were located on a section of land that the Government promised in the treaty of 1826 to purchase for them. By the treaty of May 6, 1828, the Government assigned the Cherokee a great tract of land, to which they at once began to remove from their homes in Arkansas. The movement had been under way for some months when there appeared among the Indians the remarkable figure of Samuel Houston. The biographers of Houston have told the world next to nothing of his sojourn of three or four years in the Indian country, an interesting period when he was changing the entire course of his life and preparing for the part he was to play in the drama of Texas.

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Establishment of Fort Gibson in 1824

By Act of Congress of March 2, 1819, Arkansas Territory was established July 4, embracing substantially all of what are now the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma; though the civil government of Arkansas Territory was limited to that section lying east of the Osage line, divided into counties, and embracing approximately the present state of Arkansas. That west of the Osage line was the Indian country, and in later years became known as Indian Territory. James Miller 1James Miller was born in Peterboro, N. H., April 25, 1776; entered the array as major in 1808, became Lieutenant-colonel in 1810,...

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Use Of Tobacco Among North American Indians

Tobacco has been one of the most important gifts from the New World to the Old. In spite of the attempts of various authors to prove its Old World origin there can be no doubt that it was introduced into both Europe and Africa from America. Most species of Nicotiana are native to the New World, and there are only a few species which are undoubtedly extra- American. The custom of smoking is also characteristic of America. It was thoroughly established throughout eastern North and South America at the time of the discovery; and the early explorers, from Columbus on, speak of it as a strange and novel practice which they often find it hard to describe. It played an important part in many religious ceremonies, and the beliefs and observances connected with it are in themselves proof of its antiquity. Hundreds of pipes have been found in the pre-Columbian mounds and village sites of the eastern United States and, although these remains cannot be dated, some of them must be of considerable age. In the southwestern United States the Basket Makers, an ancient people whose remains are found below those of the prehistoric Cliff Dwellers, were smoking pipes at a time which could not have been much later than the beginning of our era.

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Black Hawk’s War – Indian Wars

We have now to record the events of a war “which brought one of the noblest of Indians to the notice and admiration of the people of the United States. Black Hawk was an able and patriotic chief. With the intelligence and power to plan a great project, and to execute it, he united the lofty spirit which secures the respect and confidence of a people. He was born about the year 1767, on Rock river, Illinois. At the age of fifteen he took a scalp from the enemy, and was in consequence promoted by his tribe to the...

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House Document 64

To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled: The undersigned, chiefs, braves, warriors, and hunters, of the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honorable body, that, under the existing law of Congress, regulating the payment of the annuities to our nation, by which they are to be paid to the chiefs, or to some person designated by them, they have been deprived of their just rights as individuals of those tribes, as they verily believe that it was the intention of Congress that every person belonging to our nation should receive an equal proportion of the annuities, and not all be given to a few individuals because they are chiefs, as it was the present year. They further state and declare that they have received no part of the annuities that were paid this year, either in money, clothing, or any thing else; and, as they are solely dependent upon them for a supply of clothing and hunting equipments, it has reduced them to great want. And they are informed by the chiefs themselves that they were sent for to St. Louis, which is about 250 miles from our villages, and 200 from the nearest part of our country, nearly or quite a month earlier than the usual time of paying the annuities, (which,...

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House Document 63

To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled: The undersigned, chiefs, braves, warriors, and hunters, of the Fox tribe of Indians, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honorable body, that, under the existing regulations respecting the payment of our annuities, we have again been deprived of our just rights as members of the Sac and Fox nation. And in as much as our tribe have always been on terms of peace and friendship with the Government and people of the United States, we make this appeal to your honorable body, in full confidence that our humble petition will be granted. By the last treaty made by the Sacs and Foxs with the Government of the United States, an annuity of twenty thousand dollars, for a term of years, is made and ceded to the Sacs and Foxes, in conjunction for the consideration therein specified; at which time it was distinctly understood by the undersigned that the same was to be equally divided among the whole nation. The undersigned further beg leave to represent, that the Fox tribe, of which they are chiefs, braves, hunters, and warriors, comprise two-thirds of the said nation of Sacs and Foxes; and that they have received but one-half of the said annuities since the treaty of eighteen hundred and thirty-two, (1832) which secures to all...

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Treaty of September 28, 1836

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at the treaty ground on the right bank of the Mississippi river in the county of Debuque and Territory of Wisconsin opposite Rock island, on the twenty-eighth day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between Henry Dodge commissioner on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians represented in general council by the undersigned chiefs, headmen and warriors of the said tribes, of the other part: Whereas by the second article of the treaty made between the United States and the confederate tribes of the Sac and Fox Indians on the twenty-first day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, a reservation of four hundred sections of land was made to the Sac and Fox Indians to be laid off under the directions of the President of the United States in conformity to the provisions of said article, and the same having been so subsequently laid out accordingly, and the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes being desirous of obtaining additional means of support, and to pay their just creditors, have entered into this treaty, and make the following cession of land. Article 1. The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes for the purposes above expressed, and for and in consideration of the stipulations and agreements hereinafter...

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Treaty of September 28, 1836 – 2

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at the treaty ground on the right bank of the Mississippi river in the county of Debuque and Territory of Wisconsin opposite Rock island, on the twenty-eighth day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between Henry Dodge commissioner on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians represented in general council by the undersigned chiefs headmen and warriors of the said tribes, of the other part. Whereas by the second article of the treaty made between the United States and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians on the twenty-first day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, a reservation of four hundred sections of land was made to the Sac and Fox Indians to be laid off under the direction of the President of the United States in conformity to the provisions of said article, and the same having been so subsequently laid out accordingly, and the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes being desirous of obtaining additional means of support, and to pay their just creditors have entered into this treaty, and make the following cession of land. Article I.The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes for the purposes above expressed, and for and in consideration of the stipulations and agreements hereinafter expressed, do...

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Treaty of September 21, 1832

Articles of a Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cession, concluded at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, between the United States of America, by their Commissioners, Major General Winfield Scott, of the United States Army, and his Excellency John Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois, and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, represented, in general Council, by the undersigned Chiefs, Headmen and Warriors. Whereas, under certain lawless and desperate leaders, a formidable band, constituting a large portion of the Sac and Fox nation, left their country in April last, and, in violation of treaties, commenced an unprovoked war upon unsuspecting and defenseless citizens of the United States, sparing neither age nor sex; and whereas, the United States, at a great expense of treasure, have subdued the said hostile band, killing or capturing all its principal Chiefs and Warriors-the said States, partly as indemnity for the expense incurred, and partly to secure the future safety and tranquility of the invaded frontier, demand of the said tribes, to the use of the United States, a cession of a tract of the Sac and Fox country, bordering on said frontier, more than proportional to the numbers of the hostile band who have been so conquered and subdued. Article 1.Accordingly, the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes hereby cede to the United States forever, all the lands to which the said...

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Treaty of July 15, 1830

Articles of a treaty made and concluded by William Clark Superintendent of Indian Affairs and Willoughby Morgan, Col. of the United States 1st Regt. Infantry, Commissioners on behalf of the United States on the one part, and the undersigned Deputations of the Confederated Tribes of the Sacs and Foxes; the Medawah-Kanton, Wahpacoota, Wahpeton and Sissetong Bands or Tribes of Sioux; the Omahas, Ioways, Ottoes and Missourias on the other part. The said Tribes being anxious to remove all causes which may hereafter create any unfriendly feeling between them, and being also anxious to provide other sources for supplying their wants besides those of hunting, which they are sensible must soon entirely fail them; agree with the United States on the following Articles. Article 1. The said Tribes cede and relinquish to the United States forever all their right and title to the lands lying within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the upper fork of the Demoine River, and passing the sources of the Little Sioux, and Floyds Rivers, to the fork of the first creek which falls into the Big Sioux or Calumet on the east side; thence, down said creek, and Calumet River to the Missouri River; thence down said Missouri River to the Missouri State line, above the Kansas; thence along said line to the north west corner of the said State, thence to the...

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Treaty of February 18, 1867

Articles of agreement made and concluded this eighteenth day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, between the United States, represented by Lewis V. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs; William H. Watson, special commissioner; Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian Affairs for Kansas; and Henry W. Martin, United States Indian agent, duly authorized, and the tribes of Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, represented by Keokuk, Che-kus-kuk, Uc-quaw-ho-ko, Mut-tut-tah, and Man-ah-to-wah, chiefs of said tribes. Article 1.The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi cede to the Government of the United States all the lands, with the improvements thereon, contained in their unsold portion of their diminished reserve defined in the first article of their treaty ratified July ninth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty, (the said tract containing about eighty-six thousand and four hundred acres, and being more particularly described by the survey and plats on file in the Department of the Interior,) except as reserved in previous treaties, or in this treaty. Article 2.The said Indians also cede to the United States a full and complete title to the land, with the improvements thereon, now remaining unsold in that portion of their old reservation provided by article four of the treaty of July ninth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty, to be sold by the Government for their benefit, the cession herein made being subject to the exceptions...

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Treaty of March 6, 1861

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the office of the Great Nemaha agency, Nebraska Territory, on the sixth day of March, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, by and between Daniel Vanderslice, U. S. Indian agent, on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates of the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri, viz: Pe-ta-ok-a-ma, Ne-sour-quoit, Mo-less, and Se-se-ah-kee; and the following-named delegates of the Iowa tribe, riz: No-heart, Nag-ga-rash, Mah-hee, To-hee, Tah-ra-kee, Thur-o-mony, and White Horse; they being duly authorized thereto by their respective tribes. Article I.The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to lands within their present reservation, described as follows, viz: beginning at the mouth of the south fork of the Great Nemaha River, and thence up the southwest bank of the Great Nemaha, with its meanders, to the mouth of the west fork; thence up the west fork, with its meanders, to the line of the 40° of parallel on the west bank of creek or fork where is established the southwest corner of the Sac and Fox reserve, by erecting a stone monument, from which the following references bear, viz: A large cottonwood tree, three feet in diameter, bear S. 44° 00′ E. 1.05 chains; a rock bears N. 30° 00′ W....

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Treaty of October 1, 1859

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the Sac and Fox agency, in the Territory of Kansas, on the first day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, by and between Alfred B. Greenwood, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named chiefs and delegates, representing the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, viz: Ke-o-kuk, Mack-a-sah-pee, Sha-bah-caw-kah, Mat-tah-tah, My-ah-pit, Kaw-ah-kee, Kah-sha-moh-mee, Maw-mee-won-e-kah, and Che-ko-skuk, they being thereto duly authorized by said confederated tribes. Article 1. The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi having now more lands than are necessary for their occupancy and use, and being desirous of promoting settled habits of industry and enterprise amongst themselves by abolishing the tenure in common by which they now hold their lands, and by assigning limited quantities thereof, in serveralty, to the individual members of the tribe, to be cultivated and improved for their individual use and benefit, it is hereby agreed and stipulated that the portion of their present reservation contained within the following boundaries, that is to say: beginning at a point on the northern boundary-line of their reservation, six miles west of the northeastern corner of the same; running thence due south, to the southern boundary of the same, twenty miles; thence west, and along said southern boundary, twelve miles; thence due north,...

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Treaty of October 21, 1837-2

Articles of a treaty made at the City of Washington, between Carey A. Harris, thereto specially authorized by the President of the United States, and the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri, by their Chiefs and Delegates. Article 1. The Missouri Sac and Fox Indians make the following cessions to the United States: First. Of all right or interest in the country between the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and the boundary line between the Sac and Fox and the Sioux Indians, described in the second article of the treaty made with these and other tribes on the 19th of August 1825, to the full extent to which said claim was recognized in the third article of said treaty; and of all interest or claim by virtue of the provisions of any treaties since made by the United States with the Sacs and Foxes. Second. Of all the right to locate, for hunting or other purposes, on the land ceded in the first article of the treaty of July 15th 1830, which, by the authority therein conferred on the President of the United States they may be permitted by him to enjoy. Third. Of all claims or interest under the treaties of November 3d, 1804, August 4th, 1824, July 15th, 1830, and September 17th, 1836, for the satisfaction of which no appropriations have been made. Article 2. In consideration of the...

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