Topic: Indian Removal

Pitchlynn Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Pitchlynn Choctaw family, although represented by one of the smallest name lists in this study, has a long and noted history in the literature of the Old Southwest and Indian Territory (see Chart 18). The eldest Pitchlynn, Isaac, was still alive in 1804 although in ill health. His son, John Pitchlynn, Jr., is recorded as the Choctaw interpreter at the Treaty of Hopewell in 1786 and for nearly half a century was a respected and honored countryman in Choctaw country. John lived a long while on Old Woman’s Creek, a tributary of the Oknoxabee (or Noxobee) River which...

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Nail Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

[92]Another ubiquitous family, the Nails (see Chart 17), was intermarried into several full-blood and mixed-blood families. Cushman, while visiting the gravesites of some noted Choctaws in Indian Territory, discussed the Nail family: “Close by that of Colonel David Folsom’s was the grave of Joel H. Nail, a brother-in-law to Colonel Key to Chart Probable = P,  Countryman = C,  Yes = Y,  Trader = T, Married = md,  Mixed Blood = mb Chart 17[92a] Nail List of Mixed Bloods NameLocationMBRemarks Nail, Adam Y son of Joel Nail, Benjamin P Nail, Catherine Y daughter of Joel Nail, Daniel lm E Agency P 1 in family Nail, Daniel  P Nail, Daniel W. P Nail, Delilah Y daughter of Joel Nail, E P Nal, Edwin Y son of Joel Nail, Emma Y daughter of Joel Nail, Greenwood P Nail, Harriet Y daughter of Joel Nail, Henry C Nail, Henry Washington Co.  P Tombigbe claim Nail, Isabelle Y  daughter of Joel Nail, J. H. E Bucatuna Ck. P 18 in family Nail, Jeny P Nail, Joel Y Nail, Joel  Y 7 mb chil. Nail, Joel A P Nail, Joel H Nail, John M P Nail, Jonathon Y son, J. H. Nail Nail, Marcheli P Nail, Maurice P Nail, Melvina Y daughter of Joel Nail, Molly P land reserve Nail, Morris Y son of Henry Nail, Nelly lm E Agency P 5 in family...

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LeFlore Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

When prominent mixed-blood families began to emerge from the Choctaw people in the early 1800s they usually did so where one or both parents were mixed bloods themselves. A case in point is the Leflore family. According to Cushman, 1Cushman, History, 343. the brothers Michael and Louis were living in[90] Choctaw country as early as the late eighteenth century. 2Another Leflore, Henry, is found in 1770 in Natchez as an interpreter (probably with the Choctaw tribe which began to frequent that area after the French destruction of the Natchez tribe) for the British, indicating that he had spent some years with that tribe. It is logical to connect Henry to the other LeFlores, although no documentary link has been found. Margaret Fisher Dalrymple, ed., The Merchant of Manchac: The Letterbooks of John Fitzpatrick, 1768-1790, (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978) 59n47. Cushman has the LeFlores in Mobile not long after the end of the French and Indian War and identifies them as French Canadians who entered Choctaw country as traders, Louis marrying into the mixed-blood Cravat family already in residence there (see Chart 16). J.F.H. Claiborne claimed to have personally known Louis LeFlore and recounted that: “Louis Le Fleur…owned one of these boats [used in trade with Panton & Company in Pensacola and Natchez], and in this business laid the foundation of his large fortune. When 1 knew him, in...

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Juzan Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

One of the earliest and most colorful of the mixed-blood lines is the Juzan family (see Charts 14 and 15). The noted Choctaw historian Muriel Wright discussed the history and genealogy of the family in a little-known, private letter to a Juzan descendent in 1931, writing: “A young Frenchman by the name of De Juzan, acting as military aide to Chevalier De Noyan, fell in a battle [Ackia] between the French and the Chickasaws, in May 1736….Whether De Juzan was connected in any way with the Juzan family among the Choctaws is uncertain at this time, although it has...

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Jones Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Blood

[80]The Jones family represents one of the longest lists of this study with sixty-one family members being listed in records (see Chart 13). Despite the probable duplication of Key to Chart Probable = P,  Countryman = C,  Yes = Y,  Trader = T, Married = md,  Mixed Blood = mb Chart 13[81a] Jones List of Mixed Bloods NameLocationMBRemarks Jones, (nfn) Tensaw 19/08/2017 Jones, Anna 19/08/2017 Jones, Billy Robinson Road P 9 in family 19/08/2017 9 in family Jones, Charles W Tombigbee R. P 3 in family 19/08/2017 3 in family Jones, Cornelius 19/08/2017 Jones, Delilah 19/08/2017 Jones, Elijah 19/08/2017 Jones, Fred 19/08/2017 Jones, Frederic 19/08/2017 Jones, Gincy 19/08/2017 Jones, Hogan 19/08/2017 1 in family Jones, Holin 19/08/2017 Jones, Isaac Lapluours 19/08/2017 Jones, Isaac Agency 19/08/2017 9 in family Jones, Jack 19/08/2017 Jones, Jackson 19/08/2017 Jones, James 19/08/2017 9 in family Jones, Jennifer Robinson Road 19/08/2017 4 in family Jones, Jesse 19/08/2017 Jones, Jimmy 19/08/2017 Jones, Jimpson 19/08/2017 Jones, John 19/08/2017 Jones, John 19/08/2017 12 in family Jones, John 19/08/2017 1 in family Jones, John, Sr. 19/08/2017 2 mb chil. Jones, Jonathon Tombigbee R 19/08/2017 Rev War Vet Jones, Joseph 19/08/2017 Jones, Len Tombigbee R 19/08/2017 8 in family Jones, Levi 19/08/2017 15 in family Jones, Logan 19/08/2017 Jones, Lucy Tombigbee R 19/08/2017 4 in family Jones, Mahale 19/08/2017 Jones, Michael Bigbee 19/08/2017 Jones, Molly near Hebrin 19/08/2017 2 in...

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Indian Removal and the Legacy

[177]The articles of removal of the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek were set into motion immediately. By 1831 and 1832 when Removal was in full force mixed bloods still maintained their positions of trust and authority within the tribe. During Removal the percentage of mixed-blood captains — the headmen and leaders of the organized emigrant bands bound for the new Indian nation -was greater than their percentage within the overall population of the tribe (see Chart 22). Their understanding of the English language and the ways of Americans became even more valuable as the bands of emigrants made their way into western Arkansas and present day Oklahoma. As the emigrants reported to the government agents west of the Mississippi River a note of each arrival was entered in a journal in order to establish eligibility for the year’s supplies granted in the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (see Database of Choctaw Mixed Blood Names). [178] Prior to the emigrants’ departure from Mississippi federal officials had conducted a census to ascertain not only a population count but also to obtain available information about individual land holdings and improvements. Popularly called the Armstrong Roll, this census indicated sizes of families and also identified some mixed bloods (see Database of Choctaw Mixed Blood Names). The Armstrong Roll also contained the geographical locations of the Indians, documenting the fact that many mixed bloods...

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From Alliance to Removal

[138]Throughout the Jeffersonian period and later, the white countrymen and mixed bloods expanded their influence over the full-blood tribal members. One aspect of this can be seen by analyzing the ratio of full-blood to mixed-blood Choctaw signers of treaties with the United States. CHART 19 Breakdown of Choctaw treaty Signers Year Treaty Full Bloods Mixed Blood 1786 Hopewell 29  0 1801 Ft. Adams 15 1 (6%) 1802  Ft. Confederation 10  0 1803 Hoe Buckintoopa 10 0 1805 Mt. Dexter 14  9 (39%) 1816 Trading House 11 2 (15%) 1820 Doaks Stand 78 25 (24%) 1825 Washington 4* 4 (50%) 1830 Dancing Rabbit Creek 127 44 (26%) Two major Choctaw chiefs in the treaty party died before it was signed. Had they lived the mixed-blood percentage would have been 40%. Extracted from Kappler[139] One of the most apparent facts to emerge from Chart 19 is the high percent of mixed bloods participating in the major cession treaties of 1805, 1820, and 1830. The treaties of 1816 and 1825 were not major cessions. The 1816 treaty of the Choctaw Trading House extinguished Choctaw claims to lands also claimed by the Creek Indians and ceded at Fort Jackson in 1814. The Treaty of 1825 in Washington, D. C. was an adjustment to the Treaty of Doaks Stand in 1820 and resulted in a net land gain for the tribe. When analyzing the...

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Jefferson, Mixed Bloods and Frontier Defense

[102]By the beginning of the nineteenth century at least two major changes had altered the political environment affecting the Choctaw Indians. Within the Choctaw tribe several countrymen were beginning to exert influence in tribal decisions. Although not yet accepted as equals to the chiefs, white men such as Nathaniel Folsom and John Pitchlynn were respected and utilized as counselors in negotiations between the tribe and American officials. External to the tribe, the United States had negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo in 1795 with Spain and assumed economic hegemony over the tribes which mainly resided on lands north of the thirty-first parallel. Because this 1795 treaty agreed to American control of Indians within the newly recognized borders, the following year President Washington named Benjamin Hawkins, a senator from North Carolina and Revolutionary War veteran, to the post of Superintendent of Southern[103] Indians. 1Absolom H. Chappell, Miscellanies of Georgia: Historical, Biographical, Descriptive, (Columbus, Georgia: Gilbert Printing Co., 1928), 62-64; Benjamin Hawkins, A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the Years 1798 and 1799, and Letters of Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1806 (Spartanburg: The Reprint Company, 1982), combined volume, Sketch, 5-6; Letters, 9. Washington’s successor, John Adams, later oversaw the creation of Mississippi Territory and named a puritanical, New England Federalist, Winthrop Sargent, to be its governor and share with Hawkins the responsibility for Indian matters in the region. The state of world affairs...

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Choctaw Indian Treaty Signers, 1830

There exists several thousand names from government claims records and commission hearings, as well as genealogical evidence, which indicate a broad occurrence of mixed bloods in the Choctaw tribe. This study lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This study includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value. Readers interested in more information should start their research here: Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal Choctaw Indian Treaty Signers, 1830. Done, and  signed, and executed by the Commissioners of the United States, and the chiefs, captains and head men of the Choctaw Nation, at Dancing Rabbit Creek, this 27th day of September, eighteen and thirty. Name Name Jno. H. Eaton Yobalarunehahubbee, his x mark Jno. Coffee Holubbee, his x mark Greenwood Leflore Robert Cole, his x mark Musholatubbee, his x mark Mokelareharhopin, his x mark Nittucachee, his x mark Lewis Perry, his x mark Holarterhoomah, his x mark Artonamaratubbe, his x mark flopiatinchahubbee. his x mark Hopeatubbee, his x mark Zishomingo, his x mark Hoahahoomah, his x mark Captainthalke, his x mark Chuallahoomah, his x mark James Shield, his x mark Joseph Kincaide, his x mark Pistiyubbee,...

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Sample of Mixed Blood Ubiquity: Representative Family Histories

The extant records concerning the traders and other countrymen are uneven in their coverage of mixed-blood families. Although only the better-known families were chronicled in the works of early regional historians and authors commenting on the Indian tribes, the existence of scores of surnames within these records indicates that mixed-blood families were widespread in the Choctaw nation. Over the space of several generations the mixed-blood families of the traders and countrymen began to move more and more towards the culture of their white kinsmen, especially if the white progenitor had stayed in one area and recognized the paternity of his offspring. As time passed many of these mixed bloods were assumed to be whites by travelers and new corners into the region who did not know of their Indian heritage. The mixed bloods also married into white society on occasion and the resulting family lines blended smoothly into whiteness with little other than family tradition to trace their origins. There exist in the South today countless families who can trace their heritage back to the earliest mixed bloods. One case in point originates in the mid-eighteenth century with the noted Scotch trader with the Creeks, Lachlan McGillivray. 1Albert James Pickett, History of Alabama and Incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi from the Earliest Period, (Tuscaloosa: Willo Publishing, 1962, reprint edition) 344; John Walton Caughey, McGillivray of the Creeks, (Norman: University...

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Choctaw Trade and Coexistence in the Nation

After the discovery of the new world, trade quickly became the most important interaction between the American natives and the colonists. For the Indians it was an extension and continuation of their inter-tribal practices. Reuben Gold Thwaites, an early nineteenth-century student of the American frontier, stated that “the love of trade was strong among the Indians,” and that they had a complex “system of inter-tribal barter.” 1Reuben Gold Thwaites, The Colonies: 1492-1750, Epochs of American History series, (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902), 17. This existing trade system allowed the Europeans to quickly establish their own trade with the...

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An Affinity For Trade

Despite their early encounters with Hernando DeSoto, whose ruthless exploitation of the Native Americans was unabashedly cruel, the Southeastern Indians greeted white men with peaceful cooperation. Later European arrivals found that their success in the Gulf wilderness depended largely upon peace with the native inhabitants, or at least peace with one of the larger tribes. 1Robert S. Cotterill, The Southern Indians: The Story of the Five Civilized Tribes Before Removal, Civilization of the American Indian Series, number 38, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 18-36; Angie Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic, Civilization of the American Indian Series, number 6, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961), 27-33. Because no large deposits of gold or other precious metals were found, the Spaniards relegated the region to outpost status and made no major effort to colonize beyond settlements at Pensacola and later Mobile and New Orleans, and thus they had relatively little contact with the Indians until late in the colonial period. Even the French effort to control the Mississippi River at the turn the eighteenth century attracted no large population. Anchorages at Biloxi and later Mobile were followed by settlements at New Orleans, Natchez and some points between, but these small colonies did not amount to more than a few hundred settlers for quite a few years, especially after the 1720 John Law land debacle, a scheme to...

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Introduction, Choctaw Mixed Blood

One of the most controversial areas of American history is that of Indian/white relations and the federal policies, which led to Indian Removal. In the early and middle nineteenth century the United States government embarked upon a program of wholesale government-sponsored emigration of tribes residing within the various states and territories. 1See R. S. Cotterill, The Southern Indians: The Story of the Five Civilized Tribes Before Removal, Civilization of the American Indian Series, number 38, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 64 re early reticence of the United States to police Indians inside state boundaries. Later called the “Trail of Tears” this official program of tribal displacement was long the focus of American Indian policy and the genesis of the present-day reservation system. Although several northeastern and eastern tribes had been displaced earlier, the removal of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole nations (later known collectively as the Five Civilized tribes) from the rich cotton lands of antebellum Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and Tennessee in the 1820’s and 30’s sparked an emotional debate throughout the United States. This study will identify a sizable population of Choctaw mixed bloods — coexisting comfortably with the full-blood population — who effectively facilitated the Indian land acquisition policy of the federal government. Leading ultimately to removal, this land policy was designed by President Thomas Jefferson to attract settlers for militia purposes into the...

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Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal

Choctaw Mixed Blood and the Advent of Removal: This dissertation by Samuel James Wells lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This dissertation includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value.

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