Topic: Creek War

The Meeting in 1811 of Tecumseh and Apushamatahah

The meeting in 1811, of Tecumseh, the mighty Shawnee, with Apushamatahah, the intrepid Choctaw. I will here give a true narrative of an incident in the life of the great and noble Choctaw chief, Apushamatahah, as related by Colonel John Pitchlynn, a white man of sterling integrity, and who acted for many years as interpreter to the Choctaws for the United States Government, and who was an eye-witness to the thrilling scene, a similar one, never before nor afterwards befell the lot of a white man to witness, except that of Sam Dale, the great scout of General Andrew...

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The Creek War – Indian Wars

In the spring of the year 1812, the southern Indian tribal were visited by the bold and enterprising Tecumseh. His stirring appeals to their patriotism and valor were heard with attention, and he succeeded in stimulating them to open hostility. It is to be regretted that no specimen of the orations of this great Indian have been preserved. Judging from their effects, they would be ranked among the highest models of true eloquence. Tecumseh particularly appealed to the powerful Creek nation. These Indians had long been on friendly terms with the whites, and a portion of them were, therefore,...

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Red Eagle and the Wars with the Creek Indians

A work of this kind necessarily makes no pretension to originality in its materials; but while all that is here related is to be found in books, there is no one book devoted exclusively to the history of the Creek war or to the life of William Weatherford, the Red Eagle. The materials here used have been gathered from many sources, some of them from books which only incidentally mention the matters here treated, touching them as a part of larger subjects, and many of them from books which have been long out of print, and are therefore inaccessible to readers generally. Red Eagle happened to be a Man of Consequence in History Red Eagle’s People Red Eagle’s Birth and Boyhood Public Road cause of Beginnings of Trouble Red Eagle as an Advocate of War The Battle of Burnt Corn Red Eagle’s Attempt to abandon his Party Claiborne and Red Eagle Red Eagle before Fort Mims The Massacre at Fort Mims Romantic Incidents of the Fort Mims Affair Dog Charge at Fort Sinquefield and Affairs on the Peninsula Pushmatahaw and his Warriors Jackson is helped into his Saddle The March into the Enemy’s Country The Battle of Tallushatchee The Battle of Talladega General Cocke’s Conduct and its Consequences The Canoe Fight The Advance of the Georgians-The Battle of Autosse How Claiborne executed his Orders-The Battle of the Holy Ground-Red...

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Barataria Destroyed

Weighing all the facts, it is small wonder that the Delta Creoles coquetted with the Baratarians. To say no more of Spanish American or French West Indian tincture, there was the Embargo. There were the warships of Europe skimming ever to and fro in the entrances and exits of the Gulf. Rarely in days of French or Spanish rule had this purely agricultural country and non-manufacturing town been so removed to the world’s end as just at this time. The Mississippi, northward, was free; but its perils had hardly lessened since the days of Spanish rule. Then it was said, in a curious old Western advertisement of 1797, whose English is worthy of notice “No danger need be apprehended from the enemy, as every person whatever will be under cover, made proof against rifle or musket balls, and convenient port-holes for firing out of. Each of the boats are armed with six pieces, carry a pound ball, also a number of muskets, and amply supplied with plenty of ammunition, strongly manned with choice hands, and masters of approved knowledge.” Scarcely any journey, now, outside of Asia, Africa, and the Polar seas, is more arduous than was then the trip from St. Louis to New Orleans. Vagabond Indians, white marauders, Spanish-armed extortion and arrest, and the natural perils of the stream, made the river little, if any, less dangerous than...

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Muskogean Indians

Muskhogean Family, Muskhogean Stock, Muskhogean People, Muskhogean Indians. An important linguistic stock, comprising the Creeks, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and other tribes. The name is an adjectival form of Muskogee, properly Măskóki (pl. Maskokalgi or Muscogulgee). Its derivation has been attributed to an Algonquian term signifying `swamp’ or `open marshy land’, but this is almost certainly incorrect. The Muskhogean tribes were confined chiefly to the Gulf states east of almost all of Mississippi and Alabama, and parts of Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina. According to a tradition held in common by most of their tribes, they had reached their historic seats from some starting point west of the Mississippi, usually placed, when localized at all, somewhere on the upper Red River. The greater part of the tribes of the stock are now on reservations in Oklahoma.

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The Creek Warrior Class

The geographic position of the Creeks in the midst of warlike and aggressive nations was a powerful stimulant for making “invincibles” of their male offspring. The ruling passion was that of war; second to it was that of hunting. A peculiar incentive was the possession of war-titles, and the rage for these was as strong among the younger men as that for plunder among the older. The surest means of ascending the ladder of honor was the capture of scalps from the enemy, and the policy of the red or bloody towns was that of fostering the warlike spirit by frequent raids and expeditions. In some towns young men were treated as menials before they had performed some daring deeds on the battlefield or acquired a war title. 1Milfort, Memoire, p. 251. To become a warrior every young man had to pass through a severe ordeal of privations called fast, púskita, from the fifteenth to the seventeenth year of his age. This initiation into manhood usually lasted from four to eight months, but in certain rare instances could be abridged to twelve days. A distinction of a material, not only honorific character was the election of a warrior to actual command as paká dsha or tustĕnúggi ‘láko. The Charges Of Commanders After the young man had passed through the hardships of his initiation, the career of distinction stood open...

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Seminole Indian War

During the American Revolution (1776-1783), Spain gained control of Florida as part of the Treaty of Paris. On September 3, Britain also signed separate agreements with France and Spain, and (provisionally) with the Netherlands. In the treaty with Spain, the colonies of East and West Florida were ceded to Spain (without any clearly defined northern boundary, resulting in disputed territory resolved with the Treaty of Madrid), as was the island of Minorca, while the Bahama Islands, Grenada and Montserrat, captured by the French and Spanish, were returned to Britain. Spanish colonists as well as settlers from the newly formed United States came pouring in. Many of these new residents were lured by favorable Spanish terms for acquiring property, called land grants. Even Seminoles were encouraged to set up farms, because they provided a buffer between Spanish Florida and the United States. Escaped slaves also entered Florida, trying to reach a place where their U.S. masters had no authority over them. First Seminole War, 1817-1818 Timeline of Seminole Wars (hosted at Clude Walker) First, Second and Third Seminole War Forts by County (Tour of Florida Territory) Index to Florida Militia Muster Rolls (hosted at USGenWeb Archives Pension Project, Seminole War) Surnames A-D Surnames E-H Surnames I-O Surnames P-S Surnames T-Z Seminole Wars (hosted at My Florida, Division of Historical Resources) Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 History of the Second Seminole War...

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Creek Indian Wars

The Creek Indians, who had been allies of the British during the War of 1812, were angered by white encroachment on their hunting grounds in Georgia and Alabama. In 1813, some Creeks under Chief Red Eagle (William Weatherford) (1780-1824) attacked and burned Fort Mims on the lower Alabama River, killing about 500 whites [the Fort Mims Massacre]. Afterward, US militiamen, led by General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), invaded Creek territory in central Alabama and destroyed two Indian villages, Talladega and Tallasahatchee, in the fall of 1813. Jackson pursued the Creek, and on March 27, 1814, his 3,000 man army attacked and defeated them at that Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River in eastern Alabama. More than 800 Creek warriors were killed, and the power of the Creek nation was completely broken. At the Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814, the Creek were compelled to cede 23 million acres (half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia) to the whites. It is sometimes considered to be part of the War of 1812. 1811-1814-1842 Creek Indian Treaties Treaty of August 7, 1790 Treaty of June 29, 1796 Treaty of June 16, 1802 Treaty of November 14, 1805 Treaty of August 9, 1814 Treaty of January 22, 1818 Treaty of January 8, 1821 Treaty of January 8, 1821 (2) Treaty of February 12, 1825 Agreement of June 29 1825...

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Captain Robert H. Sledge’s Company

A Partial Roster Of Captain Robert H. Sledge’s Company Of J. C. Alford Battalion Of Cavalry In The Creek Indian War Of 1836 from Troup County, Georgia. JULIUS C. ALFORD, Colonel of the Battalion WILLIAM M. MARTUS, Lieutenant Colonel HUGH J. LESTER, Ensign of Battalion ROBERT H. SLEDGE, Captain WALKER DUNSON, First Lieutenant JOHN B. LEE, Second Lieutenant HADIJAH ELAM, Orderly Sergeant JAMES H. HARRISON, Second Sergeant WRIGHT GREEN, Third Sergeant JOHN P. WARMACK, Quartermaster Privates Bledsoe, Peachy Bruster, Sheriff Bruster, W. B. Davenport, Benedict Davenport, Presley Davidson, Allen Farrar, John Gates, James R. Greer, Young Hardin, William O. Harrison, J. W. Howell, Daniel Hughes, William C. Hunter, James Jordan, Joshua O’Neal, Hilliard Riley, W. B. Satterwhite, Elijah Scott, George E. Scott, James H. Sledge, John Sledge, Mincey Sledge, Shirley Sledge, Thomas Smith, Anderson S. Stockton, J. T. Tankersley, Baldwin Thornton, J. T. Vann, James Vickers, Jefferson Weaver,...

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