Topic: Cherokee

New Echota, Georgia, May 13, 1837

Cashier of the branch of the Planters’ Bank of Tennessee, at Athens, pay to the order of Captain J. P. Simonton, disbursing agent, two hundred thousand dollars. RICHARD BENNETT. Disbursing Agent, &c, Endorsed Wilson Lumpkin, John Kennedy, United States Commissioner; J. P. Simonton, Captain U.S.A.D.A.C.R. I, Samuel H. Gordon, notary public for the county of McMinn, in the State of Tennessee, do hereby certify that on the day, I was requested by Captain J. P. Simonton to call upon the cashier of the branch at Athens of the Planters’ Bank of the State of Tennessee, and to request of said cashier to state in what bank paper he was willing or offered to pay the check presented by Doctor Reynolds, which check was for two hundred thousand dollars. Said, cashier said he was willing to pay $75,000 in notes of the Planters’ Bank payable in New Orleans, and the balance depending where the Doctor might want it. Given under my hand, this 6th of June, 1837. SAMUEL H. GORDON, Notary Public Trail of Tears...

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Letter of Samuel H. Gordon

Be it known, that on the day of the date hereof, I, Samuel H. Gordon, notary public for the county of McMinn, in the State of Tennessee, duly commissioned and sworn according to law, residing in the town of Athens, in said State, at the request of J. C. Reynolds, exhibited to William Clarke, cashier of the office of said bank at Athens, the original check whereof a true copy is on the other side written, and demanded payment thereof from said cashier, at said office, it being the place where said check was made payable, and I was answered by said cashier, that “he is willing to pay said check, when properly endorsed, in the notes of the Planters’ Bank of Tennessee, payable in specie, on demand; which he believes is the kind of money contemplated by Government in the contract with the Planters’ Bank, should be issued in payment of Treasury warrants, and that the Planters’ Bank notes are always redeemed with specie when presented.” Whereupon I, the said notary, at the request aforesaid, have, and do hereby, solemnly protest against the drawer of the said check and endorsers, and all concerned, for all exchange, re-exchange, costs, damages, interests, suffered and to be suffered for want of payment thereof. This done and protested at Athens aforesaid, this 27th day of May, 1837. In testimony whereof I have...

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Office Of Planters’ Bank, Tennessee June 6, 1837

DEAR SIR; For your satisfaction, and for the information of the department, I beg leave to say, in explanation of the protest of Major Bennett’s check in your favor, for $200,000, that, in the conversation between Doct. Reynolds, who presented it, and myself, and in my communication to him before the protest, I stated that I did not think I ought to issue any paper except payable at New Orleans. I was induced to believe so from the general suspension in the eastern cities, and the great revulsion in the money market of our whole country. But he refused to receive any of that kind; and as this refusal was not contemplated by the bank, inasmuch as Judge Kennedy had made a personal request to the president of this office, in April last, for $75,000 of the aforesaid sum, in the notes payable at New Orleans, nothing more was said as to when the balance would be payable; but this would have been managed as satisfactorily as possible, if Doctor Reynolds had been authorized to receive the $75,000 agreeably to the Judge’s requisition, and which we had taken special pains to have here accordingly. We are extremely anxious to accommodate, as far as possible, at all times, and I cannot conceive that we have been otherwise in this instance. In haste, I am, very respectfully, your friend and most...

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Trail of Tears Evaluation

The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek contains a long list of individuals (3547) receiving land reservations and positively recognizes these people as members of the tribe in a legally binding fashion. Many of these land recipients are elsewhere identified as countrymen or mixed bloods. There can be little doubt that they were accepted as leaders and members of the tribe. The various claims to land and claims for other reasons are found in American State Papers and offer positive identification of mixed bloods in individual cases. They also help pinpoint the location of mixed-blood land holdings.

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Athens, Tennessee, June 6 1837

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that, on the 13th of May, I received from Richard Bennett a draft on the branch of the Planters’ Bank of Tennessee, at Athens, for $200,000, to be disbursed under the Cherokee treaty of 1835; which draft has been returned to me protested, under the following circumstances: The commissioners deeming it expedient to have $100,000 delivered at New Echota, before the funds there on hand should be exhausted, requested that, as my personal services at New Echota would no readily be dispensed with, Dr. Reynolds should take my draft, proceed to Athens, and procure for the present wants of the disbursing agent $100,000; twenty-five thousand to be in specie, and seventy-five thousand in notes of the Planters’ Bank, payable at Nashville. The draft was accordingly presented by Dr. Reynolds at the bank, with the instructions of the commissioners with regard to the kinds of money wanted; when the cashier refused to pay any other money than notes of the Planters’ Bank, payable at New Orleans. Upon receiving this refusal, Dr. Reynolds had the draft formally protested, and returned it to me at New Echota. It was omitted to be stated in the body of the protest, that the notes offered were those payable at New Orleans. This being considered necessary by the commissioners and myself, who were the endorsers of the...

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Office Indian Affairs, July 25, 1835

SIR: The selection and general supervision of the agents to be employed in appraising improvements under the treaty with the Cherokee Indians of December 29, 1835, having been committed to you, I proceed to state some principles for their observance in the execution of this duty. You will divide the country ceded by the first article of the treaty into convenient districts, and assign to each a sufficient number of agents for the prompt completion of this business. You will report to this office the names and residences of these agents, and indicate the district in which each is to be employed. The improvements to be valued are such as were in the possession of the Cherokees at the date of the treaty, and as add any value to their lands. The agents will be required to take an oath to act with perfect impartiality, and they will be specially instructed to receive all the statements and estimates of the Indians, and to examine, personally, every thing pointed out to them. And in determining the value of the improvements, they will be influenced neither by a desire to be generous on the one hand nor parsimonious on the other. Each improvement will be appraised by two agents, and when their estimates agree, and are approved by you, they will be final. If they disagree, the decision will be referred...

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Treaty of July 6, 1825

For the Purpose of perpetuating the friendship which has heretofore existed, as also to remove all future cause of discussion or dissension, as it respects trade and friendship between the United States and their citizens, and the Chayenne tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America, by Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the United States’ army, and Major Benjamin O’Fallon, Indian agent, with full powers and authority, specially appointed and commissioned for that purpose of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs, Headmen and Warriors, of the Chayenne tribe of Indians, on behalf of said tribe, of the other part, have made and entered into the following Articles and Conditions; which, when ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall be binding on both parties—to wit: Article I. It is admitted by the Chayenne tribe of Indians, that they reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection,—The said tribe also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade and intercourse with them. Article II. The United States agree to receive the Chayenne tribe of Indians into their friendship, and under their protection, and to extend to them, from time to time, such benefits and acts of kindness as may be convenient, and seem just and...

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Treaty of April 27, 1868

Supplemental article to a treaty concluded at Washington City, July 19th, A. D. 1866; ratified with amendments, July 27th, A. D. 1866; amendments accepted, July 31st, A. D. 1866; and the whole proclaimed, August 11th, A. D. 1866, between the United States of America and the Cherokee Nation of Indians. Whereas under the provisions of the seventeenth article of a treaty and amendments thereto made between the United States and the Cherokee Nation of Indians, and proclaimed August 11th, A. D. 1866, a contract was made and entered into by James Harlan, Secretary of the Interior, on behalf of the United States, of the one part, and by the American Emigrant Company, a corporation chartered and existing under the laws of the State of Connecticut, of the other part, dated August 30th, A. D. 1866, for the sale of the so-called “Cherokee neutral lands,” in the State of Kansas, containing eight hundred thousand acres, more or less, with the limitations and restrictions set forth in the said seventeenth article of said treaty as amended, on the terms and conditions therein mentioned, which contract is now on file in the Department of the Interior; and Whereas Orville H. Browning, Secretary of the Interior, regarding said sale as illegal and not in conformity with said treaty and amendments thereto, did, on the ninth day of October, A. D. 1867, for and...

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Biographical Sketch of Richard L. Taylor

(Halfbreed and Ghigau)-Richard Lee, son of William and Elizabeth (Grimmett) Taylor was born in 1854. Married in 1880 Margaret Elminr Paden, born in 1856. They are the parents of: Nannie C. married Felix N. Holland; Annie Almira, married W. A. Corley; Mary Amelia, married Thomas E. Holland; Susie Bunch, married Claude Doherty; Richard Lee; William Benjamin, deceased, and Martha Catherine living, married Tiny Hill, deceased. Richard Lee Taylor was elected Sheriff of Flint District August 1, 1887; August 5, 1889 and August 1, 1893. Elected Senator from the same district August 3, 1903. Elected County Commissioner of Adair County November 3,...

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Understanding the Obsession with All Things Cherokee

Many history buffs in the Georgia Mountains are obsessed with all things Cherokee. They assume that Creek place names such as Oconaluftee, Coosa, Oostanaula, Oothlooga, Etowah, Chattooga, Nottely, Yahoola, Enota, Tesnatee, Soque, Nacoochee, Tallulah, etc. are Cherokee words. The myths can all be traced to the presumptions made by the first white settlers to enter the region. That’s right . . . the main river on the North Carolina Cherokee Reservation is an Itsate Creek word meaning “Okonee People – isolated.”  The name has no meaning in Cherokee. The Okonee were major players in the mound-building business, who eventually joined the Creek Confederacy.  They were mainly located in northeastern Georgia and the Okefenokee Swamp basin in southeast Georgia. One of the current myths that resulted from this obsession is that the Cherokees occupied all of northern Georgia until 1838. This myth even permeated the archaeology profession until the late 20th century. Prehistoric artifacts were being classified as Cherokee, when they couldn’t have possibly been so.  The fact is that by the time the Cherokees arrived in the Georgia Mountains, they were using muskets and cooking in iron pots.  Approximately 85% of the Native American place names in both the Georgia and North Carolina Mountains are either Muskogean or Maya Indian words. This obsession is ironic for many reasons.  There were only a handful of Cherokees in the extreme northeastern...

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Mysterious Fort Mountain, Georgia

When the Scottish, Ulster Scots and English settlers first arrived in eastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia, they discovered a continuous chain composed of hundreds of fieldstone structures on the mountain and hill tops between Manchester, TN and Stone Mountain, GA. Some were merely piles of stones that archaeologists call cairns. Others formed small cylinders. Others were small rings. Still others were complex combinations of concentric rings with some perpendicular walls. At least two appeared to be walled villages. The Cherokees, who had moved into the region during the late 1700s, told the settlers that they didn’t build these structures. Some Cherokees told the Europeans that they had been built by the Creeks. Supposedly, a temple had once stood inside the fortification which contained a giant stone snake with ruby eyes. Other Cherokees told of a legend that these mysterious sites had been built by “Mooneyes,” which the Europeans interpreted as being gray-eyed Europeans. The stories were elaborated to the point that most Whites assumed that the stone cairns and enclosures were built by Celts, specifically a colony of Welsh led by a Prince Madoc. There are several surviving enigmatic sites in the northern Georgia and western North Carolina that consist of dozens or hundreds of fieldstone cairns. The two largest are located in the Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield and in Ball Ground, GA near the Etowah River. When in...

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Biographical Sketch of Mrs. Minerva Wormington

(See Ross)- Minerva, daughter of Isaac Alexander and Susannah Coody (Ross) Wilson was born at Tahlequah on Tuesday June 1, 1886. Educated in the Cherokee Public Schools and Female Seminary. She married in 1914 at Tulsa, Frederick Wormington and they are the parents of Lorine Wormington, age six. Mrs. Wormington’s father was a gentleman of more than ordinary intelligence and her mother was a member of the distinguished Ross...

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Biographical Sketch of Mrs. E. W. Gish

(See Colootsa, Cordery, Adair and Gosaduisga) Martin R. Brown, born February 27, 1858 at Fort Gibson. Married May 9, 1888 Nannie C. McNair, born in 1866. They were the parents of Catherine Brown born in 1891 at Tahlequah, married in Oklahoma City in 1915, Emmett W. Gish. They are the parents of Dorothy Louise Gish, age five years. Mr. Gish is a merchant in Oklahoma City. Mr and Mrs. Gish are members of the Presbyterian...

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Biographical Sketch of James Walker Reid

(See Thompson) A minister of the Presbyterian Church does not draw a large salary. Ordinarily he can by careful saving give his children a common school, high school or more rarely a university education, but it requires rare ability for a man to stay in the ministry through a long and useful life, generally stationed in the smaller cities, to give not only one but several of his sons and daughter extra American and European university educations, such as are generally at the behest of families of opulence, but this was one of the distinguished abilities of Reverend and Mrs. Gilbert Taylor Thompson. Gilbert Taylor Thompson, son of Matthew and Sallie Turner (Denman) Thompson, was born April 15, 1847. Graduated from Sonora Masonic Institute in 1868. Married February 2, 1865 Josephine Amanda King, born April 10, 1847 in Cass County Georgia. He was ordained a minister in the Presbyterian Church in April 1874, at Resaca, Georgia. He died at Tahlequah April 20, 1901. The sons and daughters of Reverend and Mrs. Thompson are the most highly educated family among the Cherokees, several of them having been educated abroad. They are: Allison Denman, Ernest, Milton King, James Kidd, Cleo, Gilbert Taylor and Matthew Aster. Cleo Thompson graduated from the Presbyterian College of Upper Missouri in 1893 and Ward Seminary, Nashville in 1896. Married on Dec. 25, 1899 to James Walker...

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