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Collection: Indians in the 1890 Census

Fort Belknap Reservation

Fort Belknap Agency The report of Special Agent Jere E. Stevens on the Indians of Fort Belknap reservation, Fort Belknap agency, Montana, December 1800. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation; (a) Assinaboine and Gros Ventre. The unallotted area of this reservation is 537,600 acres, or 840 square miles. This reservation has not been surveyed. It was established, altered, or changed, by treaty of October 17, 1855 (11 U. S. Stats., p.657); unratified treaties of July 18, 1866, and of July 13 and 15 and September 1,1868; executive orders, July 5, 1873, and August 19, 1874; act of Congress approved April 15, 1874 (18 U. S. State., p. 28); executive orders, April 13, 1875, and July 13, 1880, and agreement made January 21, 1887, approved by Congress May 1, 1888 (25 U. S. Stats. page 113). Indian population 1890: Assinaboine, 952;, Gros Ventre, 770; total, 1,722. Fort Belknap Reservation The agency of this reservation is located on the south bank of the Milk River, 4 miles south of Harlem, a station on the line of the Great Northern railway and the nearest post office. The agency has been located here about a year, having been removed from the old site when the reservation was reduced in size. The Assinaboine live principally along the Milk River, which forms the northern boundary of the reservation, while the...

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Jocko Reservation

Flathead Agency Report of Special Agent Horatio L. Seward on the Indians of the Jocko reservation, Flathead agency, Montana, December 1890, and January 1891. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation: 1The statements giving tribes, areas, and laws for agencies are from the Report of the Commissioner or Indian Affairs, 1800, pages 434-445. The population is a result of the census. Bitter Root, Carlos band, Flathead, Kutenay, Lower Kalispal, and Pend d’Oreille. The unallotted area of this reservation is 1,433,600 acres, or 2,240 square miles. The reservation has been partly surveyed. It was established, altered,...

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Tongue River Agency

Tongue River Agency Report of special agent, Walter Shiraw on the Indians of Northern Cheyenne reservation, Tongue River agency, Montana. Name of Indian tribe occupying said reservation: 1The statements giving tribes, areas are from the Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1890, page 434-445, The population is the result of the census. Northern Cheyenne.  The unalotted area is 371,200 acres, or 680 square miles. It was established, altered, or changed by executive order November 26, 1884. Indian population 1890: 865. Northern Cheyenne Reservation I visited Tongue River agency in August 1890, and found James A. Cooper, special United...

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Crow Reservation

Crow Agency Report of Special Agent Walter Shiraw on the Indians of the Crow reservation, Crow agency, Custer County, Montana, July and August 1890. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation: 1The statements giving tribes, areas, and laws for agencies are from the Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1890, pages 434-445. The population is the result of the census. Mountain and River Crow. The unallotted area of the Crow reservation is 1,712,960 acres, or 7,364 square miles, and was established, altered, or changed by treaty of May 7, 1868 (15 U. S. Stats., p....

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Blackfeet Reservation

Blackfeet Agency Report of Special Agent Horatio L. Seward on the Indians of the Blackfeet reservation, Blackfeet agency, Montana, January 1891: Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation 1The statements giving tribes, areas, and laws for agencies are from the Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1890, pages 414-445. The population is the result of the census. Blackfoot, Blood, and Piegan. The unallotted area of this reservation is 1,760,000 acres, or 2,750 square miles, The reservation has not been surveyed or subdivided. It was established, altered, or changed by treaty of October 17, 1855...

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Miami Reservation

The Miami reservation lies northwest from the agency, and is embraced within the area of the Peoria reservation. It is mostly prairie, fine agricultural and grass land. The Miamis have good farms, some quite large. They have their lands by allotment. Some of the fencing was done by the whites for grazing purposes. These Indians receive an annuity, which they use for improving their farms and stock; in fact, they are prosperous people, contented and happy. Some indications of coal are found on the north half of this reservation. There are but 67 Indians in this tribe; 50 speak good English, and 43 read it. A few speak Indian in their families and seem loath to give up the language of their forefathers. They have a good appearance, light complexion, and show the mixture of the whites to a great extent. There are none but what have white blood in them. Many of the females are quite pretty, dress well, are neat, good housekeepers, and intelligent and industrious. Their houses are all quite good, a few being log; the most of them, however, are frame, and some few have large and elegant frame houses, with the floors carpeted and furniture in keeping. They have a healthy appearance, but there are few old people among them. It would seem they are now on the increase, as there have been 5...

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Quapaw Reservation

The Quapaw Indian reservation is situated in the extreme northeast corner of the agency, and is 6.5 miles wide north and south, 14 miles long east and west, and contains 56,685 acres of land. The land is mostly prairie and well watered. Indications of mineral are found on this reservation in almost all the land east of Spring River mid along the Missouri state line. The tribe numbers 154 in all, 75 males and 79 females, of whom 100 speak English and 55 read it. The farms of the Quapaws are small and not well cultivated; the fencing and improvements are mostly done by the whites. A very few of the young men have good farms and are quite industrious, but are retarded by the indolence of the older ones, who teach that none but the white man should work. The appearance of the Quapaws, especially the older ones, shows fewer indications of civilization than that of other Indians at this agency. While they dress like white men, some still wear paint on their faces and feathers in their hats. The women dress in citizens’ clothes, but with very few exceptions wear nothing but handkerchiefs on their heads. They are not very neat or tidy and are not good housekeepers. Many of the older Indians show signs of-scrofula, and some are inclined to consumption. The women have a more...

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Potawatomi Reservation

Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency Report, of Special Agent Reuben Sears on the Indians of the Pottawatomie, Kickapoo, Iowa, and Chippewa and Munsee reservations, Kansas, August and September 1890. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservations :(a) Prairie band of Pottawatomi, Kickapoo, [Iowa], Chippewa, and Munsee. The unallotted areas of these reservations are: Pottawatomi, 77,358 acres, or 120.75 square miles; treaties of June 5, 1846, 9 U. S. Stats, p. 853; of November 15, 1861 (12 U. S. Stats, p. 1191); treaty of relinquishment, February 27, 1867 (15 U. S. Stats, p. 531). Kickapoo, 20,273 acres, or 31.75 square miles; treaty of June 28, 1862 (13 U. S. Stats, p. 623). Iowa, 16,000 acres, or 25 square miles (5,120 acres in Kansas); treaties of May 17, 1854 (10 U. S. Stats., p. 1069, and of March 6, 1861; 12 U. S. Stats., p. 1171). Chippewa and Munsi, 4,395 acres, or 5.75 square miles; treaty of July 16, 1859 (12 U. S. Stats., p. 1105). Indian population 1890: Pottawatomies, 402; Kickapoos, 237; Iowas, 165; Chippewas and Munsees, 75; total, 939. Pottawatomie Reservation The returns had been made of the enumeration of the Prairie band of Pottawatomie, Indians, as well as of their school schedule, before my arrival. I examined the census methods, and have no doubt but that they were carefully and correctly taken. These Indians...

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Iowa Reservation

The Iowa Indians of Kansas and Nebraska are fairly educated, at least the younger portion of them. Nearly all of them understand the English language; many of them speak it fluently, and many of their women are well educated. They are of good physical condition. They are also free from any external evidence of venereal disease. They are vigorous and active, and in appearance temperate, although it is said many of the men will drink whenever they can get whiskey. As a rule they cultivate their farms with judgment and skill, and raise all that is necessary to supply their wants and leave much to sell, while many of them are accumulating property and surrounding themselves with the comforts of life. Orchards of apple, peach, plum; and cherry trees are numerous. The women are careful, industrious, and prudent, and many of them are good housekeepers and excellent cooks. The marriage relation is regarded by them as sacred, and not to be broken by either party, while all agree that their women are as a rule virtuous. These people seem to be prosperous and happy. They dress in citizens’ clothes and are very much like white people, many of them so near white that the Indian blood is quite difficult to discover. Their wealth consists in lands, horses, cattle, and swine. Their farms are all fenced. They were allotted some...

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Kickapoo Reservation

The enumeration of the Kickapoos was made before my arrival, but upon examination I find that it was correctly done. The mental capacity of these people is high. They are smart, intelligent, and bright men and women. Their physical condition is good, and they are a clean, vigorous, and upright people. Their economical condition shows many evidences of prosperity. They are raising good crops for the season. They are every year breaking up additional prairie land, fencing in their fields, improving their homes, setting out fruit trees, cutting fodder like white farmers, and otherwise adding to their comforts and purses. Virtue in both sexes is the rule. There is a growing disposition of the man to work and provide for the wants of the family, while the woman cares for the home and brings up the children. They have a church, built by themselves, and native preachers. They hold services twice on the Sabbath, regardless of the weather, and always with a good attendance. The preaching is in the native language. They are told to do right, to be honest, to be sober, to be industrious, to raise good crops, to get cattle and hogs, to get good homes, and to live like good white people; to stop finding fault, and take hold of life like white men; to be good husbands, wives, and children; to be virtuous men...

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Chippewa And Munsee Reservation

The Chippewa, and Munsee (Christian) Indians have almost ceased to be Indians in the ordinary acceptation of the term. They are quite equal to the average white pioneers in mental capacity. They read, write, and speak the English language at all times. Their physical condition is as good as that of the average whites about them. They have no constitutional diseases nor any results of vicious habits. They dress like the whites, cultivate the soil, and raise corn, wheat, and other crops. Nearly all of the older members of these tribes have thrifty orchards of the apple, peach, cherry, and plum, and receive a considerable income from them. The majority of these Indians’ are industrious and good citizens, while a few are shiftless and lazy. They live in comfortable houses built of logs nicely hewed, with the interstices well chinked up and pointed with lime mortar, which are very neat and tidy. Some live in frame houses, while some of the houses are frame and log combined. Inside their dwellings are neat and tidy. They cook on kitchen stoves, have cupboards and dishes, eat on tables, and sleep in comfortable beds and upon fair looking bedsteads. They have knives and forks and spoons; in fact, if there were no Indians near, one would think he was in a white man’s house. The upward progress of these people has been...

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Sac and Fox Reservation

Report of Special Agent Reuben Sears on the Indians of the Sac and Fox tract or reservation, Sac and Fox agency, Tama County, Iowa. 2.5 miles from the town of Tama, September 1890. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation: (a) Pottawatomie, Sac (Sauk) and Fox of the Mississippi, and Winnebago. The unallotted area of this tract is 1,258 acres, or 2 square miles. The tract has been surveyed and subdivided. It was established by purchase. (See act of Congress approved. March 2, 1867, 14 U. S. Stats, p. 507.) Deeds November 1870, and 1882 and 1883. Indian. population 1800: 397. Sac and Fox Reservation This reservation is one only in name, as the Sacs and Foxes own it in fee, the deed to the same being held in trust by the governor of Iowa. On this these Indians have lived surrounded by the whites for the last 30 years, and should now be in a fair state of civilization if white influence has much power in molding Indian character. In fact, this tribe shows but little civilized or Christianized results from such surroundings. Their physical condition is comparatively good; a few seem troubled with a cough and other evidences of chronic lung trouble, but then a majority give every indication of health. Their children are to all appearance healthy, and behave quite as well...

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Muskhogean Family

The Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1885-1886, (based upon Muskhogees, Hitchittees, Seminoles), Pritchard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 402, 1847 (includes Muskhogees, Seminoles, Hitchittees) Muskhogies, Berghaus (1845, Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848) Ibid., 1852. Muscogee, Keane, App. Stanford’s comp. (Cent. And So. Am.), 460, 471, 1678 (includes Muscogees proper, and Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Hitchittees, Coosadas or Coosas, Alibamous, Apalaches). Maskoki, Gatschet, Creek Mig. Legend, I, 50, 1884 (general account of family; four branches, Maskoki, Apalachian, Alibama, Chalita). Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887. Choctaw Muskhogee, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 119, 1836. Chocta-Muskhog, Gallatin in Trans. Ant. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848. Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind, Tribes, in, 401, 1853. Chata-Muskoki, Hale in Am. Antiq., 108, April, 1883 (considered with reference to migration). Chahtas, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am, Antiq. Soc., II, 100, 306, 1836 (or Choctaws). Chahtahs, Pritchard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 403, 1847 (or Choktahs or Flatheads). Tschahtas, Berghans (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848. Ibid., 1852. Choctah, Latham, Nat. Hist, Man, 337, 1850 (includes Choctahs, Muscogulges” Muskohges). Latham in Trans. Phil. Soc, Lond,, 103,, 1856, Latham, Opuscula, 366, 1860. Mobilian, Bancroft, Hist. U. S., 249, 1840. Flat-heads, Prichard, Phys. Hist, Mankind, v. 403, 1847 (Chahtahs or Choktahs). Coshattas, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 349, 1850 (net classified). Humus, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 341, 1850 (east of Mississippi...

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Iroquoian Family

As to the name, original location, geographical distribution, and tribal relations of the Cherokees, the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology gives the following information (pages 76-79): Iroquois, Gallatin in Trans, Am. Antiq. Soc., u, 2423, 305, 1836 (excludes Cherokees). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 881, 1817 (follows Gallatin). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt.1, xcix, 77, 1848 (as in 1836). Gallatin, in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 401, 1853. Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 58, 1856. Latham, Opuscula, 327, 1860. Latham, Elements Comp. Phil., 463, 1862. Irokesen, Berghans (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848. Ibid, 1852. Irokesen, Berghans, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887 (includes Natalia and said to be derived from Dakota). Huron-Iroquois, Bancroft, Mist. IT. S., III, 243, 1840. Wyandot-Iroquois, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.), 460, 468, 1878. Cherokees, Gallatin in Am. Antiq. Soc. II, 89,306, 1836 (kept apart from Iroquois though probable affinity asserted). Bancroft, History U. S., in, 246, 1840. Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 401, 1847. Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848. Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 58, 1856 (a separate group perhaps to be classed with Iroquis and Sioux). Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind, Tribes, III, 401, 1853. Latham, Opuscula, 327, 1860. Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.), 460, 472, 1878 (same as Chelekees or Tsalagi “apparently entirely...

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The Eastern Cherokee Nation in 1890

The Cherokee Nation by a treaty made in 1817, ceded to the United States an area of land lying east of the Mississippi river. In exchange for this the United States ceded to that part of the nation then on the. Arkansas. River as much land on that river, acre for acre, as the United. States received from them east of the Mississippi River, and provided that all treaties then in force should continue in full force with all of the Cherokees. This established the two names, eastern and western Cherokees. The eastern band of Cherokees is the portion now living in North Carolina, Georgia, and East Tennessee, but chiefly in North Carolina on a tract of land known as, the Qualls boundary. They are thus designated to distinguish them from the Cherokees who emigrated between 1809 and 1817 and located on the public domain at the headwaters of Arkansas and White Rivers, and who are now known as the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory. The latter became known as the Cherokee Nation, west. The general term, the Cherokee Nation, includes both. Some of the eastern Cherokees after 1866, on invitation, joined the western Cherokees and are now with them in Indian Territory. As early as 1809 the aggregate of annuities due the Cherokees on account of the sale of lands to the United States was $100,000, and it was...

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