Collection: Indian Tribes of North America

Clallam Indians

Clallam Indians were located on the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Port Discovery and Hoko River. Later the Clallam occupied the Chimakum territory also and a small number lived on the lower end of Vancouver Island.

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Chilluckittequaw Indians

As reported by Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw Indians lay along the north side of Columbia River, in the present Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles below the Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River group of Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must suppose that they extended to the south side of the Columbia.

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Chehalis Indians

Chehalis Indians are located on the lower course of Chehalis River, especially on the south side, and on the south side of Grays Bay. In later times the Chehalis occupied territory to and about Willapa Bay that had formerly been held by the Chinook.

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Cathlamet Indians

Cathlamet Indians are located on the south bank of Columbia River near its mouth, claiming the territory between Tongue Point and the neighborhood of Puget Island, and on the north bank from the mouth of Grays Bay to a little east of Oak Point.

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Pawnee Indians

Pawnee Indians. The name is derived by some from the native word pariki, “a horn,” a term said to be used to designate their peculiar manner of dressing the scalp lock; but Lesser and Weltfish (1932) consider it more likely that it is from parisu, “hunter,” as claimed by themselves. They were also called Padani and Panana by various tribes. Also known as: Ahihinin, Arapaho name, meaning “wolf people.” Awahi, Caddo and Wichita Dame. Awahu, Arikara name. Awó, Tonkawa name, originally used by the Wichita. Chahiksichahiks, meaning “men of men,” applied to themselves but also to all other tribes whom they considered civilized. Dárāzhazh, Kiowa Apache name. Harahey, Coronado documents (somewhat uncertain). Ho-ni’-i-tañi-o, Cheyenne name, meaning “little wolf people.” Kuitare-i, Comanche name, meaning “wolf people.” Paoneneheo, early Cheyenne name, meaning “the ones with projecting front teeth.” Páyin, Kansa form of the name. Pi-ta’-da, name given to southern tribes (Grinnell, 1923). Tse-sa do hpa ka, Hidatsa name meaning “wolf people.” Wóhesh, Wichita name. Xaratenumanke, Mandan name. Pawnee Connections. The Pawnee were one of the principal tribes of the Caddoan linguistic stock. The Arikara were an offshoot, and the Wichita were more closely related to them than were the Caddo. Pawnee Location.-On the middle course of Platte River and the Republican fork of Kansas River. (See also Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) Pawnee Subdivisions. The Pawnee consisted in reality of four tribes,...

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Oto Indians

Oto Indians. From Wat’ota, meaning “lechers.” It often appears in a lengthened form such as Hoctatas or Octoctatas. Also called: Che-wae-rae, own name. Matokatági, Shawnee name. Motfitatak, Fox name. Wacútada, Omaha and Ponca name. Wadótata, Kansa name. Watohtata, Dakota name. Watútata, Osage name. Oto Connections. The Oto formed, with the Iowa and Missouri, the Chiwere group of the Siouan linguistic family and were closely connected with the Winnebago. Oto Location. The Oto moved many times, but their usual location in the historic period was on the lower course of the Platte or the neighboring banks of the Missouri. (See also Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) Oto History From the maps of the Marquette expedition it would seem that at the time when they were drawn, 1673, the Oto were some distance up Des Moines River. Their name was often coupled with that of the related Iowa who lived north of them, but they always seem to have occupied a distinct area. Shortly after this time they moved over to the Missouri and by 1804 had established their town on the south side of the Platte River not far from its mouth. According to native traditions, this tribe, the Iowa, and the Missouri were anciently one people with the Winnebago, but moved southwest from them, and then separated from the Iowa at the mouth of Iowa River and...

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Omaha Indians

Omaha Indians. Meaning “those going against the wind or current”; sometimes shortened to Maha. Also called: Ho’-măn’-hăn, Winnebago name. Hu-úmiûi, Cheyenne Dame. Onǐ’hä°, Cheyenne name, meaning “drum beaters” (?). Pŭk-tǐs, Pawnee name. U’-aha, Pawnee name. Connections. The Omaha belonged to that section of the Siouan linguistic stock which included also the Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw, and which was called by J. O. Dorsey (1897) Dhegiha. Location. Their principal home in historic times was in northeastern Nebraska, on the Missouri River. (See also Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and South Dakota.) History. According to strong and circumstantial traditions, the Omaha and others belonging to the same group formerly lived on the Ohio and Wabash Rivers. It is usually said that the Quapaw separated from the general body first, going down the Mississippi, but it is more likely that they were left behind by the others and later moved out upon the great river. The Osage remained on Osage River, and the Kansa continued on up the Missouri, but the Omaha, still including the Ponca, passed north inland as far as the Pipestone Quarry in Minnesota, and were afterward forced west by the Dakota, into what is now the State of South Dakota. There the Ponca separated from them and the Omaha settled on Bow Creek, in the present Nebraska. They continued from that time forward in the same general region, the...

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Kiowa Apache Indians

Kiowa Apache Indians. The name is derived from that of the Kiowa and from the circumstance that they spoke a dialect related to those of the better-known Apache tribes, though they had no other connection with them. Also called: Bad-hearts, by Long (1823). (See Kaskaias.) Cancey or Kantsi, meaning “liars,” applied by the Caddo to all Apache of the Plains, but oftenest to the Lipan. Essequeta, a name given by the Kiowa and Comanche to the Mescalero Apache, sometimes, but improperly, applied to this tribe. Gáta’ka, Pawnee name. Gǐnä’s, Wichita name. Gû’ta’k, Omaha and Ponca name. K’á-pätop, Kiowa name, meaning “knife whetters.” Kaskaias, possibly intended for this tribe, translated “bad hearts.” Kǐsínahǐs, Kichai name. Mûtsíănă-täníu, Cheyenne name, meaning “whetstone people.” Nadíisha-déna, own name, meaning “our people.” Pacer band of Apache, H. R. Doe. Prairie Apaches, common name. Sádalsómte-k’íägo, Kiowa name, meaning “weasel people.” Tâ’gugála, Jemez name for Apache tribes including Kiowa Apache. Tagúi, an old Kiowa name. Tágukerish, Pecos name for all Apache. Tashǐn, Comanche name for all Apache. Tha`ká-hinĕ’na, Arapaho name, meaning “saw-fiddle man.” Yabipais Natagé, Garc6s Diary (1776). Kiowa Apache Connections. The Kiowa Apache belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family, their nearest relatives being the Jicarilla and Lipan (Hoijer). Kiowa Apache Indians Location. They have been associated with the Kiowa from the earliest traditional period. (See also Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) Kiowa Apache History. The...

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