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Key to Chart
Probable = P, Countryman = C, Yes = Y, Trader = T,
Married = md, Mixed Blood = mb
Frazier List of Mixed Bloods
|Frazier, (nfn)||Pearl R.||P||12 in family|
|Frazier, Alexander||Funagusha Creek||P||9 in family|
|Frazier, Amos||Robinson Road||F||7 in family|
|Frazier, Benjamin||Robinson Road||P||4 in family|
|Frazier, Charles||Yalobusha R.||P||5 in family|
|Frazier, J. R.||P|
|Frazier, John||Funagusha Creek||P|
|Frazier, Louis||P||4 in family|
|Frazier, Misse||P||6 in family|
|Frazier, Molly||Trading House||F||Houlka Chickasaw|
|Frazier, Silas||P||Choctaw Natn 6 in family|
|Frazier, Sim m||P|
|Frazier, Simon||P||8 in family|
|Frazier, Suky||P||13 in family|
|Frazier, Swaney||Pearl River||P|
|Frazier, William||Yalobusha R.||P|
One of the few reports which identify the Frazier family as being of mixed blood is a little known article appearing in the Revista de Indias by Frank Defina. A translation extract by Jack D. L. Holmes states:
“The ratio of white blood among the Southern Indians has been estimated at between five and ten per cent, but this figure fails to note the important role they played at the junction between Indian and white cultures. Here are some of the mestizo families of sum importance: the Colberts among the Chickasaws; the Folsoms and LeFleurs with the Choctaws; for the Creeks, the Frazers, Macintoshes, Camerons, Taitts, Galphins, Kinnards, Wilforts, Perreman, MacGillivray and others; with the Cherokee, the Rosses, Vanns, Hickses, Lowrys, McCoys and others. 1Frank Defina, “Mestizos y blanco en la politica india de la Luisiana y la Florida del siglo xviii,” Revista de Indias (Madrid), XXVI, Nos. 103-104 (1966), 59-77. (Translated by Jack D. L. Holmes), copy in possession of the author.
Although Defina’s estimate of mixed blood percentages is on the conservative side, he correctly names many of the leading mixed-blood families. He continued by discussing how these meztizos gained influence among their Indian kinsmen:
“The greatest contingent of mestizos derived from the crowd of British traders who set themselves up among the Indians (especially with the Cherokees) following the acquisition of Florida(s) in the Seven Years’ War. They and their mestizo sons achieved a position of great influence in the Southern tribes due to the great number of their slaves, cattle, plantations, etc., which they accumulated and through which they achieved great influence on the Europeanization of the Indians. Their contacts with Europeans, their knowledge of the white-man’s language-generally English, although occasionally also French and Spanish—, their ability to read and write, and above all, the combination of Indian sagacity with European traits, a typical combination of mestizos, gave to men such as the Colberts and McGillivrays a great advantage over the Indians, which enabled them to control their trade and dictate what we might call the “foreign policy” of the tribes. 2Ibid.
Defina also commented the cultural friction caused by the mixed blood preference for white life styles, although he over simplifies the later tribal schisms as primarily racial:
“In reality, the mestizo families came to be the true governors of the Indian tribes, although it came to pass that a split developed between them and the pure Indians who argued for the preservation of the old sociability, preferring village life with its social intercourse; while the mestizos were more inclined to individual pursuits in search of personal gain. Among the four tribes they multiplied and prospered (the mestizos) because of their better preparation for achieving domination over the whites and using and taking advantage of their own cheating tactics. They were the organizers of schools…, the best cultivators, lived in the finest houses, accumulated the greatest wealth, and gave evidence of a relaxed moral life throughout the Indian country. A letter from Governor O’Neil to Captain-general Espeleta indicates the importance of the mestizos, where he advises him to maintain friendship with the creoles and mestizos who lived among the Indian nations, along with the Englishmen with Indian children, so that Spain might insure trade and friendship with the Indians….” 3Ibid
Among other things Defina identifies the Fraziers (Frazer) and others as Creek mixed bloods, and one can only conjecture that the family migrated over into Choctaw society much as did the McIntoshs, the Brashears and others. The spelling of Charles Frazier as Frazer in the early records of the Choctaw Trading House is also suggestive of the Creek origins of this family. It is worth noting that DeFina is one of the few historians who correctly understands the important role played by the mixed bloods as innovators, planters, cattle raisers, and political intermediaries between the full bloods and the emerging American nation.
Footnotes: [ + ]
|1.||↩||Frank Defina, “Mestizos y blanco en la politica india de la Luisiana y la Florida del siglo xviii,” Revista de Indias (Madrid), XXVI, Nos. 103-104 (1966), 59-77. (Translated by Jack D. L. Holmes), copy in possession of the author.|