Location: Oregon Territory

Treaty of June 9, 1855

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the treaty-ground, Camp Stevens, in the Wall-Walla Valley, this ninth day of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory of Washington, and Joel Palmer, superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon Territory, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, head-men, and delegates of the Walla-Wallas, Cayuses, and Umatilla tribes and bands of Indians, occupying lands partly in Washington and partly in Oregon Territories, and who, for the purposes of this treaty, are to be regarded as one nation acting for and in behalf of their respective bands and tribes, they being duly authorized thereto; it being understood that Superintendent I. I. Stevens assumes to treat with that portion of the above-named bands and tribes residing within the Territory of Washington, and Superintendent Palmer with those residing within Oregon. Article 1. The above-named confederated bands of Indians cede to the United States all their right, title, and claim to all and every part of the country claimed by them included in the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at the mouth of the Tocannon River, in Washington Territory, running thence up said river to its source; thence easterly along the summit of the Blue Mountains, and on the southern boundaries of...

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Treaty of November 15, 1865

Articles of agreement and convention entered into at the Warm Springs Agency, Oregon, by J. W. Perit Huntington, sup’t Indian affairs for Oregon, on behalf of the United States, and the undersigned, chiefs and head-men of the confederated tribes and bands of Middle Oregon, the same being amendatory of and supplemental to the treaty negotiated with the aforesaid tribes on the twenty-fifth day of June, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, and ratified by the Senate of the United States on the eighteenth day of April, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine. Article 1. It having become evident from experience that the provision of article 1 of the treaty of the twenty-fifth of June, A. D. eighteen hundred and fifty-five, which permits said confederated tribes to fish, hunt, gather berries and roots, pasture stock, and erect houses on lands outside the reservation, and which have been ceded to the United States, is often abused by the Indians to the extent of continuously residing away from the reservation, and is detrimental to the interests of both Indians and whites; therefore it is hereby stipulated and agreed that all the rights enumerated in the third proviso of the first section of the before-mentioned treaty of the twenty-fifth of June, eighteen hundred and fifty-fiveā€”that is to say, the right to take fish, erect houses, hunt game, gather roots and berries, and pasture animals upon lands without...

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Treaty of June 25, 1855

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Wasco, near the Dalles of the Columbia River, in Oregon Territory, by Joel Palmer, superintendent of Indian affairs, on the part of the United States, and the following-named chiefs and head-men of the confederated tribes and bands of Indians, residing in Middle Oregon, they being duly authorized thereto by their respective bands, to wit: Symtustus, Locks-quis-sa, Shick-a-me, and Kuck-up, chiefs of the Taih or Upper De Chutes band of Walla – Wallas; Stocket-ly and Iso, chiefs of the Wyam or Lower De Chutes band of Walla – Wallas; Alexis and Talkish, chiefs of the Tenino band of Walla – Wallas; Yise, chief of the Dock-Spus or John Day’s River band of Walla-Wallas; Mark, William Chenook, and Cush-Kella, chiefs of the Dalles band of the Wascoes; Toh-simph, chief of the Ki-gal-twal-la band of Wascoes; and Wal-la-chin, chief of the Dog River band of Wascoes. Article 1. The above-named confederated bands of Indians cede to the United States all their right, title, and claim to all and every part of the country claimed by them, included in the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing in the middle of the Columbia River, at the Cascade Falls, and running thence southerly to the summit of the Cascade Mountains; thence along said summit to the forty-fourth parallel of north latitude; thence east on that parallel to...

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Biography of Hon. William Strong

HON. WILLIAM STRONG. – There is no name more thoroughly associated with Oregon and Washington judicature than that of William Strong. His marked characteristics are indelibly impressed upon the system of law of both states, especially that of the latter. To long and distinguished service as associate justice of the supreme court, and in the ex-officio character of judge of the district courts in both states while they were territorial governments, must be added his connection with their legislation, and also his brilliant career as a law practitioner, for over a generation, in all the courts of both states. He was born at St. Albans, Vermont, on the 15th of July, 1817. His youth was spent in the vicinity of Rushville, new York, where he received his preparatory education. At the age of seventeen he entered Yale College, from which he graduated with distinguished honors in the class of 1838. Having selected the law for his profession, he engaged in teaching the ensuing two years, whereby he earned those means, which contributed largely to enable him to gratify his desire. So ambitious was he that, by industry and close application to study in the intervals from teaching, he had made sufficient progress in his studies to secure a license in 1840 to practice law. Admitted to the bar, he immediately removed to Cleveland, Ohio, and at once entered upon...

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Biography of Hon. George H. Williams

HON. GEORGE H. WILLIAMS. – Judge Williams alone among the citizens of our state, and of the Pacific coast, has had the distinction of occupying a place in the highest councils of the nation, – in the cabinet of a President. He was also regarded by President Grant as the man most fit and able to hold the position of chief justice of the United States. The bitter struggle following his nomination to this supreme position is well remembered for the sectional feeling displayed and the dissent of certain members of the senate which led the Judge to withdraw his name. Our state was therefore denied the honor designed by our most popular President. It is not, however, to recall the personal bias or envies of the past, – they have been long forgotten and forgiven, – but to remind ourselves that it was upon an arena no less great than that of the nation that Judge Williams has passed the most intense years of his life, and that it is as one of a group of men the first among Americans – a company composing our “Great Round Table” in the most eventful years of our history – that he has been accustomed to move. In his long shadow that stretches from our state to the national Capitol, we not only thing ourselves a little greater, but feel...

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Biography of Albert H. Tanner

ALBERT H. TANNER. – Albert H. Tanner was born in what was at one time a part of the Oregon Territory; but, when Congress cut the territory in two and made Oregon and Washington Territories, it left him in Washington Territory, with the mighty Columbia between him and his now much-loved Oregon. His birthplace was on what is commonly known as Cape Horn Mountain, some fifty or sixty miles below the Cascades. In a little log cabin, the favorite habitat of the early settler of this Western country, on the 9th of September, 1855, the subject of this sketch first saw the light. His father was Benjamin F. Tanner, a native of Kentucky; and his mother was Sarah Turner, a native of Missouri. When Albert was about eight years of age, they separated and were divorced; and he went with his father to Sheridan, Yamhill county, where he moved about from place to place a homeless lad, until he became of sufficient age to be of assistance to his father, who was a carpenter by trade, when we went to work with him with a boyish purpose of following the trade of his sire. He continued in this employment, working in the summer and attending the district school during the winter months, until he had attained the age of sixteen years. He was industrious at his work, and a...

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