Location: Mexico

Biography of Major Bert Johnson

For its advancement in the last three years San Mateo county owes no more to any one citizen than Major Bert Johnson of Montara, president of the San Mateo County Development Association and chairman of the advisory road commission. In an unparalleled spirit of county loyalty Mr. Johnson has relegated his important personal interests into the background to devote practically all his time and energy to the momentous civic tasks that have been thrust on his shoulders. When Mr. Johnson accepted the presidency of the San Mateo County Development Association two years ago, he said he would make it a banner year. So great were the fruits of his efforts that some of the county’s most influential men urged him to accept the presidency for one more year that he might carry to completion the great undertakings that he had started. Again his spirit of loyalty overcame his personal duties, and he consented to surrender one more year of time and vim to the county. During this time Mr. Johnson has represented the county at conventions of civic bodies at San Francisco and different parts of the state. He has become a national authority on highways and development work, and has directed the vast undertakings of the Development Associations. As chairman of the advisory roads commission he carefully watched the expenditure of the $1,250,000 bond issue for good roads...

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Antiquities of Mexico

The Southwestern regions of North America present a most extensive and interesting field for antiquarian research. The long-continued existence of powerful, civilized, and populous races is fully proved by the occurrence of almost innumerable ruins and national relics. Even in the sixteenth century, the Spanish invaders found these regions in the possession of a highly prosperous and partially civilized people. Government and social institutions were upon that firm and well-defined basis which betokened long continuance and strong national sentiment. In many of the arts and sciences, the subjugated races were equal, and in others superior, to their Christian conquerors....

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The Native American Holocaust

The population of Mexico began to drop almost immediately after the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. A smallpox plague devastated the population of Tenochtitlan while it was under siege by the Spanish. Many other European diseases spread across Mexico and Central America in the years that followed.  Even prior to the Cortez Expedition, a smallpox plague devastated the Yucatan Peninsula, the Caribbean Islands and the advanced peoples living around the Mobile and Pensacola Bays on the Southeastern Gulf Coasts. Several European plagues that swept through Mexico during the 1500s and early 1600s killed anywhere from 30% to 80% of the indigenous population. However, the worst plagues of all might have been a homegrown beast, but it is strange that it seldom affected immigrants to Mexico who were from Europe or Africa.  This fact would suggest that the plague was a mutation of some pathogen that Old World residents were long immune to. It was a hemorrhagic fever, called cocoliztli in Nahua that could kill victims in hours, but typically killed in 3-4 days. It only affected populations living in the highlands. The host of this pathogen was apparently an animal or insect that only lived in cooler, temperate climates.  Both of the mega-epidemics of this disease occurred during the worst droughts in 600 years. The 1545 epidemic killed 85% of the indigenous population of the Mexican highlands. There...

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Mexican Native Americans

As mentioned, three major centers of advanced culture blossomed around 900 AD and quickly disappeared around 1150 AD.  They were the Toltec capital of Tula, the trade megapolis on the Ocmulgee River in central Georgia, and the cluster of towns connected by canals and raised bed roads around Lake Okeechobee.  The causes of their contemporary rise and fall have not been studied by archaeologists and geologists.  In fact, very few of these scientists seemed to be aware of the coincidence. Etula in northwest Georgia and Ichese in central Georgia continued to prosper for 50 years after the abandonment of the acropolis of Ocmugee.  However, both were severely damaged by floods which caused the nearby river (Etowah or Ocmulgee) to cut a new channel across their respective horseshoe bends. Itza and Putan Maya (c. 900 AD – 1240 AD) It is quite possible that the Itza Mayas were not ethnically Mayas, but a South American or Central American people who migrated into Mesoamerica. The Itza priests had a secret language they called the language of Zuyva  The Classic Mayas said the Itza’s were foreigners who spoke their language brokenly. This suggest that they probably were not native Mayanspeakers and thus not really “Maya.” The period between 900 AD and 1250 was the Golden Era of the Itza Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula. They ruled their domain from Chichen Itza.  There...

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Tabasco and Chiapas

The southern end of Vera Cruz and all of Tabasco in Mexico are not significantly different in appearance than southeastern Georgia.  Most of the region is level and humid, with many swamps and natural lakes. The coast of Tabasco is lined with tidal marshes almost identical to those of the coast of Georgia.  Although most of the indigenous inhabitants of Tabasco are called Mayas, most are descended from ethnic groups that were not true Mayas, but absorbed varying degrees of Maya culture.  One group, the Tamauli were originally refugees from Tamaulipas State in the northeastern corner of Mexico. This...

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Mayan and Creek Similarities

Many, many suns ago, I was awarded a fellowship by Georgia Tech to spend a summer studying the indigenous architecture and town planning of Mesoamerica. The grant involved visiting all of the major archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. In addition, I was to photograph at least 2500 professional quality color slides for the Georgia Tech library.  The education I received seemed only a little relevant to an architectural career in the United States, but it would make interesting conversation for dates and parties.  Besides . . . Relaciones Exteriores (their State Department) let me ship home 125 kg (275 pounds) of indigenous textiles, building material samples, a large chunk of fresco, obsidian weapons and utilitarian Pre-Columbian ceramics. They were for educational purposes, mind you! The Mexican Consul in Atlanta was a graduate in architecture from Georgia Tech, so the “red carpet was rolled out for me.”  He arranged for me to be an official guest of the Institutio Nacional de Anthropoligia Y Historia (INAH).  Its director was the world famous archaeologist, Ignacio Bernal.  My curriculum would be based at the Museo Nacional de Antropologia, directed by Dr. Roman Piña-Chan.  Piña-Chan was an equally famous archaeologist.  His mother was Maya. The debut of the fellowship involved a tour of all six floors of the great museum. Only one floor is open to the public.  The Mexican Consul had...

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Slave Narrative of Lucinda Vann

Place of Birth: Webbers Falls, Oklahoma Age: 92-100+ Yes, Sa. My name’s Lucinda Vann, I’ve been married twice but, that don’t make no difference. Indians wouldn’t allow their slaves to take their husband’s name. Oh, Lord, no. I don’t know how old I is; some folks say I’se ninety-two and some say I must be a hundred. I’se born across the river in the plantation of old Jim Vann in Webbers Falls, I’se born right in my marster and missus bed. Yes I was. You see, I’se one of them sudden cases. My mother, Betsy Vann, worked in the big house for the missus. She was weavin’ when the case came up so quick, missus Jennie put her on her own bed and took care of her. Master Jim and Missus Jennie was good to their slaves. Yes, Lord, yes. My missus name was Doublehead before she married Jim Vann. They was Cherokee Indians. They had a big, big plantation down by the river and they was rich. Had sacks and sacks of money. There was five hundred slaves on that plantation and nobody ever lacked for nothin’. Everybody had fine clothes, everybody had plenty to eat. Lord, yes, suer. Now I’se just old forgotten woman. Sometimes if I eat my bread this mornin’ none this evenin’. Seneca Chism was my father. He was a slave on the Chism...

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Montgomery Co., Ky

MONTGOMERY CO. (Gladys Robertson) In this community most of the slaves were kept on farms and each family was given a well constructed log house. They were fed by provisions given them by their white masters and they were plentiful. They were clothed by their masters. These clothes were made by the colored women under the direction and supervision of their mistress, the white woman cut the clothes for both men and women, and the colored women did the sewing of the garments. The men did the manual labor on the farm and the women the domestic. Each white woman and girl had a special servant for her own use and care and each white man had his colored man or valet. There are no records of a big slave trade in this county. When a slave was sold it was usually to a friend or neighbor and most masters were very considerate and would not sell unless a family could go together. For instance from the diary of Mrs. Wliza[TR: Eliza?] Magowan 1853-1871, we read this: “Lina and two children Scott and Dulcina sold to J. Wilkerson.” Also another item: “Violet married to Dennie” showing that care was taken that marriages were made among the negroes. The darkies had suppers in their own quarters and had much merrymaking and laughter. Illness among the darkies were cared from among...

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Biography of Samuel R. H. Robinson

In the history of railroad building throughout the American continent the name of Samuel Roland Hiland Robinson figures prominently. For many years he was accorded and executed most important contracts of that character, being associated with the construction of many of the most important times west of the Mississippi as well as in Canada and in Mexico. He developed splendid executive ability, and his administrative direction of his affairs showed him to be a man of keen insight and wide vision. For many years he maintained his home in St. Louis and was regarded as one of its most valued citizens. He was born in the county of Gray, Ontario, Canada, November 22, 1860, his parents being Thomas Argo and Sarah (Scott) Robinson, both natives of the north of Ireland. He acquired a common school education in Ontario and in 1872 obtained a position as water boy on the Hamilton Northwestern Railroad of Canada. Later he occupied various railroad positions and also worked in lumber camps in Michigan. In 1882 he took up railroad building as a contractor and was superintendent and manager of the Minnesota & Arizona Construction Company, building railroads and canals in Arizona. From 1898 until 1900 he was superintendent of construction of the Vera Cruz al Pacifico Railroad in Mexico. Through the succeeding two years he engaged in the building of the Arizona & Southwestern...

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Kickapoo Indians

Kickapoo Indians. From Kiwegapaw`, “he stands about,” “he moves about, standing now here, now there.” Also called: A’-uyax, Tonkawa name, meaning “deer eaters.” Higabu, Omaha and Ponca name. I’-ka-dŭ’, Osage name. Shake-kah-quah, Wichita name. Shígapo, Shikapu, Apache name. Sik’-a-pu, Comanche name. Tékapu, Huron name. Yuatara’ye-ru’nu, a second Huron name, meaning “tribe living around the lakes.” Kickapoo Connections. The Kickapoo belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, and in a special group with the Foxes and Sauk. Kickapoo Villages. The villages were: Etnataek (shared with the Foxes), rather a fortification than a village, near the Kickapoo village on Sangamon River, Illinois. Kickspougowi, on the Wabash River in Crawford County, Illinois, about opposite the mouth of Turman Creek. Kickapoo Location. For territory occupied in Wisconsin, see History. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, and Oklahoma.) Kickapoo History. As suggested in the case of the Foxes, the Kickapoo may once have lived near the Sauk in the lower peninsula of Michigan but such a residence cannot be proven. If the name Outitcbakouk used by the Jesuit missionary Druillettes refers to this tribe, as seems probable, knowledge of them was brought to Europeans in 1658. At any rate they were visited by Allouez about 1667-70 and were then near the portage between Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, perhaps about Alloa, Columbia County, Wisconsin. Early in the eighteenth century a part of them settled somewhere...

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Apache Indians

Apache Indians. Located in southern New Mexico and Arizona, western Texas, and southeastern Colorado, also ranging over much of northern Mexico. Together with the Navaho, the Apache constituted the western group of the southern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

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Biography of James Baxter

Captain James Baxter, of Boise, is a native of England, his birth having occurred in Norwich. His parents were Frank and Mary (Gunn) Baxter, who came with their family to the United States when the Captain was very young. They resided near New York City for some years, and then removed to Paterson, New Jersey. The father was a horticulturist by occupation and successfully engaged in the cultivation of vegetables and flowers. Soon after his arrival in America he took steps toward becoming naturalized and was recognized as a valued and influential citizen. He served as county commissioner in New Jersey for a number of years, and was also county sheriff, in which positions he discharged his duties with signal ability. After a residence of thirty years in America, he died at the age of seventy-eight. His widow still survives him, and at the age of eighty-seven years is living in Paterson, New Jersey, where she has so long made her home. She was the mother of thirteen children, seven of whom grew to years of maturity and are still living. In the public schools of New York City James Baxter began his education, which he continued in Paterson. Subsequently he attended the school of mines at Columbia College, New York, and was graduated there as a mining engineer and metallurgist. He learned the machinist’s trade with the Rogers...

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Biography of Fred B. Woodard

Fred B. Woodard, prominent member of the Washington County bar, residing at Dewey, has been a resident of this section of the state since 1898 and through the intervening period has left the impress of his individuality and ability upon the legal history of the commonwealth. A native of Indiana, his birth occurred in Parke County, near Bloomingdale, on the 21st of October, 1871, his parents being William Penn and Martha Ellen (Kelley) Woodard. The father’s birth occurred on a farm in Parke County, Indiana, which his father, Thomas Woodard, had entered from the government in pioneer times. The latter had removed from South Carolina to the Hoosier state and was one of a number of freighters who founded a settlement in western Indiana. He was of English lineage and he devoted his life to agricultural pursuits. William P. Woodard combined merchandising with farming and was but forty-seven years of age when he passed away in 1887. His brother, the HON. John E. Woodard of Bloomingdale, Indiana, was for several terms a member of the state legislature. Mrs. Martha Woodard was also a native of Parke County, Indiana, and in 1905 she became a resident of Dewey, Oklahoma. Her father, Robert L. Kelley, was sent to the general assembly of Indiana as representative for Parke County for several terms and his son and namesake, Robert L. Kelley, Jr., became...

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Biographical Sketch of D. C. Jackson

D. C. Jackson, a prominent citizen of Summitville, Tennessee, was born November 16, 1821, in Monticello, Kentucky, and is the son of J. B. and Dorcas (Cox) Jackson. The father was born in Lewisburg, N. C., in 1798, and when quite young came to Tennessee. For eight years, before he went into the mercantile business, he was clerk of McMinn County. The mother was born about 1797 in Tennessee. Both were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he was a democrat. In 1839 our subject began an extensive tour through Virginia, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Indian Territory and Mexico. He then returned to Coffee County and September 8, 1846, married Edna Taylor, of Granger County. She lived but a short time. After visiting California until 1851, he returned and married Mary F. Rhodes, of Coffee County, April 18, 1852. She died January 31, 1855. They had one child, John T., who died at four years of age. He visited California a second time, and April 23, 1860, married Elizabeth Chilton, of Jefferson County. They have six children. In 1861 he enlisted as Confederate captain of the thirty seventh Tennessee Infantry; he organized a cavalry company a year later as captain also. Under Colonel Adrian and others he continued until the war’s close, receiving severe wounds at Chickamauga and Steubenville. Since the war he has been at Summitville, engaged in...

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Jones, Marie Lupe Ahumada Mrs. – Obituary

Marie Lupe Ahumada Jones, 70, of Baker City, died Nov. 19, 2005, at St. Luke’s Medical Center in Boise. There will be a private family gathering later. Visitation was for family only. Marie had lived the last 12 years of her life at Baker City, but lived most of her life at Los Angeles. She was born on Feb. 14, 1935, in Mexico. She became a registered nurse after college and loved to help people. She also loved flowers and had a very special touch with them. She never had to do much with them and they grew big and beautiful. She didn’t have much luck with houseplants, though. Marie was a very generous person and would spend her last dollar on her grandkids. Whenever she had a chance, she would play bingo and go to the casinos. The last 10 years of her life she loved to work with beads, making things and looking forward to selling her beaded jewelry and other items at the Miners Jubilee every year. “She will surely be missed,” her family said. Survivors include her son and daughter-in-law, Richard and Kris Jones of Crescent City, Calif., and Richard’s son, Michael Jones of Roseburg; her daughter and son-in-law, Jackie and Jeff Heriza of Aurora, Colo., and Jackie’s children, Jessica and Whitney McKnight of Boise, and Kristin Jones and Robert Heriza of Aurora, Colo.; her...

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