Location: Knox County TN

The Meeting of Folsom and Nittakachih

When the council, convened for the adjustment and final distribution of the annuity, adjourned in such confusion, together with the animosity manifested and openly expressed by both contending parties the one toward the other, (a similar scene never before witnessed in a Choctaw council) I feared the consequences that I was apprehensive would follow; but hoped that the conflicting opinions then agitating my people would be harmonized upon calm reflection and the adoption of wise and judicious measures. But when I ascertained that Nittakachih and Amosholihubih were truly assembling their warriors, I began to view the matter in its true and proper light. I knew those two chiefs too well to longer doubt the full interpretations of their designs as set forth in their actions; for they both were men who indulged not in meaningless parade, or delighted in empty display. Inevitable war kindred against kindred and brother against brother with all its horrors and irreparable consequences now seemed to stare me in the face, with no alternative but to speedily prepare to meet it; therefore Le Flore and myself, after due deliberation, resolved, if we must fight, to confine the fighting as much as possible within Amosholihubih’s and Nittakachih’s own districts. We at once took up our line of march south toward Demopolis, which was in the district of Amosholihubih, and where they had assembled their warriors. At...

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Letter from John Baxter to Robert Love

Knoxville, Tennessee. My Dear Sir: September 2nd, 1861 Your letter of the 29th July did not reach me before I left for Richmond. What detained it I do not know. But on my return I received and read it with great interest. By it, I see that you had properly appreciated my position. From what I had heard, you had misconceived my views, but I seen now that you had not. With the strongest possible convictions against the policy and propriety of Secession, I have ever exerted by influence to preserve peace in East Tennessee, and, as I think, with no little success. You will see the result in Nelson’s card to the people of East Tennessee. I approached him as a friend and opened up the way to convictions without which he most probably would not have made the concessions which seemed to be indispensable as a prerequisite to his release. By degrees he came to the opinions entertained by me, and by common consent, we both made a step forward, acknowledged the country divided and consented in our own minds to yield to a necessity-to an evil which we could not arrest. The result you will see in his card, which was submitted to me and approved by me in manuscript. Under this connection that the country was inevitably divided, I have been assiduously laboring since my...

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Letter from W.G. Brownlow to Robert Love

Knoxville, February 26th, 1861. Robert Love, Esqr., I desire to purchase a young Negro woman, and to pay down in par funds. Diley would suite me, and I think she would be willing to live with me. I buy, not for speculation, or to trade, but to keep her. What will you take, cash in hand, for Diley? Set your lowest figures. If you will not sell, will you hire her, and at what rates? I am going you for her hire, and will pay it when you visit our place. If you will sell Diley, and I can go the price, I will go up after her. If you will not sell, perhaps, Col. N.G. Taylor, may have one that will suit. She must be a number one girl of good qualities, or I would not give any thing for her. See him, if you will not sell, or any one else willing to sell a valuable girl or woman, not old, and suited to house work, and write me by return mail thereafter. Very truly, etc. W.G. Brownlow, Note: The above party was one of the strongest abolitionists ever in the United States, and was a very strong Union man during the Civil War. He has written two or three books, one of which is “Parson Brownlow’s Book”, and denounces the South and the Southern men, who...

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Slave Narrative of Robert Falls

Interviewer: Della Yoe Person Interviewed: Robert Falls Location: Knoxville, Tennessee Place of Birth: Claiborne County, North Carolina Date of Birth: December 14, 1840 Place of Residence: 608 South Broadway, Knoxville, Tennessee Robert Falls was born on December 14, 1840, in the rambling one-story shack that accomodated the fifteen slaves of his Old Marster, [HW: Harry] Beattie Goforth, on a farm in Claiborne County, North Carolina. His tall frame is slightly stooped, but he is not subjected to the customary infirmities of the aged, other than poor vision and hearing. Fairly comfortable, he is spending his declining years in contentment, for he is now the first consideration of his daughter, Mrs. Lola Reed, with whom he lives at #608 S. Broadway, Knoxville, Tennessee. His cushioned rocking chair is the honor seat of the household. His apology for not offering it to visitors, is that he is “not so fast on his feet as he used to be.” Despite Uncle Robert’s protest that his “mind comes and goes”, his memory is keen, and his sense of humor unimpaired. His reminiscences of slave days are enriched by his ability to recreate scenes and incidents in few words, and by his powers of mimicry. “If I had my life to live over,” he declares, “I would die fighting rather than be a slave again. I want no man’s yoke on my shoulders no...

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Slave Narrative of Aunt Mollie Moss

Person Interviewed: Mollie Moss Location: Knoxville, Tennessee Age: 82-83 Place of Residence: # 88 Auburn Street, Knoxville, Tennessee There is no street sign or a number on any of the ramshackled frame cottages that seemingly lean with the breezes, first one direction, then another, along the alley that wind’s through the city’s northernmost boundary and stops its meanderings at the doorstep of “Uncle Andrew Moss” and his wife, “Aunt Mollie.” The City Directory of Knoxville, Tennessee officially lists the Moss residence as # 88 Auburn Street. It rests upon its foundations more substantially, and is in better kept condition than its neighbors. In lieu of a “reg’lar” house number, the aged negro couple have placed a rusty automobile lisence tag of ancient vintage conspicuously over their door. It is their jesture of contempt for their nearest white neighbors who “dont seem to care whedder folkses know whar dey lib an maybe don wants em to.” As for Aunt Mollie, she holds herself superior to all of her neighbors. She “Ain got no time for po white trash noway.” She shoo’ed two little tow-headed white girls from her doorstep with her broom as she stood in her door and watched a visitor approach. “G’wan way frum here now, can be bodder wid you chillun messin ups my front yard. Take yo tings an go on back to yo own place!”...

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Slave Narrative of Andrew Moss

Person Interviewed: Andrew Moss Location: Knoxville, Tennessee Place of Birth: Wilkes County, Georgia Date of Birth: 1852 “One ting dat’s all wrong wid dis world today,” according to Andrew Moss, aged negro, as he sits through the winter days before an open grate fire in his cabin, with his long, lean fingers clasped over his crossed knees, “is dat dey ain no ‘prayer grounds’. Down in Georgia whar I was born,-dat was ‘way back in 1852,-us colored folks had prayer grounds. My Mammy’s was a ole twisted thick-rooted muscadine bush. She’d go in dar and pray for deliverance of de slaves. Some colored folks cleaned out knee-spots in de cane breaks. Cane you know, grows high and thick, and colored folks could hide de’seves in dar, an nobody could see an pester em.” “You see it was jes like dis. Durin’ de war, an befo de war too, white folks make a heap o fun of de colored folks for alltime prayin. Sometime, say, you was a slave en you git down to pray in de field or by de side of de road. White Marster come ‘long and see a slave on his knees. He say, ‘What you prayin’ ’bout?’ An you say, ‘Oh, Marster I’se jes prayin’ to Jesus cause I wants to go to Heaven when I dies.’ An Marster say, ‘Youse my negro. I git...

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Slave Narrative of Joseph Leonidas Star

Person Interviewed: Joseph Leonidas Star Location: 133 Quebec Place, Knoxville, Tennessee Place of Birth: Knoxville, Tennessee Age: 81? Occupation: Shoemaker, Poet If the poetic strain in the Dunbar Negroes of the south is an inheritance and not “just a gift from On High,” Knoxville, Tennessee’s aged Negro Poet,-born Joseph Leonidas Star,-but prominently known in the community as “Lee” Star, Poet, Politician and Lodge Man,-thinks that Georgia’s poetic genius Paul Lawrence Dunbar, “maybe took his writin’ spells” from him. “My grandfather and Paul Lawrence Dunbar’s grandfather was cousins. He were a much younger man than I am, for I was eighty-one years old the twenty-sixth of December, 1937. So I reckon I give it down to my kin-man. But it seem to me, that Poets is just born thataway. Po’try is nothin’ but Truth anyway, and it’s Truth was sets us free. And that makes me a free-born citizen bothways and every ways. I were born free. I were always happy-natured and I expect to die thataway. One of my poems is named, ‘Be Satisfied!’ and I say in it that if a man’s got somethin’ to eat, and teeth to bite, he should be satisfied. You cant take your goods with you. Old man Rockefeller, when he died here awhile back, went away from here ‘thout his hat and shoes. That’s the way its goin’ to be with all...

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Slave Narrative of Samuel Sutton

Interviewer: Miriam Logan Person Interviewed: Samuel Sutton Location: Lebanon, Ohio Place of Birth: Garrett County Kentucky Date of Birth: 1854 Miriam Logan, Lebanon, Ohio Warren County, Dist. 2 July 2, 1937 Interview with SAMUEL SUTTON, Ex Slave. Born in Garrett County, Kentucky, in 1854 (drawing of Sutton) [TR: no drawing found] “Yes’em, I sho were bo’n into slavery. Mah mothah were a cook-(they was none betteah)-an she were sold four times to my knownin’. She were part white, for her fathah were a white man. She live to be seventy-nine yeahs an nine months old.” “Ah was bo’n in Garrett County, but were raised by ol’ Marster Ballinger in Knox County, an’ ah don remember nothin ’bout Garrett County.” When Lincoln was elected last time, I were about eight yeahs ol’.” “Ol’ Marster own ’bout 400-acres, n’ ah don’ know how many slaves-maybe 30. He’d get hard up fo money n’ sell one or two; then he’d get a lotta work on hands, an maybe buy one or two cheap,-go ‘long lak dat you see.” He were a good man, Ol’ Mars Ballinger were-a preacher, an he wuk hisse’f too. Ol’ Mis’ she pretty cross sometime, but ol’ Mars, he weren’t no mean man, an ah don’ ‘member he evah whip us. Yes’em dat ol’ hous is still standin’ on the Lexington-Lancaster Pike, and las time I know, Baby...

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Biographical Sketch of Council P. Cates

Council P. Cates, a substantial farmer of Lake County, is the son of John A. and Susan (Box) Cates; he was born February 6,1855, in what is now Lake County; was raised on a farm, and had the best educational advantages the State afforded, having completed his education at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. After leaving college he was for a while salesman at James Cronan’s store, but it was soon closed, and he commenced farming, but in a short time sold out and went to Texas, and after staying a year there he returned to Lake County. In 1878 he married Anna E. Darnall, born February 16, 1852, and they have two sons and two daughters. Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Cates belong to any church. In politics he is a democrat. For three years he has been a member of the county court, and was elected to fill out an unexpired term as sheriff; he is now school commissioner. A short time after his marriage Mr. Cates settled on the farm where he now lives; he has 160 acres of the finest land in the county, and is soliciting agent of The Mississippi Valley Transportation Company. He has been a resident of Lake County for thirty years, and is well known as an expert in bird hunting; he owns one of the finest guns in the country,...

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Biography of Marion C. Early

Marion C. Early is the son of George G. and Mary A. Early. His father, George G. Early, was born near Norfolk, Virginia, July 13, 1819, and while still a boy removed with his mother to Knox county, Tennessee. His mother, Mary A. (Brittain) Early, was born near Lenoir City, London county, Tennessee, February 23, 1827. His parents later removed to Polk county, Missouri, where on a farm the subject of this sketch was reared. In a log schoolhouse there was held each year a four months’ term of school and this he attended until past nineteen, when he entered the Southern Baptist College at Boliver, Polk county, Missouri, which he attended one year; thereafter he entered the preparatory department of Drury College, Springfield, Missouri, which institution he attended for several years but did not graduate. While attending college he earned his own way. In 1892 he entered the law department of Washington University, St. Louis, and while pursuing the law course he earned all his expenses by working in the law library. June 14, 1894, he was graduated with the degree of LL. B. and on June 18, 1894, was admitted to the bar in St. Louis and immediately entered the law office of Kehr & Tittmann, Wainwright building, St. Louis. In the same building since that date and without interruption he has devoted his whole time to...

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Biography of James Claiborn McNair

JAMES CLAIBORN McNAIR. The subject of this sketch is an intelligent and enterprising gentleman, who from boyhood has been interested in agricultural pursuits. He is a thorough master of his business, has spent many years of his life in developing the country, and is now in comfortable circumstances. He was born in Knox County, Tennessee, August 24, 1822, a son of Col. Jack and Mary Ann (Sherertz) McNair, who were born in Sullivan County, Tennessee, in July, 1784 and February 5, 1803, respectively, and were married in Knox County, July 12, 1821. They removed to the Cherokee Nation, now Bradley County, Tennessee, and in 1851 to Union County, Illinois, where the father died in October, 1852. His widow and children then removed to Pleasant Hill, Missouri. and in this State the mother still resides at the advanced age of ninety-one years, her home being with her son James. The father was a well-to-do farmer, liberal and generous in the use of his means, and was proverbially kind-hearted and liberal in his views. He was captain of a company during the War of 1812 and some of the Indian wars, afterward he was colonel of militia, and during the war with the Creek Indians acted in the perilous capacity of a spy. His father, James McNair, was one of the pioneers of east Tennessee, in which State he died; he...

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Biography of Maj. Charles Galloway

In the veins of the gentleman whose name heads this sketch flows sterling Scotch blood, for his paternal grandfather, James Galloway, was born in the land of ” thistles and oatmeal,” of Scotch parents. He immigrated to this country from the land of his birth in early manhood and later settled in the district known as the old Crab Orchard, Kentucky He was the founder of the family in this country, and eventually passed from life in Knox County, Tennessee He was one of the pioneers of that State, was active in its development, and took part in a number of engagements with the Indians, when his home and that of his neighbors was threatened. Politically he is a Democrat. He reared a family of four sons and five daughters, Jesse Galloway, the father of the subject of this sketch, being one of the former and a native of the “dark and bloody ground.” He was taken to Tennessee when quite small, and after residing there until about sixty years of age he removed to Indiana, and in 1839 became a resident of Barry County, Missouri, of which place he was a resident until his death ten years later. Like his father before him he was a Democrat, and also like him he was active in assisting in the settlement of his section, which at that time was in...

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Biography of Capt. Alfred M. Julian

Among the many prominent, enterprising and successful citizens of Springfield, Missouri, whose biography it is a pleasure to give among the honored ones of that city, is the pioneer attorney, Capt. Alfred M. Julian, who has been a resident of Springfield since the year 1838. Over eighty years have passed over the head of this venerable man, leaving their impress in the whitening hair and lined features, but while the outward garments of the soul show the wear and tear of years, the man himself is richer and nobler and grander for the experience that each successive decade has brought him. Honorable and upright in every walk of life, his long career has been without blemish or blot to mar its whiteness. Capt. Julian was born in Knox County, Tennessee, August 7, 1813, and was a son of John and Lucretia Julian, natives of North Carolina and England, respectively. The Julian family is of French origin and settled in America during the seventeenth century, in South Carolina. John Julian, father of subject, was a representative man of his county in North Carolina, and took a prominent part in all matters of moment. In politics he was a Whig. The mother was of Scotch descent, and her ancestors came to America at a period antedating the Revolutionary War, some of them taking a prominent part in that struggle. The Julian...

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Biographical Sketch of Harry Elmer Duff

Duff, Harry Elmer; manufacturer; born, Bloomington, Ill., July 23, 1873; son of Jos. G. and Mary Ellen Lowdon Duff; graduated from the University of Tennessee, in 1893, taking Bachelor of Arts degree; in 1902, graduated from the New York Law School, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws; in 1894, came to Ohio, and became identified in a manufacturing business, which a few years later was purchased by the American Sheet Tin Plate Co.; since that time, has been continuously associated with that corporation; local sales representative of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Co.; vice pres. Union Metal Mfg. Co.; Canton, O.; member Mt. Olive Chapter, No. 189, Royal Arch Masons; Forest City Commandery, No. 40, Knights Templar; member University, Athletic and Manufacturer’s...

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Biography of John Norval Sherman, M. D.

John Norval Sherman, M. D. Although one of the younger physicians of Neosho County, Dr. John Norval Sherman, of Thayer, has gained the confidence and support of the public by reason of his thorough training for his profession and his fidelity to the ethics of the medical fraternity. He came to his present field of activity in 1916, with five years of experience behind him, and has already built up what promises to be a lucrative and representative practice. Doctor Sherman was born July 11, 1884, at Lafayette, Madison County, Ohio, and belongs to a family which originally came to America from England and settled in New York before the War of the Revolution. His grandfather was William Sherman, who was born in 1825, in the Empire State, from when he went to Kentucky, then to Scioto County, Ohio, and later to Madison County, Ohio, his death occurring in 1885, at Irvin Station, Ohio. He was a pioneer cattle man of the Buckeye State and a good and loyal citizen who served the Union as a soldier during the Civil war. A. W. Sherman, the father of Dr. J. N. Sherman, was born January 10, 1850, at Columbus, Ohio, and was reared in Scioto County, that state. As a young man he went to Madison County, where he was married and engaged in farming until 1888, when he removed...

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