Location: British Columbia Canada

Chehalis Tribe

Chehalis Indians. Chehalis actually refers to two distinct peoples. One group of tribes residing on the Chehalis River in Washington, another tribe, a sub-tribe of the Cowichan First Nation residing along the Harrison River in British Columbia. We provide both below.

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Senijextee Tribe

Senijextee Indians. A Salish tribe formerly residing on both sides of Columbia River from Kettle falls to the Canadian boundary; they also occupied the valley of Kettle River; Kootenay River form its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow Lakes, British Columbia.  In 1909 those in the United States numbered 342 on the Colville Reservation,...

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Semiahmoo Tribe

Semiahmoo Indians. A Salish tribe living about the bay of the same in north west Washington and south west British Columbia.  In 1843 they numbered about 300 and in 1909 there were 38 of the tribe on the Canadian...

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Ntlakyapamuk Tribe

Ntlakyapamuk Indians. One of the four great Salish tribes inhabiting the interior of British Columbia and popularly called Thompson Indian from the river on which a large part of them live. Internally they are divided into the Lower Thonlpsons living from a short distance below Spuzzum on Fraser river, nearly to the village of Cisco, and the Upper Thompson, whose towns extend from tile latter point nearly to Lillooet on the Fraser, to within a short distance of Ashcroft on the Thompson, and over all of Nicola valley. The Upper Thompsons are subdivided by Teit into 4 minor bands, the Lytton band, the Nicola band, the Spences Bridge band, and the Upper Fraser band. In addition the following subdivisions are mentioned: Ainslie Creek Boothroyds Canoe Lake Indians Cooks Ferry Rhaap Skowtous Snakaim Total population 1,826 in 1902, 1,776 in 1906. The following list of villages was obtained principally from Teit: Villages of the Lower Thompsons: Chetawe Kalulaadlek Kapachichin Kapaslok Kilmus Kleaukt Koiaum Nkakim Nkattsim Nkoiam Noieltsi Npiktim Ntsuwiek Sintaktl Skohwak Skuzis Skwauvik Spaim Spuzzum Stahehani Suk Tagwayaum Tikwalus Tliktlaketin Tzauamuk Villages of the Lytton band: Anektettim Cisco Kittsawat Natkelptetenk Nchekchekokenk Nehowmean Nikaomin Nkoikin Nkya Noöt Npuichin Ntlaktlakitin Staiya Stryne. Tlkamcheen Tuhezep Villages of the Upper Fraser band: Ahulka Nesikeep Nkaktko Ntlippaem Skekaitin Tiaks Villages of the Spences Bridge band: Atchitchiken Klukluuk Nkamchin Nkoeitko Nokem Nskakaulten Ntekem Nukaatko Pekaist Pemainus...

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Chilliwack Tribe

Chilliwack Indians, Chilliwack First Nation, Chilliwack People. A Salish tribe on a river of the same name in British Columbia, now speaking the Cowichan dialect, though anciently Nooksak according to Boas. Pop. 313 in 1902. Their villages, mainly on the authority of Hill-Tout, are: Atselits Chiaktel Kokaia Shlalki Siraialo Skaukel Skway Skwealets Stlep Thaltelich Tsoowahlie Yukweakwioose The Canada Indian Affairs Reports give Koquapilt and Skwah (distinct from Skway), and Boas gives Keles, which are not identifiable with any of the...

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Kutenai Tribe

Kutenai Indians (corrupted form, possibly by way of the language of the Siksika, of Kútonâqa, one of their names for themselves). A people forming a distinct linguistic stock, the Kitunahan family of Powell, who inhabit parts of south east British Columbia and north Montana and Idaho, from the lakes near the source of Columbia river to Pend d’Oreille lake. Their legends and traditions indicate that they originally dwelt east of the Rocky mountains, probably in Montana, whence they were driven westward by the Siksika, their hereditary enemies. The two tribes now live on amicable terms, and some intermarriage has taken place. Before the buffalo disappeared from the plains they often had joint hunting expeditions. Recollection of the treatment of the Kutenai by the Siksika remains, however, in the name they give the latter, Sahantla (‘bad people’). They entertained also a bad opinion of the Assiniboin (Tlutlamaeka, ‘cat-throats’), and the Cree (Gutskiawe, ‘liars’). Kutenai Tribe Language The Kutenai language is spoken in two slightly differing dialects, Upper and Lower Kutenai. A few uncertain points of similarity in grammatical structure with the Shoshonean tongues seem to exist. The language is incorporative both with respect to the pronoun and the noun object. Prefixes and suffixes abound, the prefix aq(k)– in nouns occurring with remarkable frequency. As in the Algonquian tongues, the form of a word used in composition differs from that which...

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Tsilkotin Tribe

Tsilkotin Indians, Tsilkotin People, Tsilkotin First Nation (‘people of young-man’s river’). An Athapascan tribe of British Columbia, occupying a territory lying chiefly in the valley of Chilcotin River at about lat. 52°. Their nearest relatives are the Takulli, or Carriers, whose territory is adjacent on the north, and who are the only Athapascan people with whom they come in contact. Toward the west a pass leads through the Coast range to Bellacoola, and intercourse with the tribe of that name, which was formerly frequent 1see Notuntlun, is still kept up to some extent. In early days there was also some communication with the Kwakiutl of Knights Inlet on the south west. On the east the Tsilkotin are separated from the Shuswap by Fraser river, and do not hold very intimate relations with that people. In earlier times the two tribes were constantly at war, the Tsilkotin invading their country and penetrating as far as Similkarneen Valley, whose inhabitants are descended from the invaders, who compelled the Salish to make peace and permit intermarriage. Even today there is a decided undercurrent of suspicion between the Tsilkotin and the Shuswap. Toward the south their nearest neighbors are the Lillooet, but contact between the two tribes is slight. In former times, and down to about 1865, the center of territory and population of the Tsilkotin was Anahem Lake; and from here they covered a...

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Sekani Tribe

Sekani Indians, Sekani First Nation, Sekani People (‘dwellers on the rocks’). A group of Athapascan tribes living in the valleys of upper Peace river and its tributaries and on the west slope of the Rocky mountains, British Columbia. Morice says they were formerly united into one large tribe, but on account of their nomadic habits have gradnally separated into smaller distinct tribes having no affiliation with one an other. Harmon 1Harmon, Jour., 190, 1820 said that they came front east of the Rocky Mountains, where they formed a part of the Tsattine. Gallattin 2Gallattin, Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 20, 1836 gave their habitat as the headwaters of Peace river. Dunn 3Dunn, Hist. Oreg., 79, 1844 located them in the mountains near Nahanni River. Wilkes 4Wilkes, U. S. Explor. Exped., iv, 451, 1845 said they ranged about Ft Simpson, east of the Taeulliand beyond the Rocky mountains. McLean 5McLean, Hudson’s Bay 1, 235, 1849 found some at McLeod lake in 1849. Richardson 6Richardson, Arct Voy., II, 31, 1851 placed them between Stikine and Skeena rivers. Taylor 7Taylor, Cal. Farmer, July 19, 1862 described them as being in the mountains between McLeod and Connolly lakes. According to Hind 8Hind, Labrador Penin., II, 261, 1863 they inhabited the foot of the Rocky mountains north west of Peace River and a part of New Caledonia west of the Rocky Mountains., resorting to Fts Dunvegan,...

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Haida Tribe

Haida Indians, Haida Nation (Xa’ida, ‘people’). The native and popular name for the Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands., British Columbia, and the south end of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, comprising the Skittagetan family. By the natives themselves the term may be applied generally to any human being or specifically to one speaking the Haida language. Some authors have improperly restricted the application of the tend to the Queen Charlotte islanders, calling the Alaskan Haida, Kaigani. Several English variants of this word owe their origin to the fact that a suffix usually accompanies it in the native language, making it Hā’dē in one dialect and Haidaga’i in the other. On the ground of physical characteristics the Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian peoples should be grouped together.  Language and social organization indicate still closer affinities between the Haida and Tlingit. According to their own traditions the oldest Haida towns stood on the east shore, at Naikum and on the broken coast of Moresby island. Later a portion of the people moved to the west coast, and between 150 and 200 years ago a still larger section, the Kaigani, drove the Tlingit from part of Prince of Wales island and settled there. Although it is not impossible that the Queen Charlotte islands were visited by Spaniards during the 17th century, the first certain account of their discovery is that by Ensign...

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Kwakiutl Tribe

Kwakiutl Indians, Kwakiutl People, Kwakiutl First Nation (according to their own folk etymology the name signifies ‘smoke of the world’, but with more probability it means ‘beach at the north side of the river’). In its original and most restricted sense this term is applied to a group of closely related tribes or septs living in the neighborhood of Ft Rupert, British Columbia. These septs are the Guetela, Komkutis, Komoyue, and Walaskwakiutl, and their principal village Tsahis, surrounding Ft Rupert. Other former towns were Kalokwis, Kliksiwi, Noohtamuh, Tsaite, and Whulk, of which the last two were summer villages shared with the Nimkish during the salmon season. Those who encamped at Tsaite belonged to the Komoyue sept. In comparatively recent times a portion of the Kwakiutl separated from the rest and are known as Matilpe. These and the Komoyue are enumerated separately by the Canadian department of Indian Affairs, thus limiting the term Kwakiutl, to the Guetela alone. The population of the Kwakiutl proper in 1904 was 163. In more extended senses the term Kwakiutl is applied to one of the two great division of the Wakashan linguistic stock (the other being the Nootka), and to a dialect and a subdialect under this. The following is a complete classification of the Kwakuitl divisions and subdivisions, based on the investigations of Boas: Haisla Dialect: Kitamat and Kitlope. Heiltsilk Dialect: Bellabella, China Hat, Nohuntsitk,...

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Etchareottine Tribe

Etchareottine Indians, Etchareottine Nation (‘people dwelling in the shelter’). An Athapascan tribe occupying the country of Great Slave lake and upper Mackenzie river to the Rocky mountains, including the lower Liard valley, British America. Their range extends from Hay river to Ft Good Hope, and they once lived on the shores of Lake Athabasca and in the forests stretching northward to Great Slave lake. They were a timid, pacific people, called ‘the people sheltered by willows’ by the Chipewyan, indicating a riparian fisher folk. Their Cree neighbors, who harried and plundered them and carried them off into bondage, called them Awokanak, ‘slaves,’ an epithet which in its French and English forms came to be the name under which they are best known. Early in the 18th century they were dispossessed of their home, rich in fish and game, and driven northward to Great Slave lake whither they were still followed by the Cree, known only as Enna, ‘the enemy,’ a name still mentioned with horror as far as Great Bear lake. On the islands where they took refuge a fresh carnage took place. The Thlingchadinneh and Kawchodinneh, who speak the same dialect with them and bear a like reputation for timidity, probably comprehended under the name Awokanak by the Cree, began their northerly migration at the same time, probably under the same impulsion 1Petitot, La Mer Glaciale, 292, 1887. Petitot...

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Bellacoola Tribe

Bellacoola Indians, Bellacoola People, Bellacoola First Nation (Bí’lxula). A coast Salish tribe, or rather aggregation of tribes, on north and south Bentinck arm, Dean inlet, and Bellacoola river, British Columbia. This name is that given them by the Kwakiutl, there being no native designation for the entire people. They form the northernmost division of the Salishan stock, from the remaining tribes of which they are separated by the Tsilkotin and the Kwakiutl. In the Canadian reports on Indian affairs the name is restricted by the separation of the Tallion and the Kinisquit (people of Dean inlet), the whole being called the Tallion nation. The population in 1902 was 311. The chief divisions mentioned are the Kinisquit, Noothlakimish, and Nuhalk. The gentes of the Bellacoola without reference to the tribal divisions are: Hamtsit Ialostimot Koökotlane Smoen Spatsatlt Tlakaumoot Tumkoaakyas The following are mentioned as gentes of the Nuhalk division: Keltakkaua Potlas Siatlhelaak Spukpukolemk Tokoaïs The Bellacoola villages (chiefly after Boas) are: Aseik Asenane Atlklaktl Koapk Koatlna Komkutis Noutchaoff Nuiku Nukaakmats Nukits Nusatsem Nuskek Nuskelst Nutltleik Osmakmiketlp Peisela Sakta Satsk Selkuta Senktl Setlia Slaaktl Snutele Snutlelatl Sotstl Stskeitl Stuik Talio Tkeiktskune Tskoakkane...

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Biographical Sketch of Charles Carpenter

CHARLES CARPENTER. – Mr. Carpenter was born in Chattendon county, Vermont, February 1, 1838. He was the third son in a family of eight. Orrin and Jane (Basut) Carpenter were his parents. When thirteen years old he went with his parents to Franklin county, New York, and there received his education. In 1859 he came in company with his brothers J.W. and Henry, to California. They came via the Isthmus of Panama, and on the Pacific side took passage in the older steamer John L. Stevens for San Francisco. While in California Mr. Carpenter was engaged in various occupations, according to necessity or opportunity. Much of his time was spent in the schoolroom. The year 1864 found him in British Columbia, spending the winter in Victoria. In the spring of 1865 he joined his brother George, who was overseeing the construction of a railroad to the Cariboo mines. Here he engaged in driving and teaming, making as much as fourteen hundred dollars per month. Upon the completion of the road he went into the mines, and occupied himself for a few months. He then decided to make a change in his work and proceeded to embark in the stock business. He accordingly went to Eastern Washington in 1868, and located on his present ranch of one hundred and sixty acres, four miles west of North Yakima. This continues to...

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Biography of Sir James Douglas, K. C. B.

SIR JAMES DOUGLAS, K.C.B. – The first governor of British Columbia is worthy of more than a passing notice in this work. With a peculiar though undesigned poetical fitness, he first came to the land of his fame on the famous old steamer Beaver. On her he came to Esquaimalt harbor in the summer of 1849. He had gone from Fort Vancouver, where he had been head clerk, to be chief factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company in British Columbia. Having founded the city of Victoria, he made his home there, conducting with great ability the work of the company. In 1849 the first governor, Blanchard, had arrived from England; but owing to ill health he resigned in two years and returned home. Douglas was appointed his successor, and took the oath of office in November, 1851. His first official act was to summon all the Indians around Victoria, and pay them in full for their lands. This was one of the numerous similar acts which showed the strong sense of justice possessed by the man. On the other hand, he conducted a most vigorous administration. He restrained outbreaks with a strong hand, and brought offenders to justice with prompt impartiality. The result was that acts of injustice and violence were rare, though a ruffian horde from California tried to manage affairs to suit themselves. But the Governor was...

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