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Collection: Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico

Wiyot Tribe

A small tribe, whose name Powell adopted for the Wishoskan linguistic family, on the coast of North California about Humboldt Bay. The word seems to be a misapplication of their own name for their Athapascan neighbors, Wishashk. Wiyot, which has sometimes been used as an equivalent, is therefore probably a better term than Wishosk, though not entirely exact.

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Big Valley Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Big Valley Tribal members are descendants of the Xa-Ben-Na-Po Band of Pomo Indians that historically have inhabited the Clear Lake area of Lake County, California. In 1851, Big Valley Pomo leaders met with a representative of the President of the United States and all agreed upon a treaty that would allow them to live in peace and harmony with the new settlers coming to the area. This treaty established a reservation with a habitable area of approximately 72 square miles on the South side of Clear...

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Pomo Basket Making

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Pomo baskets were used for many practical purposes. The first use of a basket was a baby basket which was well made, and could be transported by placing it on the back and using a net and forehead band, packed at the side, or in the arms. Baskets were also used for food preparation. The weave of this basket was so tight that it would hold water. When water was added the basket material would swell, ensuring that it would continue to hold water. One would...

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Norridgewock Tribe

A tribe of the Abenaki confederacy, their territory embraced the Kennebec Valley nearly to the river’s mouth. Their closest relationship was with the Penobscot, Arosaguntacook, and Wewenoc Indians.

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Indian Tribe Structure

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Among the North American Indians a tribe is a body of persons who are bound together by ties of consanguinity and affinity and by certain esoteric ideas or concepts derived from their philosophy concerning the genesis and preservation of the environing cosmos, and who by means of these kinship ties are thus socially, politically, and religiously organized through a variety of ritualistic, governmental, and other institutions, and who dwell together occupying a definite territorial area, and who speak a common language or dialect. From a great variety of circumstances-climatic, topographic, and alimental-the social, political, and religious institutions of the tribes of North American Indians differed in both kind and degree, and were not characterized by a like complexity of structure; but they did agree in the one fundamental principle that the organic units of the social fabric were based on kinship and its interrelations, and not on territorial districts or geographical areas. In order to constitute a more or less permanent body politic or tribe, a people must be in more or less continuous and close contact, and possess a more or less common mental content-a definite sum of knowledge, beliefs, and sentiments which largely supplies the motives for their rites and for the establishment and development of their institutions, and must also exhibit mental endowments...

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I – Florida Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico. Iniahico A principal Apalachee village in 1539, near the site of Tallahassee, Florida. Itafi A district of Florida where one of the Timuquanan dialects was spoken. 1Pareja (ca. 1614), Arte Leng. Timuq., xxi, 1886. Itara A former village in North Florida, visited by De Soto’s troops in 1539. Ivitachuco A former principal town of the Apalachee, possibly near the present Wacahotee, Florida. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Pareja (ca. 1614), Arte Leng. Timuq., xxi,...

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Biography of Bloody Knife

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now A famous Arikara warrior and chief, who was long in the Government service. His father was a Hunkpapa Sioux and his mother an Arikara. He was born on the Hunkpapa Reservation, North Dakota, but as he approached manhood his mother determined to return to her people and he accompanied her. Prior to the building of the Northern Pacific R. R. the mail for Ft Stevenson, North Dakota, and other Missouri River points, was carried overland from Ft Totten. The high country east of the Missouri was...

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Algonquian Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Atchaterakangouen. An Algonquian tribe or band living in the interior of Wisconsin in 1672, near the Mascouten and...

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Creek Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Chukotalgi (toad). An extinct Creek clan, closely affiliated with the Toad or Sopaktalgi clan. Fusualgi. The Forest Bird (?) clan of the Creeks Hlahloalgi (fish people). An extinct Creek clan. Hutalgalgi (hútali ‘wind ‘, algi people). A principal Creek clan. Isfanalgi. An extinct clan of the Creeks, said by Gatschet to be seemingly analogous to the Ishpani phratry and clan of the Chickasaw. Itamalgi. A Creek clan. Itchhasualgi (itchhasua ‘beaver’, algi ‘people’). A Creek clan. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 155, 1884. Itchualgi (itchu ‘deer’, algi ‘people’). A Creek...

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Navaho Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Bithani (folded arms). A Navaho clan. Dsihlthani (brow of the mountain). A Navaho clan. Dsihltlani (base of the mountain). A Navaho...

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Unknown Tribes of Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. We have listed these bands by location as we can not find any other connection to tribes. Mississippi Amicoa. Mentioned by Coxe (Carolana, 14, 1741) as a tribe on the Honabanou, an imaginary river entering the Mississippi from the west, 15 leagues above the mouth of the Ohio. It is probably an imaginary tribe. Amilcou. Mentioned by Iberville in connection with the Biloxi, Moctobi, Huma, Paskagula, etc., as a small tribe North of the lower Mississippi in 1699 (Margry, Dec., iv, 155, 1880); not identified. Nevada Agaihtikara (fish-eaters). A division of the Paviotso living in 1866 in the vicinity of Walker River and lake and Carson River and lake, Nevada. They were under Chief Oderie and numbered about 1,500. North Carolina Akawenchaka  A small band that formerly lived in North Carolina, now numbering about 20 individuals, incorporated with the Tuscarora in New York. They are not regarded as true Tuscarora. Hewitt, Onondaga MS., B. A. E., 1888. Texas Acubadaos. A tribe known to Cabeza de Vaca (Smith transl., 84, 1851) during his sojourn in Texas, 1527-34, as living “in the rear” of or more...

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Patchoag Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Cannetquot. Described by Thompson (Long Id., 293, 1839) as a semi-tribe or family occupying in 1683 the E. side of Connetquot r., about Patchogue, in Suffolk co., Long Island, N. Y. In another place he includes this territory as part of that belonging to the Patchoag. The name seems to be a dialectal form of Connecticut, (J....

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Snoqualmu Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Snoqualmu Tribe, Snoqualmu  Indians. A Salish division which formerly occupied the upper branches of a river of the same name in Washington and which numbered 225 in 1857. The remnant of these Indians is now on Tuliap Reservation, with other broken tribes. Sdok´-al-bíhw – McCaw, Puyallup MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1885 (Puyallup name). Sdo-qual-bush – Mallet in Ind. Aff. Rep., 198, 1877. Sno-kwal-miyükh – Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 342, 1877 (full form of name: miukh= locative) Snokwalmu – Gibbs, ibid., 179. Snoqualamick – Lane in Sen. Ex. Doc. 52, 31st Cong., 1st sess., 173, 1850. Sno-qual-a-mick – Jones (1853) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 5, 1857. Sno-qual-a-muhe – Starling in Ind. Aff. Rep., 171, 1852. Sno-qual-a-muke – Ibid., 170. Snoqualimich – Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes V, 701, 1855. Sno-qualimick – Lane in Sen. Doc. 52, 31st Cong., 1st sess., 167, 1850. Snoqualimick – Ibid., 174. Snoqualimie – Stevens in H. R. Ex. Doc. 37, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 33, 1857. Sno-qual-mie – Fay in Ind. Aff. Rep., 238, 1858. Snoquálmoo – U. S. Ind. Treaties, 378, 1873. Sno-qual-mook – Gibbs in Pac. R. R. Rep., 1, 436,...

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