The Sacs, Sauk, or Saukie, as it has been variously writ ten a word meaning white clay and the Foxes, or Outagamie, or more properly the Musquakkink, (Red Clay), are now as one tribe. They were first discovered settled about Green Bay, Wis., but their possessions extended westward, so that the larger part was beyond the Mississippi. They partly subdued and admitted into their alliance the Iowa, a Dakota tribe. By 1804 they had ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi, and settled on the Des Moines River (see the 1804 Sauk and Fox treaty), moving subsequently to the Osage, and most of these finally to the Indian Territory. In 1822 the united bands numbered 8,000, but are now reduced to a little more than 1,000, of whom 341 are still in Iowa, 430 in the Indian Territory, 98 in Nebraska, and about 200 in Kansas. The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi in. the Indian Territory have a reservation of 483,840 acres. Un successful attempts have been made lately to induce those in Kansas to join them. Those in Iowa ate living on a section of land purchased by themselves. The Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri have 4,803 acres of land in Nebraska, but it is pro posed to remove them soon to the Indian Territory.
List of illustrations
677, Keokuk. Watchful Fox.
A chief of the Kiscoquah band of Sacs or Sauk, and head chief of the combined Sacs and Foxes.
“The entire absence of records by which the chronology of events might be ascertained, renders it impossible to trace, in the order of their date, the steps by which this remarkable man rose to the chief place of his nation, and acquired a commanding and permanent influence over his people.
“Keokuk is in all respects a magnificent savage. Bold, enterprising, and impulsive, he is also politic, and possesses an intimate knowledge of human nature, and a tact which enables him to bring the resources of his mind into prompt operation. His talents as a military chief and civil ruler are evident from the discipline^which exists among his people.” McKinney.
678, G81-2, 705. Keokuk, Jr.
Son of the preceding, and succeeded him in the chieftainship.
679, 084. Charles Keokuk.
Grandson of Keokuk, sr.
683. Keokuk, Jr., and Charles Keokuk.
689. Mo-less and Sac-A-Pe.
692. Qua-Qua-Ouf-Pe-Ka, or Dead Indian.
693. The Sea
694. Big Bear
401. Ne-Quaw-Ho-Ko. Grey Eyes.
396, 691, 701. Wah-Pah-Nah-Ka-Na Kah. Bear Eating Acorns Up a Tree, or Geo. Gomez.
A Mexican by birth, and interpreter for the Sacs and Foxes since 1858. Was sold to the Comanche when thirteen years of age, but ran away and joined the Kickapoo. Was captured again by the Comanche while he was out with the Kickapoo hunting, but was allowed to escape and rejoin his Indian friends. Drove Government teams for a while between Forts Leaven worth and Kearney. In 1852 joined the Sacs and Foxes, and participated in some of their battles on the plains.
He has been married into the following tribes: Caddo, Kickapoo, Pawnees, Seminoles, Shawnee, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Iowa, and Sacs and Foxes of Missouri; and speaks the languages of the Creeks, Caddo, Comanche, Pottawatomie, Kickapoo, Sac and Fox, Pawnee, Iowa, and Winnebago, besides English and Spanish.
708. Sac Chief.
709. Group Of Sac And Fox Chiefs.
805. Group Of Fox Chiefs.
806. Commissioner Bogy Reading Treaty.
710. Commissioner And Delegation Of Chiefs.
706-7. Groups Of Delegations.