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You research your Indian genealogy using the same technique you would for any other ancestry. Start with yourself and work your way back, no short cuts! Don’t start with Sacagawea, because somebody in your family says you’re related to her, and try to work your way forward. YOU need to step your way backward in time, documenting along the way, because you’ll never know how well the research was done before you.
People research genealogy for several reasons, I do it because I want to know who came before me – your reason may be different. Please try Beginning Genealogy, where there are very basic steps to get you started, including forms. Keep in mind, along the way you may find information you don’t like, none of our families were or are perfect. These stories of my ancestors makes my search more intriguing.
There are some additional facts you need to know in researching your Indian Genealogy:
- Name of the Person
Today we don’t think about our name, our parents gave it to us. Many of our Indian ancestors had only one name. Their surname name was given to them, by agents of the US Government or chosen from a list. Unlike the immigrants to Ellis Island, they were given little choice in their names. If you look at the 1817 Reservation Roll, you will see that many people on that list did not have two names. It would be difficult to prove relationship to anyone on this roll unless your family provided well documented information. Most of the tribes only had an oral history. I am not saying you can’t find them or don’t try, but we are talking about 188 years of research.
- Name of the Person’s Federally-Recognized Tribe
There are 500 plus Indian Tribes today, years ago there were more. If you know approximately where the ancestor lived, you can consult The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton. It provides information about the tribes, sub-tribes, bands, etc. which lived in each state. Handbook of American Indians by Frederick W. Hodge describes over 800 tribes of the United States, many no longer in existence.
- Approximately When the Person Lived
Determining when your ancestor lived has always been difficult to answer. As a general rule subtract 20 years to your birth date to determine that of your parents. Using the year 1941 as your birth year, your parents would be around 1921, grandparents 1901, and gggrandparents 1881. Future generations will find this more difficult with the number of people who are waiting until later in life to start a family. Likewise many of our ancestors were married at a much younger age. Using the above dates, I would read the 1930, 1920, 1900 and 1880 census looking for ancestors. The 1900 Indian Territory Census is available for searching, the first year Indians were clearly listed. For one reason or another many Indian ancestors hid from the census takers. Census Rules are some instructions given to census takers, please read the interesting instructions.
- What State or Territory the Person Lived In
Indian tribes moved freely across the United States, Canada and Mexico. Many had winter and summer residences. More were removed by the US Government to lands far away from their homes. Indian Tribes of North America is an outstanding source of information for determining where many tribes lived.Books on Indian Movement:
- Southern Contacts of the Indians North of the Gulf of Mexico provides information on tribes of Mexico.
- Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi, life on the prairies or mountains with the best built house had to be hard for our ancestors, but consider the Indians of the1800’s.
- Tribal Migrations East of the Mississippi, the tribal movements east of the Mississippi in prehistoric times.
- History of Indian Missions in the United States, the areas of California, Southern States, Middle Atlantic States, New England States, Interior States, The Columbia Region, New Mexico, Arizona, California and Alaska.
- Kansas and Kansans (History of many of the tribes of Kansas)
- Notes on the Creek Porter was at one time head chief of the Creek Nation and Perryman probably accompanied him as his “interpreter”, though both appear to have been able to speak and write English, and most of these notes were originally written down by them.
- Indian Reservations, 1908 A listing by state of Indian Reservations of the US.
- Southeastern United States Indian Research by Jackie Matte, researching your Indian Ancestors in the Southeastern US.
- How to Search, These pages are meant as a guide for researching you Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole ancestors, also known as the Five Civilized Tribes.
Finally, use the Rolls and Census Records, when you have finally put all your other family information together, it will then be time to look at the rolls. Reading the history of each roll will help you better understand how to use the rolls.
Rolls and census presently available on Native American Genealogy:
- Reservation Roll ~ 1817
- Armstrong Roll ~ 1830
- Trail of Tears Roll ~ 1835
- Ha Cubbees Band Muster Roll ~ 1847
- Muster Roll of Big Black River Band ~ 1847
- Old Settler Roll ~ 1851
- Cooper Roll ~ 1855
- Act of Congress Roll ~ 1854
- Enrollment of the Five Civilized Tribes 1896 Applications
- Dawes Final Roll ~ Data Base
- Index to Final Roll ~ 1889~1914
- Flathead Indian Allotments in Montana, 1889
- McKennon Roll ~ 1889
- Wallace Roll ~ 1890
- Kern Clifton Roll ~ 1897
- Guion Miller Roll ~ 1909
- Baker Roll ~ 1924
- Ute Roll ~ 1954
- Census Records
- Free US Indian Census Rolls 1885-1940
- 1832 Creek Census
- 1835 Cherokee East of the Mississippi Census Index
- Census of the First Christian and Orchard Parties of Oneida Indians ~ 1838
- Osage Census – 1842
- Shawnee 1871 Census
- 1880 Cherokee Census
- 1889 Mdewakanton Sioux Census
- 1910 Sioux Census ~ New Jersey
- Field Survey and Individual Indian Report of the Heart Butte District ~ 1921