Chumash Indians

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Chumash Indians. A term originally applied to the Santa Rosa islanders. Also called:

  • Santa Barbara Indians, a popular name.

Chumash Connections. At first considered a distinct linguistic stock, the Chumash are now included in the larger Hokan family. Location.—The Chumash occupied the three northern islands of the Santa Barbara group, the coast from Malibu Canyon to Estero Bay, and extended inland to the range that divides the drainage of the great valley from the coast, except on the west where their frontier was the watershed between the Salinas and the Santa Maria and short coast streams, and on the east where some small fragments had spilled over into part of the most southerly drainage of the San Joaquin-Kern system.

Chumash Subdivisions

  • Barbarefio Chumash, on the coast from Point Conception nearly to Ventura River.
  • Cuyama Chumash, in the valley of Cuyama River and the upper valley of the Santa Maria River.
  • Emigdiano Chumash, beyond the coast range in the southernmost extremity of the great valley of California.
  • Island Chumash, on San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz Islands.
  • Obispefio Chumash, on the coast from a point a little north of Santa Maria River to Salinan territory.
  • Purisimeiio Chumash, on the coast between the lands of the Obispefio and Barbarefio divisions.
  • Santa Ynez Chumash, inland along Santa Ynez River between the Barbarefio and Cuyama divisions.
  • Venturefio, on the coast from the Ventura River to the end of Chumash territory on the southeast and the drainage areas of Ventura River, Calleguas Creek, and most of that of Santa Clara River inland.

Chumash Villages

  • A’hwai (at Ojai).
  • Ala-hulapun, at Santa Ynez Mission.
  • Alka’ash, on the coast west of Santa Barbara.
  • Alpincha, at Santa Barbara.
  • Alwatalam, in the Goleta marsh.
  • Amolomol, on the coast close to Santa Barbara.
  • Amuwu, at Mission Purisima
  • near Santa Ynez River.
  • Anawupu, on a small stream emptying into the Pacific at Gaviota.
  • Antap, near Ventura.
  • Awawilashmu, near the Cafiada del Refugio.
  • Chikachkach, at the mouth of Ventura River.
  • Ch’oloshush, at the west end of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Ch’tishii, on the north shore of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Chwayuk, on the coast west of Ventura River.
  • Elhelel, on the coast east of Santa Barbara.
  • Elhiman, in the Goleta marsh.
  • Hahas, on the north shore of Santa Cruz Island toward the east end.
  • Hanawani, on the south shore of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Halam, on Jalama Creek near the coast.
  • Hanaya, northeast of Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Heliok, on the coast southwest of Goleta.
  • Halo, on the coast south of Goleta.
  • Hipuk, inland on Maliba Creek.
  • Honmoyanshu, near Ventura.
  • Ho’ya or Huya, said to have been the name of a village on Santa Cruz Island.
  • Humkaka, at Point Conception.
  • Ishwa, at the mouth of Santa Clara River.
  • Kachyoyukuch, near Ventura.
  • K’ahu, on the coast between Canada del Refugio and Dos Pueblos Canyon.
  • Kamupau, inland on San Emigdio Creek.
  • Kashiwe, inland northeast of Santa Susana.
  • Kashwa, northeast of Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Kasil, at the mouth of Cafiada del Refugio.
  • Katstayut, on the coast west of Gaviota.
  • Kayewush, inland on Calleguas Creek.
  • Kichtiwun, on the northeast coast of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Kinapuich’, near Ventura.
  • Kohso, a short distance inland from the mouth of Ventura River.
  • Kolok, at Carpinteria.
  • K’shiuk’shiu, on the northeast coast of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Kulalama, near Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Kuyamu, near the mouth of Dos Pueblos Canyon.
  • L’aka’amu, on the north coast of Santa Cruz Island near its west end.
  • L’alalu, on the north coast of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Lapau, on the Canada de los Uvas north of Old Fort Tejon.
  • Liyam, on the south shore of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Lu’upsh, near the east end of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Mahalal, at San Cayetano.
  • Mah’auh, inland near the middle course of Calleguas Creek.
  • Maliwu, at the mouth of Maliba Creek.
  • Mashch’al, on the east coast of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Masuwuk, near Los Alamos.
  • Ma’tilha, inland on Matilija Creek.
  • Mich’iyu, on the coast east of Gaviota.
  • Mikiw, at the mouth of Dos Pueblos Canyon.
  • Mishopshno (near Carpinteria), near Santa Ynez River above Cachuma Creek.
  • Mishtapalwa, near Ventura.
  • Mismatuk, in Arroyo Burro near Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Mispu, on the coast southwest of Santa Barbara.
  • Mitskanakan, at Ventura Misslon.
  • Nupu, at Santa Paula.
  • Nushum, on the coast between Ventura Mission and Carpinteria.
  • Muwu, on the coast near the mouth of Calleguas Creek.
  • Nahayalewa, on the headwaters of Santa Ynez River northwest of Chismahoo Mountain.
  • Nawani, on the west coast of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Niakla, on the north coast of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Nila’Ihuyu, on the south coast of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Nimalala, on the north coast of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Niimkulkiil, on the north coast and near the west end of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Onohwi, on Nojoqui Creek, a branch of Santa Ynez River.
  • Onomyo, at Gaviota.
  • Sahpilil, on the coast southwest of Goleta.
  • Salnobalkaisikw, a short distance west of Ojai.
  • Sati’k’oi, at Saticoy on Santa Clara River.
  • Sek’spe, at Sespe.
  • Shalawa, on the coast north of Santa Barbara.
  • Shawa, on the west coast of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Shimiyi, at Simi on Calleguas Creek.
  • Shisholop, on the coast near Point Conception.
  • Shisholop, a second town of the name at Ventura Mission.
  • Shishwashkui, on the coast south of Rincon Creek.
  • Shtekolo, at the Cienega near Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Shuku, at the mouth of Rincon Creek.
  • Shushuchi, on the coast west of the Cafiada del Refugio.
  • Shuwalashu, on the coast at the lower end of Sycamore Canyon.
  • Siliwihi, on the north coast of Santa Rosa Island.
  • Simo’mo, at the mouth of Calleguas Creek.
  • Sis’a, on Sisar Canyon northwest of Santa Paula.
  • Sitoptopo, inland northeast of Ojai.
  • Siuhtun, at Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Skonon, in Arroyo Burro near Santa Barbara Mission.
  • S’ohmus, inland on the middle course of Calleguas Creek.
  • Swahili, at the eastern point of Santa Cruz Island.
  • Swetete, on the coast east of Santa Barbara.
  • Ta’apu, inland north of Santa Susana.
  • Takuyo, inland on Tecuya Creek, northwest of old Fort Tejon.
  • Tashlipunau, inland on San Emigdio Creek north of San Emigdio Mountains.
  • Teneknes, at Carpinteria.
  • Tenenam, near Santa Barbara Mission. Tokin, near Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Tuhmu’l, on the coast east of Gaviota.
  • Upop, near Point Conception.
  • Ushtahash, inland northwest of Santa Barbara Mission.
  • Wene’me, at Hueneme.
  • Wichachet, on the coast east of the mouth of Calleguas Creek.

Cabrillo’s sixteenth century relation gives the names of a number of villages, part of which Kroeber (1925) has been able to identify, at least with a fair degree of probability, while some are evidently duplications. Eliminating the duplications, we have the following additional village names:

  • Aguin.
  • Anacot.
  • Asimu.
  • Bis.
  • Caacat (or Caacac), though this last may be a synonym for Ciucut (Siuhtun)
  • Gua (or.Quannegua).
  • Maquinanoa.
  • Misinagua.
  • Nacbuc (or Anacbuc).
  • Nocos.
  • Olesino.
  • Opia (or Opistopia).
  • Potoltuc (Paltate, Partocac, or Paltocac)
  • Quiman.
  • Sopono (Misesopono, or Garomisopona).
  • Xotococ.
  • Yutum.

Chumash Population. The number of Chumash has been estimated by Kroeber (1925) at 10,000 in 1770; at the present time a mere remnant is left, given as 38 in the census of 1910 and 14 in that of 1930.

 



MLA Source Citation:

Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953. AccessGenealogy.com. Web. 12 December 2014. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/chumash-indians-2.htm - Last updated on Aug 11th, 2012


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