C- California Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

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A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico.

Caacat. A Chumashan village between Goleta and Pt Concepcion, Cal., in 1542.

Caamancijup (narrows of the arroyos). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist, Mex., 4ths.,v, 189, 1857.

Cachanegtac. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Caddehi (head of the reedy place). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 190, 1857.

Cadecuijtnipa (over the lava mesas). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 188, 1857.

Cadegomo (reedy arroyo). A Cochimi settlement in lat. 26º 10′, not far from the Pacific coast of Lower California, at which the Jesuit mission of La Purisima Conception was established by Father Tamaral in 1718. It contained 130 neophytes in 1767, and in 1745 had 6 dependent villages within 8 leagues. From a statement by Venegas (Hist. Cal., n, 23, 1759) that he “hoped at La Purisima to find greater conveniences both for corn and pasture than at Cadigomo,” it would seem that the Indian village and the mission did not occupy the same site.

Cadeudebet (reeds, or the reedy country, ends here). A rancheria, probably of the Cochimi, under Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, from which it lay about 10 leagues distant, in central Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 188, 1857.

Cahelca (deep pool). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857.

Cahelejyu (brackish water). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857.

Cahelembil (junction of waters). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century; it lay a league from the Pacific coast. Doc. Hist, Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857.

Cahelmet (water and earth). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist, Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857.

Cahuenga. A former Gabrieleno rancheria in Los Angeles co. , Cal.

Cajats. A former Chumashan village near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.

Cajon (Span.: box canyon). A Diegueño settlement about 1850, so called after a mountain pass about 10 m. N. E. of San Diego harbor, s. Cal. Hayes MS. cited by Bancroft, Nat. Races, i, 458, 1882.

Cajpilili. A former Chumashan village near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.

Cajuenche. A Yuman tribe speaking the Cocopa dialect and residing in 1775-76 on the E. bank of the Rio Colorado below the mouth of the Gila, next to the Quigyuma, their rancherias extending s. to about lat. 32º 33′, and into central s. California, about lat. 33º 08′, where they met the Comeya. At the date named the Cajuenche are said to have numbered 3,000 and to have been enemies of the Cocopa (Garcés, Diary, 443, 1900). Of the disappearance of the tribe practically nothing is known, but if they are identical with the Cawina, or Quo-kim, as they seem to be, they had become reduced to a mere remnant by 1851, owing to constant wars with the Yuma. At this date Bartlett reported only 10 survivors living with the Pima and Maricopa, only one of whom understood his native language, which was said to differ from the Pima and Maricopa. Merced, San Jacome, and San Sebastian have been mentioned as Cajuenche rancherias. (F. w. H.)

Camajal. A Diegueño rancheria represented in the treaty of 1852 at Santa Isabel, Cal. H. R. Ex. Doc. 76,34th Cong., 132, 1857.

Camanc-nac-cooya (probably round field of cactus). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857.

Camano-ca-caamano (probably arroyo of the great cord). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purisima mission, Lower California, in the 18th century. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s.,v, 188, 1857.

Campo (Span.: camp). A settlement and reservation of 18 Diegueños, 170 m. from Mission Tule River agency, Cal. The land, comprising 280 acres, is a water less, unproductive tract for which a patent has been issued. Ind. Aff. Rep., 175, 1902.

Canoas, Pueblo de las (Span.: village of the canoes). A former Indian settlement on the California coast, about lat. 34º 27′, in what is within the Chumashan area. Its situation is regarded as having been at or near the present Ventura. See Heylyn, Cosmography, 969, 1703.

Capitan Grande (Span.: great captain or chief) . A Diegueno village in a canyon of upper San Diego r., s. Cal. The tract, comprising 10,253 acres, now forms a reservation of patented land, largely desert. Pop. about 60 in 1883, 118 in 1902. The occupants, classed as Mission Indians, are under the Mission Tule River agency, 130 m. away. Jackson and Kinney, Rep. Miss. Ind., 27, 1883; Ind. Aff. Rep., 175, 1902.

Caprup. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Carascan. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Carises (probably Span, carrizo, reed grass). One of a number of tribes formerly occupying the country from Buena Vista and Carises lakes and Kern r. to the Sierra Nevada and Coast range, Cal. By treaty of June 10, 1851, they reserved a tract between Tejon pass and Kern r., and ceded the remainder of their lands to the United States. Native name unknown. Judging by locality and associations they were probably Mariposan, though possibly Shoshonean. See Barbour (1852) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 256, 1853; Royce in 18th Rep. B. A. E., 782, 1899.

Casalic. A Chumashan village given in Cabrillo’s narrative as near Pueblo de las Canoas (San Buenaventura), Cal., in 1542. It was placed by Taylor at Refugio, near Santa Barbara, and was also so located by the San Buenaventura Indians in 1884.

Cascel. A former Chumashan village near Santa Inez mission, Santa Barbara co., Cal.

Cashwah. A former Chumashan village at La Sinaguita (Cieneguita), about 3 m. N. E. of Santa Barbara mission, Cal. It was still inhabited in 1876, according to Grinnell (inf’n, 1905).

Casnahacmo. A former Chumashan village at Santa Clara ran cho, Ventura co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 4, 1860.

Casunalmo. A former Chumashan village at Rafael Gonzales rancho, Ventura co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 4, 1860.

Cayeguas. A former Chumashan village on the Cayeguas ranch, Ventura co., Cal.

Caymus. A former Yukian Wappo village on the site of the present Yountville, in Napa valley, Cal.

Cazopo. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Cenyowpreskel. A former village of either the Diegueños or Luisenos in the neighborhood of San Luis Rey mission, s. Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 11, 1860.

Cerritos. Apparently a former Yuma rancheria on the s. bank of Gila r., about 10 m. above its mouth; visited by Anza and Font in 1775.

Chachat. A former village connected with San Carlos mission, Cal., and said to have been Esselen. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 20, 1860.

Chagunte. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct, 18, 1861.

Chailkutkaituh. A former Hupa village on or near Trinity r., Cal.

Chainiki. A Karok village on the s. bank of Klamath r. , N. Cal. , about midway between the Trinity and the Salmon.

Chalosas. A former Chumashan village on Santa Cruz id., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.

Chalumu. A Costanoan village formerly situated a mile N. w. of Santa Cruz mission, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860.

Chamkhai. The name, in the upper Clear lake dialect, of a Porno band or village on the E. fork of Russian r. , Cal . (A. L. K.)

Chanech. A Costanoan village formerly situated near the mission of Santa Cruz, Cal., as stated by Friar Olbez in 1819. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860.

Chanigtac. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chapugtac. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chawakoni. A former Karok village on Klamath r., N. Cal.; exact location un known.

Cheindekhotding (place where he was dug up). A Hupa village on Trinity r., Cal.

Chenposel (dwelling below). A tribe of the Patwin division of the Copenhan family, formerly living on lower Cache cr. , Yolo co., Cal. Powers in Cont. N.A. Ethnol., iii, 219, 1877.

Cherkhu. The westernmost Chilula village on Redwood cr., N. w. Cal.

Chesthltishtun. A gens or village of the Tolowa, formerly on the coast of N. California, s. of Smith r.

Chiguau. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chihucchihui. A former Chumashan village in Ventura co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, July 24, 1863.

Chilula (Tsu-lu′-la, from Tsula, the Yurok name for the Bald hills. A small Athapascan division which occupied the lower (N. w. ) portion of the valley of Redwood cr., N. Cal., and Bald hills, dividing it from Klamath valley. They were shut off from the immediate coast by the Yurok, who inhabited villages at the mouth of Redwood cr. The name of the Chilula for themselves is not known; it is probable that like most of the Indians of the region they had none, other than the word for “people.” Above them on Redwood cr. was the related Athapascan group known as Whilkut, or Xoilkut. The Yurok names of some of their villages are Cherkhu, Ona, Opa, Otshpeth, and Roktsho. (A. L. K.)

Chinits. A Karok village on the s. bank of Klamath r., just below Tsofkara, Humboldt co., Cal.

Chipisclin. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chipletac. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chiputca. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chititiknewas (Yokuts name). A former division of the Bankalachi that lived on upper Deer cr., s. E. of Tulare lake, Cal. (A. L. K.)

Chiuchin. A former Chumashan village near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.

Choinimni (pl. Chuyenmani). A Mariposan tribe on Kings r., at or near the mouth of Mill cr., Cal. Powers calls them Chainimaini and says they lived downstream from the Tisechu and above the Iticha. Only a few families are left.

Choinok. A small Mariposan tribe, nearly extinct, which formerly inhabited the locality just s. of where the town of Visalia now stands, in Tulare co., Cal.

Chokishgna. A former Gabrieleño rancheria in Los Angeles co., Cal., at a locality later called Jaboneria.

Chokuyem. The name probably applied originally to a single village somewhere in Petaluma valley, Sonoma co., Cal. It gained a wider significance, being used by Gibbs to designate all the Indians in the region from San Rafael mission N. to Santa Rosa and E. to Suscol, and by others in a still broader sense as the name of a division of what they termed the Olamentke, and comprising all the Indians in Petaluma and Sonoma valleys. This latter broad significance is probably due to the association at Sonoma mission of the original Chokuyem people with those from various other villages, (S. A. B. )

Cholicus. A former Chumashan village near Santa Inez mission, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Cholosoc. A former Chumashan village near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.

Cholovone. A tribe or group of tribes constituting a portion of the Mariposan family, inhabiting San Joaquin valley, Cal., and occupying a strip of territory along the E. bank of San Joaquin r. in the vicinity of Stockton, from the Tuolumne to about Calaveran r. They were thus separated by Moquelumnan tribes from the main body of the family farther s. Little is known about them, and they are probably extinct. A Yokuts vocabulary (Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in. 571, 1877), from Takin or Dents Ferry on Stanislaus r., at the foot of the Sierra, may be from Cholovone territory. The following divisions or sub-tribes of the Cholovone are mentioned: Chupcan, Sawani, Yachikamni, Yachimese, and Yukolunmi. The following are mentioned as Cholovone villages: Bantas, Heluta, Hosmite, Khulpuni, Mitutra, Pashashe, Takin, Tammakan, and Tawi. Somewhat doubtful are Lakisumne and Tuolumne, which may have been Moqnelumnan.

Chomchadila (pitch-pine Powers; or white-pine ridge Kroeber) . A former Porno village on the mesa s. w. of Calpella, Mendocino co., Cal.

Choromi. A Costanoan village formerly situated near Santa Cruz mission, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860.

Chosho. A Chumashan village formerly on Santa Cruz id., Cal., probably E. of Prisoner’s harbor.

Chowigna. A Gabrieleno rancheria formerly at Palos Verdes, Los Angeles co., Cal. Ried (1852) quoted by Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 8, 1860.

Chuah. A former Chumashan village at La Goleta, 6 m. from Santa Barbara mission, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 4, 1860.

Chuchictac. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chuemdu. A Nishinam village formerly existing in the valley of Bear r., Cal.

Chukaimina. A Mariposan tribe formerly near Kings r., Cat. According to Powers (Cont. X. A. Ethnol., in, 370, 1877) they were in Squaw valley, Fresno co., and here Merriam found a few families in 1903.

Chukchansi. A Mariposan tribe, forming one of the northern divisions of the family, the remnants of which now occupy the foothill country between Fresno cr. on the x. and San Joaquin r. on the s., from a little above Fresno Flat down to the site of old Millerton, Cal. (Merriam in Science, xix, 915, June 17, 1904). In 1861 they w r ere on Fresno reserve and numbered 240. Naiakawe, a noted prophet about 1854, was a member of this tribe, and Sloknich was chief about the same time. (A. L. K.)

Chulare. A former village of the Chalone division of the Costanoan family, situated in the vicinity of the present Guadalupe rancho, near Soledad mission, Cal. Chualar, a post-office in Salinas valley, is probably the same name.

Chumash. The Santa Rosa islanders, of the Chumashan family of California. Bowers in Smithson. Rep., 316, 1877.

Chumawi. A former Shastan band or village in Big valley, Modoc co, Cal.

Chumpache. A former Chumashan village in Ventura co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, July 24, 1863.

Chumuchu. Apparently 2 distinct Chumashan villages formerly near Santa Inez mission, Santa Barbara co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chupcan. Mentioned as a village of the Cholovone on the E. bank of San Joaquin r., N. of the Tuolumne, Cal. The name may be another form of Chapposan, apparently a tribe on the San Joaquin, and also of the otherwise unidentifiable Chopee mentioned as on Fresno res. in 1861. (A. L. K.)

Chupumni. A former Miwok village not far s. of Cosumnes r., Cal.

Churmutce. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Churuptoy. A tribe of the Pat win di vision of the Copehan family, formerly living in Yolo and perhaps in Napa co., Cal. It was one of the 7 which made peace with Gov. Yallejo in 1836. Bancroft, Hist. Cal., iv, 71, 1886.

Chuscan. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Chuyachic (the point of a ridge). A small rancheria of the Tarahumare, not far from Norogachic, Chihuahua, Mexico. Lumholtz, inf’n, 1894.

Chwaiyok. A former Chumashan village E. of San Buenaventura, Ventura co., Cal., a locality now called Los Pitos.

Chynau. A former village, presumably Costanoan, connected with Dolores mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861.

Cicacut. A Chumashan village at Goleta, w. of Santa Barbara, Cal., in 1542. Cabrillo in Smith, Colec. Doc., 181, 1857.

Cinihuay. A former Chumashan village at Los Gatos, near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.

Ciyuktun. A former Chumashan village near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 4, I860.

Clear Lake Indians. A collective name loosely applied to the Indians on Clear lake, N. Cal. The shores of this lake were occupied entirely by the Porno except at the southernmost extremity of the southern arm, known as Lower lake, which for a few miles was controlled by Indians of the Moquelumnan family. See Laguna Indians. (S. A. B.)

Coanopa. A tribe, apparently Yuman, residing probably on or in the vicinity of the lower Rio Colorado early in the 18th century. They visited Father Kino while he was among the Quigyuma and are mentioned by him in connection with the Cuchan (Yuma) and other tribes (Venegas, Hist. Cal., i, 308, 1759; Coues, Garcés Diary, 551, 1900). Possibly the Cocopa.

Coloc. Apparently two Chumashan villages, one formerly near the Rincon or at Ortegas, near Santa Barbara, Cal., the other near Santa Inez mission.

Concepcion de Nuestra Senora. A visitation town of (Cochimi?) Indians in 1745, situated 6 leagues s. of the parent mission, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, in lat. 27, Lower California. Thirty-two rancherias were dependent on it.

Concho ( Span.: conch). The inhabitants of Concho bay, E. coast of Lower California, on which “Loreto mission was established in 1697. The people spoke the Cochimi dialect. Picolo (1702) in Lettres Edif., ii, 63, 1841.

Conejos (Span.: rabbits). A small Diegueno band on or near Capitan Grande res., at least 9 m. from San Diego, Cal.; pop. 80 in 1883.

Coot. A Costanoan village situated in 1819 within 10m. of Santa Cruz mission, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860.

Copeh (from kapai, ‘stream’, in the local dialect). A tribe of the Patwin division of the Copehan family formerly living on lower Puta cr., Yolo co., Cal.

Coquilt. One of the Diegueño rancherias represented in the treaty of 1852 at Santa Isabel, s. Cal. H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 133, 1857.

Corral. A rancheria of gentile Diegueños near San Diego, s. Cal., in 1775.

Coruano. One of 4 unidentified tribes, probably Shoshonean, formerly living E. of Tejon pass, s. Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 8, 1863.

Cosoy. A Diegueño rancheria at which the mission of San Diego (q. v.) was established in 1769; situated at the present Old Town, on San Diego bay, s. Cal.

Costanos (Span.: coastmen). Certain tribes or groups belonging to the Costanoan family on San Francisco penin., connected with Dolores mission, Cal. The term has been applied to the Olhone, Ahwaste, Altahmo, Romonan, and Tulomo collectively; also to the Olhone and Ahwaste taken together; and to the Olhone alone. The term was chosen by Powell for the name of the Costanoan family, q.v. (A. L. K.)

Cotoplanemis. Probably a division of the Moquelumnan family, living on a reserve between Stanislaus and Tuolumne rs., Cal., in 1851; but it is possible that they may have been a band of the Cholovone division of the Mariposan family.

Couth. A Karok rancheria on Klamath r., Gal., in 1856. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Mar. 23, 1860.

Coycoy. A Chumashan village on one of the N. Santa Barbara ids., Cal., in 1542. Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, Colec. Doc. Fla., 186, 1857.

Coyyo. A village connected with the former San Carlos mission, Cal., and said to have been of the Esselen tribe. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 20, 1860.

Cubac. A former rancheria, probably of the Papago, visited by Father Garcés in 1771 ; situated in the neighborhood of San Francisco Ati, w. from the present Tucson, s. Ariz. Distinct from Tubac.

Cuchillones (Span: knifers, knife people ). A former Costanoan division or village E. of San Francisco bay, Cal. In 1795, according to Engelhardt (Franciscans in Cal., 1897), they became involved in a quarrel with the neophytes of San Francisco mission, whereupon their rancheria was attacked by the Spaniards.

Cucomogna. A former Gabrieleno rancheria in Los Angeles co. , Cal., now called Cucamonga. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 8, 1860.

Cucoomphers. Mentioned as a tribe living in the mountains near Mohave r., s. E. Cal. , not speaking the same language as the Mohave or the Paiute (Antisell in Pac. R. R. Rep., vii, 104, 1854). They were perhaps Serranos.

Cuculato. A Yuman tribe living w. of lower Rio Colorado in 1701, when they were visited by Father Kino. Consag (1746) classes them with the gulf or southern divisions of the Cocopa.

Cuiapaipa. A rancheria and reservation of 36 Mission Indians in s. California. Their land, consisting of 880 acres, is an unproductive waterless tract 125 m. from Mission Tule River agency.

Cunitcacahel (water of the great rocks ). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected with Purísima mission, which was near the w. coast of Lower California, about lat. 26º 20′. Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 188, 1857.

Cushna. A division of the Maidu on the upper waters of the s. fork of Yuba r., Sierra co., Cal.; pop. about 600 in 1850. Ind. Aff. Rep., 124, 1850; Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 31, 1861.

Cuyamaca. A former Diegueño village about 50 m. E. N. E. from San Diego mission, s. Cal. Hayes (1850) quoted by Bancroft, Nat. Races, i, 458, 1882.

Cuyamus. A Chumashan village formerly on the mesa near Santa Barbara, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863.



MLA Source Citation:

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906. AccessGenealogy.com. Web. 12 October 2014. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/c-california-indian-villages-towns-and-settlements.htm - Last updated on Oct 28th, 2013


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