The history of the Oregon Indians was similar to that of the Indians of Washington. The coast tribes seem to have been affected little or not at all by the settlements of the Spaniards in California, and those of the interior were influenced only in slightly greater measure by them through the introduction of the horse. Nor were these tribes reached so extensively by the employees of the great fur companies. Contact with such advance agents of civilization was principally along the valley of the Columbia River, and Astoria will always be remembered as bearing witness to the transient attempts of the American Fur Company to establish a permanent trading organization in this region under the American flag. As in the case of Washington, Oregon and its tribes were first brought to the acquaintance of our Eastern States in an intimate way by the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1805-6.
Here also settlement was delayed until the fixation of the International Boundary line and the rush westward following upon the discovery of gold in California. From the middle of the nineteenth century onward, however, the native tribes were rapidly dispossessed, placed upon reservations, and reduced in numbers. At a later period the decrease became less marked, but it has continued nevertheless, partly as an actual extinction of the aboriginal population and partly as an absorption in the dominant race. Most of the Chinookan tribes were finally placed upon Warm Springs and Grande Ronde Reservations and on Yakima Reservation in Washington; all of the Athapascan tribes upon the Siletz Reservation, except the Umpqua, who went to Grande Ronde; the Kusan and Yakonan tribes upon the Siletz Reservation; the Salishan peoples of Oregon upon the Grande Ronde and Siletz Reserves; most of the Kalapooian peoples upon the Grande Ronde, though a few on the Siletz; most of the Molala upon the Grande Ronde; the Klamath upon Klamath Reserve; the Modoc mostly on Klamath Reserve but a few upon the Quapaw Reservation in Oklahoma; the Shahaptian tribes of Oregon upon the Umatilla Reservation; and the Northern Paiutes upon the Klamath Reservation.
The following tribes at one time are recorded in history as having resided within the present state of Oregon. If the tribe name is in bold, then Oregon is the primary location known for this tribe, otherwise we provide the tribes specifics as it pertains to Oregon and then provide a link to the main tribal page.
- Ahantchuyuk Indians. Ahantchuyuk Indians were located on and about Pudding River, which empties into the Willamette from the east about 10 miles south of Oregon City.
- Alsea Indians. Alsea Indians were located on Alsea River and Bay in Oregon.
- Atfalati Indians. Atfalati Indians were located on the Atfalati plains, the hills about Forest Grove and the shores and vicinity of Wapato; they are also said to have extended as far as the site of Portland
- Bannock Indians. The Bannock came over into the eastern borders of the state between Powder and Owyhee Rivers in more recent times.
- Calapooya Indians. Calapooya Indians were located on the headwaters of Willamette River including McKinzie, Middle, and West Forks
- Cayuse Indians. Cayuse Indians were located about the heads of Walla Walla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers and extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon.
- Chastacosta Indians. Chastacosta Indians were located on the lower course of Illinois River, both sides of Rogue River for some distance above its confluence with the Illinois, and on the north bank somewhat farther in Oregon.
- Chelamela Indians. Significance unknown. Also called: Long Tom Creek Indians. Connections. The Chelamela belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Location. On Long Tom Creek, a western tributary of the Willamette River. Population. (See Calapooya Indians)
- Chepenafa Indians. Significance unknown. Also called: Api’nefu, or Pineifu, by the other Kalapuya. Marys River Indians, the official and popular name. Connections. The Chepenafa belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock, and were sometimes regarded as a subdivision of the Luckamiut. Location. At the forks of St. Marys Creek, near Corvallis. Population. (See Calapooya Indians.) The census of 1910 returned 24.
- Chetco Indians. Chetco Indians were located on each side of the mouth of Chetco River and about 14 miles up it as well as on Winchuck River in Oregon and California.
- Clackamas Indians. Clackamas Indians were located on Clackamas River, claiming the country on the east side of Willamette River from a few miles above its mouth nearly to Oregon City and east as far as the Cascade Mountains.
- Clatskanie Indians. According to Gibbs (1877) the Clatskanie at one time owned the prairies bordering Chehalis River, Washington, at the mouth of Skookumchuck River, but on the failure of game, crossed the Columbia and occupied the mountains about Clatskanie River, their best-known historic seat. For a long time they exacted toll of all who passed going up or down the Columbia.
- Clatsop Indians. The Clatsop centered about Cape Adams, on the south side of Columbia River, extending up the latter as far as Tongue Point and southward on the Pacific coast to Tillamook Head.
- Clowwewalla Indians. Clowwewalla Indians were located at the falls of Willamette River.
- Dakubetede Indians. Dakubetede Indians were located on Applegate River.
- Hanis Indians. Hanis Indians were located on Coos River and Bay.
- Klamath Indians. Klamath Indians were located on Upper Klamath Lake, Klamath Marsh, and Williamson and Sprague Rivers.
- Kuitsh Indians. Kuitsh Indians were located on Lower Umpqua River.
- Latgawa Indians. Signifying “those living in the uplands.” Also called: Walumskni, by the Klamath. Connections. With the Takelma proper, the Latgawa constituted the Takilman linguistic family which, in turn, was probably affiliated with the Shastan stock. Location. On Upper Rogue River eastward about Table Rock and Bear Creek and in the neighborhood of the present town of Jacksonville. Village. Sapir (1915) records one village belonging to this tribe known by the tribal name and also called Latgauk. Population. See Takelma Indians.
- Lohim Indians. Significance unknown. (See Northern Paiute Indians) Connections. Reported as a band of Shoshoneans which entered Oregon at a late period. Location. On Willow Creek, a southern affluent of the Columbia. Population. In 1870 the number of Lohim was reported as 114, but the name has not appeared in recent official reports. They have generally been regarded as renegades belonging to the Umatilla Reservation, and Ray’s (1938) informants denied the presence of Shoshoneans here, asserting that the name was applied to Yakima.
- Luckiamute Indians. Luckiamute Indians were located on the Luckiamute River.
- Miluk Indians. Miluk Indians were located at the mouth of Coquille River.
- Mishikhwutmetunne Indians. Mishikhwutmetunne Indians were located on the upper Coquille River
- Modoc Indians. Modoc Indians were located on Little Klamath Lake, Modoc Lake, Tule Lake, Lost River Valley, and Clear Lake, extending at times as far east as Goose Lake.
Molala Indians. Derived from the name of a creek in the Willamette Valley from which one of their bands drove the original inhabitants. Also called:
Amolélish, by the Kalapuya.
Kúikni, by the Klamath.
Láti-u or La’tiwé, their own name.
Ya’-ide’sta, by the Umpqua.
Connections. Together with the Cayuse, the Molala constituted the Waiilatpuan division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. According to Cayuse tradition, the Molala formerly lived with them and were separated and driven westward in consequence of wars with hostile tribes.
Location. At an early date the Molala are believed to have been in the valley of the Deschutes River and to have been driven west, as above intimated, into the valleys of the Molala and Santiam Rivers. Either part of them subsequently went south to the headwaters of Umpqua and Rogue Rivers or they were separated from the rest in the movement above mentioned, as Berreman (1937) thinks.
Subdivisions. The following are said to have been Molala bands or settlements: Chakankni, on the headwaters of Rogue River, northwest of Klamath Lake, absorbed later by the neighboring tribes, particularly the Klamath. Chimbuiha, on the headwaters of Santiam River. Mukanti, on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains.
Population. Mooney (1928) believes the Molala were still with the Cayuse in 1780, whose numbers he fixes at about 500. In 1849 the Molala were estimated at 100. In 1877 Gatschet found several families living on the Grande Ronde Reservation, and in 1881 there were said to be 20 individuals in the mountains west of Klamath Lake. The census of 1910 returned 31, all but 6 of whom were in Oregon. (See Cayuse.)
Connection in which they have become noted. The Molala are note worthy in the first place for the uniqueness of their language, which is closely related only to Cayuse. Molalla River or Creek and a post village, both in Clackamas County, Oreg., bear the name.
Multnomah. Significance unknown. Also called:
Wappato, originally the Cree or Chippewa name of a bulbous root (Sagittaria variabilis) used as food by the Indians of the west and northwest It means literally “white fungus.” It passed into the Chinook jargon with the meaning “potato” and became applied to Sauvies Island in Columbia River, at the mouth of the Willamette, and the Indian tribes living on or near it. It was so used by Lewis and Clark, though there was little or no political connection between the numerous bands so designated.
Connections. The Multnomah belonged to the Clackamas division of the Chinookan linguistic stock.
Location. As above indicated, on and near Sauvies Island.
Subdivisions or Bands
Cathlacomatup, on the south side of Sauvies Island on a slough of Willamette
Cathlacumup on the west bank of the lower mouth of the Willamette River and
claiming as their territory the bank of the Columbia from there to Deer Island.
Cathlanaquiah, on the southwest side of Sauvies Island.
Clahnaquah, on Sauvies Island.
Claninnata, on the southwest side of Sauvies Island.
Kathlaminimin, at the south end of Sauvies Island, later said to have become
associated with the Cathlacumup and Nemoit.
Multnomah, on the upper end of Sauvies Island.
Nechacokee, on the south bank of Columbia River a few miles below Quicksand
Nemalquinner, at the falls of the Willamette but with a temporary house on the
north end of Sauvies Island.
Shoto, on the north side of Columbia River, a short distance from it and nearly
opposite the mouth of the Willamette.
Population. Mooney (1928) gives the population of all of these bands of the Multnomah as 3,600 in 1780. Their descendants are probably included among the 315 Indians returned as Chinook by the census of 1910. (See Clackamas.)
Connection in which they have become noted. There is a county, town, and river channel of the name in Oregon. The name “Wappato” secondarily applied to the Multnomah besides its former use as a name of Sauvies Island, is given, with the spelling Sapato, to a lake and place near Portland in Oregon-the latter in Multnomah County, the former between Yamhill and Washington Counties and to a place in the State of Washington.
Naltunnetunne, a small Athapascan tribe between the Tututni and Chetco, apparently, included by later writers under the former.
Nez Percé. They extended into northeastern Oregon. (See Idaho.)
Paiute, Northern. These people occupied the southeastern part of Oregon and formerly extended far enough north to include the valley of Powder River and the upper course of John Day River of which they were dispossessed by Shahaptians. (See Nevada.)
Santiam. Significance unknown. Also called:
Aha’lpam, by the Atfalati Kalapuya.
Connections. The Santiam belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Population. (See Calapooya.) In 1906 there were 23 Santiam on Grande Ronde Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 9.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Santiam is perpetuated in Santiam River, a branch of the Willamette.
Shasta. The Shasta extended at least into the territory watered by Jenny Creek from their main seats in California.
Siletz. Significance unknown. Also called:
Tsä Shnádsh amím, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections. The Siletz belonged to the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location. On Siletz River.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the population of all of the Salishan tribes of Oregon as 1,500 in 1780. They are not now separately recorded, but in the census of 1930, 72 Salishan Indians were returned from Oregon besides the Tillamook.
Connections in which they have become noted. The Siletz are of note as having been the southernmost of the Salishan linguistic family. Siletz River and a post village, both in Lincoln County, Oreg., preserve the name.
Siuslaw. Significance unknown. Also called:
K’gu-gwic’tlnne, Naltunne name.
K’glo-gwec tQnn6, Chastacosta name.
Tsana-uta amfm, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections. The Siuslaw belonged to the Siuslawan division of the Yakonan linguistic stock.
Location. On and near Siuslaw River.
Dorsey (1884) gives the following:
Kwsichichu (south of Eugene City).
Population. (See Alsea.) The census of 1910 reported 7 Siuslaw.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Siuslaw is preserved by Siuslaw River, in Lane County, Oreg.
Skilloot. The Skilloot occupied part of Oregon opposite the mouth of Cowlitz River. (See Washington.)
Snake. (See Northern Paiute under Nevada.)
Takelma. Own name, meaning “those dwelling along the river.”
Kyu’-kŭtc hítclûm, Alsea name meaning “people far down the stream
Lowland Takelma, of Berreman (1937).
Na-tcté tûnnĕ, Naltunne name.
Rogue River Indians, from their habitat.
Connections. Together with the Latgawa, the Takelma constituted the Takelman linguistic stock. It is possible that this is distantly connected with the Shastan stock of northern California.
Location. On the middle course of Rogue River from above Illinois River to about Grant’s Pass and on the northern tributaries of Rogue River between these limits and the upper course of Cow Creek; also south nearly to the California boundary.
The following names were recorded by J. O. Dorsey mainly in one of the Athapascan dialects of the region:
|Hashkushtun, on the south side of Rogue River.
Hudedut, at the forks of Rogue River and Applegate River.
Kashtata, on the south side of Rogue River above Leaf Creek and Galice Creek. Kthotaime, on the south side of Rogue River.
Nakila, on the south side of Rogue River about 10 miles above Yaasitun. Salwahka, near the mouth of Illinois River or one of its tributaries.
Seethltun, on the south side of Rogue River, the village nearest the Chastacosta. Sestikustun, on the south side of Rogue River.
Tthowache, on the south side of Rogue River near “Deep Rock”.
Yaasitun, on the south side of Rogue River.
The following names, probably covering in part the same towns, were recorded by Dr. Edward Sapir in 1906, and are enumerated from the Latgawa country downstream:
|Hatil, east of Table Rock.
Gelyalk, below Table Rock.
Dilomi, near the falls of Rogue River.
Didalam, on the present site of Grant’s Pass, the county seat of Josephine County.
Daktsasin or Daldanik, on Rogue River near Jump Off Joe Creek.
Hagwal, on Cow Creek.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the entire Takilman stock at 500 in 1780. Only 1 was returned under that name by the census of 1910, but under the general head of “Rogue River” the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives two bodies of Indians numbering 58 and 46 individuals, respectively.
Connection in which they have become noted. Together with the Latgawa, the Takelma are remarkable for the peculiarity of their language, accentuated by the fact that they are almost entirely surrounded by Athapascan peoples. A post village called Takilma in Josephine County, Oreg., perpetuates the name.
Taltushtuntude. Own name, meaning unknown. Also called:
Galice Creek Indians, from their habitat.
Kû-līs’-kitc_hītc’lûm, Alsea name.
Connections. The Taltushtuntude belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and spoke the same dialect as the Dakubetede but culturally had become assimilated with the Takelma.
Location. On Galice Creek.
Population. In 1856, 18 Taltushtuntude were reported living on the Siletz Reservation. Under the name “Galice Creek” 42 Indians were reported in 1937.
Tenino. Significance unknown. Also called:
Mĕli’-lĕma, own name.
Warm Springs Indians, the common official designation.
Connections. The Tenino constituted a division of the Shahaptian branch of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Subdivisions and Villages
|Kowasayee, on the north bank of Columbia River nearly opposite the mouth of
Ochechote or Uchichol, on the north bank of Columbia River, the exact region
being uncertain though they derive their name from a rock near the mouth of
the Deschutes River.
Skinpah, on the north bank of Columbia River above the mouth of the Deschutes.
Tapanash, on the north bank of Columbia River, near the mouth of the Deschutes and a little above Celilo, the name being later extended over most of the above bands.
Tilkuni, between White and Warm Springs Reservations.
TukspuAh on John Day River, and hence called often John Day Indians. Wahopum, on the north bank of Columbia River near the mouth of Olive Creek. Waiam, near the mouth of the Deschutes River.
History. The Tenino were mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1805. By the treaty of 1855 they gave up their lands and settled, along with other Shahaptian tribes and some Salishan tribes, on Yakima Reservation, Washington. Since then they have not had separate official recognition.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 3,600 including the Atanum of the Yakima and the Tyigh. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 460 in 1937 of the Yakima and associated bands.
Connection in which they have become noted. A town in Thurston County, Wash., perpetuates the name.
Tillamook. A Chinook term meaning “people of Nekelim (or Nehalem). Also spelled Calamox, Gillamooks, Killamook, etc.
Higgahaldahu, Nestucca name.
Kyaukw, Alsea name.
Nsietshawas, so called by Hale (1846).
Si ni’-tĕ-lǐ, Mishikwutmetunne name for this tribe and the Alsea, meaning “flatheads.”
Connections. The Tillamook were the principal tribe in Oregon belonging to the Salishan linguistic family, coastal division.
Location. The coast from the Nehalem to Salmon River.
Subdivisions and Villages
|Nehalem, on Nehalem River.
Nestucca, on Nestucca Bay and the streams flowing into it. Salmon River, on the river of that name.
Tillamook, on Tillamook Bay and the streams flowing into it, including the
following villages enumerated by Lewis and Clark:
Chishucks (at the mouth of Tillamook River),
Chucktin (the southernmost Tillamook village, on a creek emptying into Tillamook Bay),
Kilherhursh (at the entrance of Tillamook Bay),
Kilherner (on Tillamook Bay, at the mouth of a creek 2 miles from Kilherhursh),
Towerquotten (on a creek emptying into Tillamook Bay).
Population. See Siletz. Lewis and Clark estimated 2,200 Tillamook in 1805. In the reports of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition (1845) their number is given as 400, and by Lane in 1849 as 200. The census of 1910 returned 25, and that of 1930, 12.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Tillamook seem to have been the most powerful tribe on the coast of Oregon. A bay, and also a county and its capital in the former country of the tribe preserve the name; also a cape, Tillamook Head.
Tututni. Meaning unknown. Also called:
H’lilush, Nestucca name.
Lower Rogue River Indians, or Rogue River Indians, from their habitat.
Talemaya, Umpqua name.
Ta-qu’-gflc-cis, Chetco name, meaning “northern language.”
Connections. The Tututni belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and were related closely with the Mishikhwutmetunne.
Location. On lower Rogue River and the Pacific coast north and south of its mouth.
J. O. Dorsey (1884) gave the following villages or bands:
On the north coast of Rogue River:
|Chemetunne, popularly called Joshuas, just north of Rogue River.
Kaltsergheatunne, at Port Orford.
Kosotshe, between Port Orford and Sixes Creek, perhaps earlier on Flores Creek. Kwatami, on or near Sixes River.
Kthutetmeseetuttun, just north of Rogue River.
Kwusathlkhuntunne, said to have been at the mouth of Mussel Creek, 5 miles south of Mount Humbug.
Natutshltunne, between Coquille River and Flores Creek.
Niletunne, the first village south of the Miluk village of Nasumi, south of Coquille River.
Yukichetunne, on Euchre Creek.
On Rogue River:
|Chetlesiyetunne, on the north side.
Enitunne, near the mouth of a southern affluent of Rogue River.
Kushetunne, on the north side.
Mikonotunne, on the north side 14 miles from its mouth.
Nakatkhaitunne, on the north side of Rogue River.
Targheliichetunne, on the north side.
Targhutthotunne, near the coast.
Testthitun, on the north side.
Thechuntunne, on the north side.
Thethlkhttunne, or Chastacosta, on the north side.
On or near the coast south of Rogue River:
Chetleschantunne, on Pistol River and the headlands from the coast 6 miles
south of Rogue River.
Kheerghia, about 25 miles south of Pistol River.
Khwaishtunnetunne, near the mouth of a small stream locally called Wish
tenatin, after the name of the settlement, that enters the Pacific about 10
miles south of Pistol River, at a place later known as Hustenate.
Natthutunne, on the south side of Rogue River.
Nuchumatuntunne, on the north side of Rogue River near the mouth. Sentethltun, on the south side of Rogue River and perhaps at its mouth. Skumeme, on the south side of Rogue River near its mouth.
Tsetintunne, the highest of 4 villages on a stream emptying into Rogue River
near its mouth.
Drucker (1937) gives the following village names:
On Rogue River:
|Gwi’sat huntun, on Mussel Creek near Sixes River and sometimes separated as
the Sixes tribe.
Kusu’me, on what is now called Flores Creek.
Kwataime, a short distance north of last.
Kwuse’tun, near and possibly a suburb of Megwinb’tun, on the coast. Megwino’tun, a few miles up river.
Skame’me, between Pistol River and mouth of Rogue River; Waterman places
it at Hunter’s Creek.
Sukwe’me or Sukwe’tce, at mouth of Sixes River.
Tagrili’tun, a suburb of Tu’tutun.
Tce’metun or Tce’me, really two towns, one on each side of the river’s mouth. Tce’tlersh tcuntun, on Pistol River, perhaps belonging to the Chetco.
Tu’tutun, 5 to 6 miles from the river’s mouth, divided into two parts called
Tatre’tun, “downriver,” and Na’gutretun “upriver.”
Yukwe’tce or Yu’gwitce, on what is now called Euchre Creek.
Berreman (1937) makes seven major divisions as follows:
Kwatami or Sixes River; Euchre Creek (Yukichetunne);
Pistol River (Chetleschantunne);
Population. (See Chastacosta.) In 1854 the Tututni population was 1,311. The census of 1910 returned 383, but in 1930 the United States Indian Office gave only 41 under this name, 55 under that of “Meguenodon” (see above), and 45 under that of “Joshua” (Tce’metun).
Tyigh. Significance unknown. Also spelled Attayes, Iyich, Ta-ih, Thy, Tyh, etc.
Teéχtkni, or Télknikni, Klamath name.
Tsĕ Amínĕma, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections. The Tyigh belonged to the Tenino branch of the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Location. The country about Tygh and White Rivers.
Subdivisions and Villages. No names are recorded.
History. The history of the Tyigh was identical with that of the Tenino.
Population. With the other Oregon tribes of the Tenino group, the Tyigh numbered 1,400 in 1780 according to Mooney’s (1928) estimate. In 1854 they were said to number 500 and in 1859, 450; but both of these figures must be overestimates. They are not now enumerated separately from the Warm Spring Indians, placed at 550 by the census of 1910.
Connection in which they have become noted. Tygh Creek and a place called Tygh Valley in Wasco County, Oreg., bears the name of the Tyigh.
Umatilla. Significance unknown.
Connections. The Umatilla belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Location. On Umatilla River and the banks of Columbia River adjacent to the mouth of the Umatilla.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates this tribe and the Walla Walla together at 1,500 in 1780. The census of 1910 returned 272, the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 145, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 124.
Connections in which they have become noted. An Indian reservation has received the name Umatilla, and it has also been applied to a river, a county, and a post village, all in Oregon; also to a place in Lake County, Fla.
Umpqua. Significance unknown.
Amgútsuish, Shasta name.
Cactan’-qwût-me’tûnne, Naltunne name.
Ci-cta’-qwŭt-me’tûnnĕ, Tututni name, meaning “Umpqua River people.”
Ci-sta’-qwût, Chastacosta name.
Etnémitane, own name (Gatschet, 1877).
Tsan Ámpkua amín, Luckiamute Kalapuya name, meaning “people on the Umpqua.”
Upper Umpqua, Berreman (1937).
Yangalá, Takelma name.
Connections. The Umpqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location. On upper Umpqua River, east of the Kuitsh.
Subdivisions. The Umpqua on Cow Creek are often spoken of separately under the name Nahankhuotana. Parker (1840) mentions a people called Palakahu which was probably an Athapascan or Yakonan tribe but cannot now be identified, and also the Skoton and Chasta, probably parts of the Chastacosta or Tututni. This is
all the more likely as he includes the Kwatami band of the Tututni and the entirely independent Chilula of California. Their chief village was Hewut.
Population. (See Dakubetede.) Hale (1846) says that in his time the Umpqua were supposed to number not more than 400. In 1902 there were 84 on Grande Ronde Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 109. In 1937, 43 Indians are given under this name. (See Chastacosta and Dakubetede.)
Connection in which they have become noted. Umpqua River, and the settlement of Umpqua or Umpqua Ferry in Douglas County, preserve the name.
Wallawalla. The Wallawalla extended somewhat into northeastern Oregon. (See Washington.)
Walpapi. Significance unknown. Commonly called Snakes. A part of the Northern Paiute. (See under Nevada.)
Wasco. From a native word wacq!ó, “cup or small bowl of horn,” the reference being to a cup-shaped rock a short distance from the main village of the tribe; from this the tribal name Gałasq’ó, “those that have the cup,” is derived and variations of it frequently appear in the literature. Also called:
Afúlakin, by the Kalapuya.
Ámpχänkni, meaning “where the water is,” by the Klamath.
Awásko ammim, by the Kalapuya.
Sáχlatks, by the Molala.
Connections. They belonged to the upstream branch of the Chinookan linguistic stock, their closest relatives being the Wishram on the opposite side of the river.
Location. In the neighborhood of The Dalles, in the present Wasco County.
Villages and Fishing Stations. The following are given by Sapir (1930) in order from east to west: Hlgahacha, Igiskhis, Wasco (a few miles above the present town of The Dalles), Wogupan, Natlalalaik, Gawobumat, Hliekala-imadik, Wikatk, Watsokus, Winkwot (at The Dalles), Hlilwaihldik, Hliapkenu/n, Kabala, Gayahisitik, Itkumahlemkt, Hlgaktahlk, Tgahu, Hliluktik, Gahientlich, Gechgechak, Skhlalis.
Population. Morse (1822) estimated the number of Wasco at 900. The census of 1910 returned 242, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 227 in 1937. (See Clackamas and Watlala.)
Connections in which they have become noted. The Wasco were the strongest Upper Chinook tribe and that which ultimately absorbed the rest. The name is preserved by Wasco County, Oreg., and a town in Sherman County in the same State; also places in Kern County, Calif., and Kane County, Ill.
Watlala. Significance of word is unknown. Also called:
Cascade Indians, the popular English name.
Gila’xicatck, by the Chinook.
Katlagakya, own name.
Shahala, from Chinook saxala, meaning “above,” by Chinook.
Connections. The Watlala belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and the Clackamas dialectic group.
Location. At the Cascades of Columbia River and extending down to the mouth of the Willamette River.
Subdivisions. The following names have been applied by various writers to the Indians in this neighborhood and may be subdivisions of this tribe, or perhaps refer to the entire tribe itself:
Cathlakaheckit, at the Cascades.
Cathlathlala, just below the Cascades.
Clahclellah, near the foot of the Cascades.
Neerchokioon, on the south side of Columbia River a few miles above Sauvies Island.
Washougal, near Quicksand River.
Yehuh, just above the Cascades.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that the Watlala and the Wasco together numbered 3,200 in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark estimated that there were 2,800. In 1812 the two first-mentioned bands were estimated to number 1,400. They are no longer enumerated separately and are probably incorporated at the present time with the Wishram and the Wasco.
Yahuskin. One of the two chief peoples in Oregon belonging to the Northern Paiute division of the Shoshonean and therefore Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. (See Nevada.)
Yamel. Significance unknown, often spelled Yam Hill. Also called:
Ychă-yamel-amirn, by the Atfalati Kalapuya.
Connections. The Yamel belonged, along with the Atfalati, to the northern dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Location. Yamhill River.
Subdivisions. Gatschet (1877) records these as follows:
Andshankualth, on a western tributary of the Willamette.
Andshimmampak, on Yamhill River.
Chamifu, in the forks of Yamhill River.
Chamiwi, on Yamhill River.
Champikle, on Dallas (La Creole) Creek.
Chinchal, on Dallas Creek.
Population. (See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 5 Yamel.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Yamel, in the form Yamhill, is perpetuated by an affluent of the Willamette and by the county through which it flows.
Yaquina Indians. Yaquina Indians were located about Yaquina River and Bay
Yoncalla. From Ayankeld, or Tch’Ayanke’ld, “those living at Ayankeld,” own name.
Connections. The Yoncalla were the southernmost tribe of the Kalapooian linguistic stock, forming one of the three dialectic divisions.
Location. On Elk and Calapooya Creeks, tributaries of Umpqua River.
Subdivisions. According to Gatschet (1887), there were two bands, called Chayankeld and Tsantokayu by the Luckiamute, but it seems likely that the former name (Tell’ Ayanke’ld) is merely the native tribal name.
Population. (See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 11 Yoncalla.
Connection in which they have become noted. Yoncalla, a post village of Douglas County, Oreg., preserves the name.
Alsea Indians were located on Alsea River and Bay in Oregon.