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Tawakoni Indians

Tawakoni Indians. Said to refer to “a river bend among red hills,” or “neck of land in the water.” The synonyms should not be confounded with those of the Tonkawa. Also called: Three Canes, an English form resulting from a mistaken attempt to translate the French spelling of their name, Troiscannes. Tawakoni Connections. The Tawakoni belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were most closely connected with the Wichita, the two languages differing but slightly. Tawakoni Location. They were on the Canadian River about north of the upper Washita. (See also Texas.) Tawakoni Villages Flechazos, on the west side of Brazos River near the present Waco. Tawakoni History. The Tawakoni were first met in the above location in company with the Wichita and other related tribes. Within the next 50 years, probably as a result of pressure on the part of more northerly peoples, they moved south and in 1772 they were settled in two groups on Brazos and Trinity Rivers, about Waco and above Palestine. By 1779 the group on the Trinity had rejoined those on the Brazos. In 1824 part of the Tawakoni were again back on Trinity River. In 1855 they were established on a reservation near Fort Belknap on the Brazos, but in 1859 were forced, by the hostility of the Texans, to move north into southwestern Oklahoma, where they were officially incorporated with the Wichita. Tawakoni Population. Mooney (1928) includes the Tawakoni among the Wichita (q. v.). In 1772 Mezieres reported 36 houses and 120 warriors in the Trinity village and 30 families in the Brazos village, perhaps 220 warriors in all. In 1778?79...

Push-ma-ta-ha, Choctaw Indian Chief

Push-ma-ta-ha – Pushmataha (Apushim-alhtaha, ‘the sapling is ready, or finished, for him.’ Halvert). A noted Choctaw, of unknown ancestry1, born on the east bank of Noxuba Creek in Noxubee County, Mississippi in 1764; died at Washington D.C., Dec 24, 1824.  before he was 20 years of age he distinguished himself in an expedition against the Osage, west of the Mississippi.  The boy disappeared early in a conflict that lasted all day, and on rejoining the Choctaw warriors was jeered at and accused of cowardice, whereon Push-ma-ta-ha replied “Let those laugh who can show more scalps than I can,” forthwith producing five scalps, which he threw upon the ground the result of a single-handed onslaught on the enemy’s rear. This incident gained for him the name “Eagle” and won for hint a chieftaincy; later he became mingo of the Oklahannali or Six Towns district of the Choctaw, and exercised much influence in promoting friendly relations with the whites. Although generally victorious, Push-ma-ta-ha’s war party on one occasion was attacked by a number of Cherokee and defeated. He is said to have moved into the present Texas, then Spanish territory, where he lived several years, adding to his reputation for prowess, on one occasion going alone at night to a Tonaqua (Tawakoni?) village, killing seven men with his own hand, and setting fire to several houses. During the next two years he made three more expeditions against the same people, adding eight scalps to his trophies. When Tecumseh visited the Choctaw in 1811 to persuade them to join in an uprising against the Americans, Push-ma-ta-ha strongly opposed the movement, and it was largely through...

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