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Eno Indians

Eno Tribe: Significance unknown, but Speck suggests i’nare, “to dislike,” whence “mean,” “comptemptible”; yeni’nare, “People disliked,”  Haynokes, synonym form Yardley (1645) Eno Connections. The Eno were probably of the Siouan linguistic stock, though, on account of certain peculiarities attributed to them, Mooney (1895) casts some doubt upon this. Their nearest relatives were the Shakori. Eno Location. On Eno River in the present Orange and Durham Counties. (See also South Carolina.) Eno Villages. The only village name recorded, distinct from that of the tribe, is Adshusheer, a town which they shared with the Shakori. It is located by Mooney (1928) near the present Hillsboro. Lawson (1860) speaks in one place as if it were a tribe but as there is no other mention of it, it is more likely that it was simply the name of the town which the Eno and Shakori occupied. Eno History. The Eno are first mentioned by Governor Yeardley of Virginia, who was told that they had valiantly resisted the northward advance of the Spaniards. From this it appears possible that they had formerly lived upon the Enoree River in South Carolina, which lay on the main trail from St. Helena to the Cheraw country at the foot of the Appalachian Mountains. Lederer (1912) mentions them in 1671 and Lawson (1860) in 1701 when they and the Shakori were in the town of Adshusheer. About 1714, together with the Shakori, Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, and Keyauwee, they began to move toward the Virginia settlements. In 1716 Governor Spotswood of Virginia proposed to settle the Eno, Cheraw, and Keyuawee at Eno town “on the very frontiers” of...

Keyauwee Indians

Keyauwee Tribe: Meaning unknown. Keyauwee Connections. From the historical affiliations of Keyauwee, they are presumed to have been of the Siouan linguistic family. Keyauwee Location. About the points of meeting of the present Guilford, Davidson, and Randolph Counties. (See also South Carolina.) Keyauwee Villages. No separately named villages are known. Keyauwee History. The Keyauwee do not appear to have been noted by white men before 1701 when Lawson (1860) found them in a palisaded village about 30 miles northeast of Yadkin River near the present Highpoint, Guilford County. At that time they were preparing to join the Saponi and Tutelo Indians for better protection against their enemies, and, shortly afterward, together with the last mentioned tribes, the Occaneechi, and the Shakori, they moved toward the settlements about Albemarle Sound. As mentioned already, Governor Spotswood’s project to settle this tribe together with the Eno and Cheraw at Enotown on the frontier of North Carolina was foiled by the opposition of the latter colony. The Keyauwee then moved southward to the Pee Dee along with the Cheraw, and perhaps the Eno and Shakori. In the Jefferys Atlas of 1761 their town appears close to the boundary line between the two Carolinas. They do not reappear in any the historical records but probably united ultimately in part with the Catawba, while some of their descendants are represented among the Robeson County Indians, often miscalled Croatan. Keyauwee Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 500 Keyauwee in 1600. In 1701 they are said to have numbered approximately as many as the Saponi, but the population of that tribe also is unknown. Shortly afterward it is stated...

Shakori Indians

Shakori Tribe: A native name but its significance unknown, though perhaps the same as Sugari, “stingy or spoiled people,” or “of the river whose-water-cannot-be drunk.” Also called: Cacores, a misprint. Shakori Connections. The Shakori belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their closest connections being evidently with the southern division of the Siouan tribes of the East. Barnwell (1908) identified them with the Sissipahaw. Shakori Location. The Shakori moved so frequently and there is so much uncertainty regarding their early history, that this is hard to give, but, as they usually kept company with the Eno, tenancy of the courses of Shocco and Big Shocco Creeks in the present Vance, Warren, and Franklin Counties is perhaps the location most closely connected with them in historic times. (See South Carolina and Virginia.) Shakori History. It is possible that the Shakori gave their name to the province of Chicora visited by Ayllon and his companions in 1521. If so, we must suppose that they moved north later in the sixteenth century or early in the seventeenth, perhaps as a result of the Pardo expeditions. In 1650 Edward Blande and his associates found the “Nottoway and Schockoores old fields” between Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers, but the Indians were not there. In 1654 Governor Yeardley of Virginia was told by a Tuscarora Indian of an inland people called the “Cacores,” probably an attempt to indicate this tribe. In 1672 Lederer found them living in a village 14 miles from that of the Eno (Lederer, 1912), and in 1701 Lawson says these two tribes (the Shakori and Eno) were in one village called Adshusheer on Eno...

Woccon Indians

Woccon Tribe: Significance unknown. Woccon Connections. The Woccon belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations being the Catawba. Woccon Location. Between Neuse River and one of its affluents, perhaps about the present Goldsboro, Wayne County. Woccon Villages Tooptatmeer, supposed to have been in Greene County. Yupwauremau, supposed to have been in Greene County. Woccon History.-The first mention of the Woccon appears to be by Lawson writing about 1701, who recorded 150 words of their language. These show that it was nearer Catawba than any other known variety of speech. Lack of any earlier mention of such a large tribe lends strength to the theory of Dr. Douglas L. Rights that they were originally Waccamaw (see South Carolina). They took part against the Whites in the Tuscarora Wars and were probably extinguished as a tribe at that time, the remnant fleeing north with the Tuscarora, uniting with the Catawba, or combining with other Siouan remnants in the people later known as Croatan. Woccon Population. The number of Woccon war estimated by Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600. Lawson (1860) gives 120 warriors in 1709. Connection in which they have become noted. The sole claim of the Woccon to distinction is from the fact that it is the only one of the southern group of eastern Siouan tribes other than the Catawba from which a vocabulary has been...

Wateree Indians

Wateree Tribe: Gatschet suggests a connection with Catawba, wateran, “to float on the water.” Also called: Chickanee, name for a division of Wateree and meaning “little.” Guatari, Spanish spelling of their name. Wateree Connections. The Wateree are placed in the Siouan linguistic stock on circumstantial evidence. Wateree Location. The location associated most closely with the Wateree historically was on Wateree River, below the present Camden. (See North Carolina.) Wateree History. The Wateree are first mentioned in the report of an expedition from Santa Elena (Beaufort) by Juan Pardo in 1566-67. They lived well inland toward the Cherokee frontier. Pardo made a small fort and left a corporal there and 17 soldiers, but the Indians soon wiped it out. In 1670 Lederer (1912) places them very much farther north, perhaps on the upper Yadkin, but soon afterward they are found on Wateree River where Lawson met them. In 1711-12 they furnished a contingent to Barnwell in his expedition against the Tuscarora during the Tuscarora War. In a map dated 1715 their village is placed on the west bank of Wateree River, possibly in Fairfield County, but on the Moll map of 1730 it is laid down on the east bank. The Yamasee War reduced their power considerably, and toward the middle of the eighteenth century they went to live with the Catawba, with whom the survivors lust ultimately have fused. They appear as a separate tribe, however, as late as 1744, when they sold the neck of land between Congaree and Wateree Rivers to a white trader. Wateree Population. The number of Wateree is estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000...

Winyaw Indians

Winyaw Tribe: Meaning unknown. Winyaw Connections. The Winyaw are placed in the Siouan linguistic family on circumstantial evidence. Their closest connections were with the Pedee and Waccamaw. Winyaw Location. On Winyaw Bay, Black River, and the lower course of the Pee Dee. Winyaw History. Unless this tribe is represented by the Yenyohol of Francisco of Chicora (1521), the Winyaw were first mentioned by the colonists of South Carolina after 1670. In 1683 it was charged that colonists had raided them for slaves on an insufficiently supported charge of murder by some of their people This unfriendly act did not prevent some of them from joining Barnwell’s army in the first Tuscarora War. Along with other Indians they, indeed, withdrew later from the expedition, but they claimed that it was for lack of equipment. In 1715 the Cheraw tried to induce them and the Waccamaw to side against the colonists in the Yamasee War. A year later a trading post was established in the territory of the Waccamaw not far from their own lands. About the same time some of them settled among the Santee, but they appear to have returned to their own country a few years later. Some assisted the Whites in their war with the Waccamaw in 1720. They soon disappear from history and probably united with the Waccamaw. Winyaw Population. Mooney (1928) includes the Winyaw in his estimate of 900 for the “Waccamaw, Winyaw, Hook, &c.” as of the year 1600. The census of 1715 gives them one village of 36 men and a total population of 106. Connection in which they have become noted. Winyaw...

Waccamaw Indians

Waccamaw Tribe: Meaning unknown. Waccamaw Connections. Nothing of their tongue has been preserved but evidence points to a  connection with the Waccamaw with the Siouan linguistic family, and presumably with the Catawba dialectic group. The Woccon may have been a late subdivision, as Dr. Rights has suggested. (See North Carolina.) Waccamaw Location. On Waccamaw River and the lower course of the Pee Dee. (See North Carolina.) Waccamaw Villages. The Waccamaw were reported to have had six villages in 1715, but none of the names is preserved. Waccamaw History. The name of the Waccamaw may perhaps be recorded in the form Guacaya, given by Francisco of Chicora as that of a “province” in this region early in the sixteenth century. In 1715 Cheraw attempted to incite them to attack the English, and they joined the hostile party but made peace the same year. In 1716 a trading post was established in their country at a place called Uauenee (Uaunee, Euaunee), or the Great Bluff, the name perhaps a synonym of Winyaw, although we know of no Winyaw there. There was a short war between them and the colonists in 1720 in which they lost 60 men, women, and children killed or captured. In 1755 the Cherokee and Natchez are reported to have killed some Pedee and Waccamaw in the White settlements. Ultimately they may have united with the Catawba, though more probably with the so-called Croatan Indians of North Carolina. There is, however, a body of mixed bloods in their old country to whom the name is applied. Waccamaw Population. The Waccamaw are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 900 in...

Sugeree Indians

Sugeree Tribe: Speck (1935) suggests Catawba yensr grihere, “people stingy,” or “spoiled,” or “of the river whose-water-cannot-be drunk.” Also called: Suturees, a synonym of 1715. Sugeree Connections. —No words of their language have been preserved, but there is every reason to suppose that they belonged to the Siouan linguistic family and were closely related to the Catawba, and perhaps still more closely to the Shakori. Sugeree Location. On and near Sugar Creek in York County, S. C, and Mecklenburg County, N. C. Sugeree Villages. There were said to be many but their names have not been preserved. Sugeree History. The Sugeree are hardly mentioned by anyone before Lawson in 1701. They probably suffered in consequence of the Yamasee War and finally united with the Catawba. Population. No separate enumeration or estimate of the to Sugeree have appears ever to have been made, and Mooney included them in the population of 5,000 allowed the Catawba. Connection in which they have become noted. The name Sugeree has been preserved in Sugar Creek, an affluent of Catawba River in North and South...

Congaree Indians

Congaree Tribe: Meaning unknown. Congaree Connection. No words of this language have been preserved but the form of the name and general associations of the tribe leave little doubt that it was a Siouan dialect, related most closely to Catawba. Congaree Location. On Congaree River, centering in the neighborhood of the present State Capital, Columbia. Congaree Villages. The only village mentioned bore the same name as the tribe and was sometimes placed on the Congaree opposite Columbia, sometimes on the north side of the river. Congaree History. The Congaree are mentioned in documents of the seventeenth century as one of the small tribes of the Piedmont region. In 1701 Lawson (1860) found them settled on the northeast bank of Santee River below the mouth of the Wateree. They took part against the Whites in the Yamasee War of 1715, and in 1716 over half of them were captured and sent as slaves to the West Indies. The remnant appear to have retreated to the Catawba, for Adair (1930) mentions their dialect as one of those spoken in the Catawba Nation. Congaree Population. The Congaree are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600. A census taken in 1715 gives 22 men and a total population of about 40. Connection in which they have become noted. Congaree River and a railroad station in Richland County, S. C., preserve the name; Columbia, the State capital, was originally known as the...

Catawba Indians

Catawba Tribe: Significance unknown though the name was probably native to the tribe. Also called: Ani’ta’guă, Cherokee name. Iswa or Issa, signifying “river,” and specifically the Catawba River; originally probably an independent band which united early with the Catawba proper. Oyadagahrcenes, Tadirighrones, Iroquois names. Usherys, from iswahere, “river down here”; see Issa. Catawba Connections. The Catawba belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, but Catawba was the most aberrant of all known Siouan languages, though closer to Woccon than any other of which a vocabulary has been recorded. Catawba Location. In York and Lancaster Counties mainly but extending into the neighboring parts of the State and also into North Carolina and Tennessee. Catawba Subdivisions. Two distinct tribes are given by Lawson (1860) and placed on early maps, the Catawba and Iswa, the latter deriving their name from the native word meaning “river,” which was specifically applied to Catawba River. Catawba Villages. In early days this tribe had many villages but few names have come down to us. In 1728 there were six villages, all on Catawba River, the most northerly of which was known as Nauvasa. In 1781 they had two called in English Newton and Turkey Head, on opposite sides of Catawba River. Catawba History The Catawba appear first in history under the name Ysa, Issa (Iswa) in Vandera’s narratives of Pardo’s expedition into the interior, made in 1566-67. Lederer (1912) visited them in 1670 and calls them Ushery. In 1711-13 they assisted the Whites in their wars with the Tuscarora, and though they participated in the Yamasee uprising in 1715 peace was quickly made and the Catawba remained...
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