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Idaho, the Gem of the Mountains, Origin of the Name

The Mountains have ever been the bulwarks of freedom. Valor is born there; virtue is cherished there, and these are the seeds of song and story. No land ever yet had a literature to endure that had not these for its theme, these off-springs of the pure, sweet atmosphere and sublime splendor of inspiring Mountains; and the more glorious the Mountains, the more glorious the song and story. What then may we not prophesy for Idaho when her torn and devastated placer fields all are terraced vineyards, as in Savoy, and the peace and rest of the old pastoral days of Greece shall possess her? Meanwhile it remains for us to dwell rather upon the vital present; to note the assurances offered in the fair new state of Idaho as this wonderful nineteenth century draws rapidly to its close. Here nature has been lavish to prodigality; here mountain and valley yield forth their treasures; and here are the homes of a progressive, enlightened and a loyal people who honor and receive honor from the whole noble sisterhood of states. The Gem of the Mountains may well challenge admiration, and it is hoped that the pages of this work may bear their part in perpetuating the dramatic story of the brave men and virtuous women who gathered about the cradle of the infant Idaho, and also tell the latter-day story of peace and prosperity. Of the first mentioned duty and its difficulties, we can not, perhaps, do better than to quote from one to whom this mountain-land has ever been most dear. When he essayed a similar work, he said:...

Okwanuchu Tribe

Okwanuchu Indians. A small Shasta tribe formerly occupying the upper part of McCloud river, California as far down as Salt Creek, the upper Sacramento as far down as Squaw Creek and the valley of the latter stream.  Their language is in part close to that of the Shasta proper, but it contains a number of totally distinct words, unlike any other surrounding...

Shasta Tribe

Shasta Indians (from Sǔsti’ka, apparently the mane of a well known Indian tribe living about 1840 near the site of Yreka).  A group of small tribes or divisions forming the Shastan linguistic family of north California and formerly extending into Oregon.  The area occupied by the Shasta is quite irregular, and consists of one main and three subsidiary areas.  The main body, comprising the Iruwaitsu, Kammatwa, Katiru, and Kikatsik, with whom there was little diversity in language, occupied Klamath river from Klamath Hot Springs to Happy Camp, the north half of Shasta valley, the whole of Scott valley, and the upper part of the south part of Salmon river. During the last hundred years, at least, they inhabited also the valley of Stewart river in Oregon from its source to the junction of Rogue river. The three subsidiary groups, consisting of the Konomihu, New River Indians, and Okwanuchu, occupied the forks of the Salmon, the head of New river, and McCloud and upper Sacramento rivers and Squaw creek. These subsidiary groups are now practically extinct. For the distribution of the component divisions see under their respective name, The culture and customs of the Shasta seem to have been much the same throughout this area, but linguistically they were divided into four groups speaking divergent dialects. Little record has been preserved of their characteristics, and with their decrease in numbers and proximity to civilization, they have lost practically all their native customs. They were a sedentary people, living in small villages, composed of rectangular, semisubterranean plank houses, similar to those in use by the Indians on the coast immediately to...

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