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The Nacogdoche Tribe and the Mission of Guadalupe

A starting point or base from which to determine the location of most of the tribes is the founding of the mission of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe at the main village of the Nacogdoches in 1716, for it can be shown that this mission remained on the same site until it was abandoned in 1773; that the modern city of Nacogdoches was built at the old mission site; and, therefore, that the location of this city represents the location of the principal Nacogdoche village. The evidence briefly stated is as follows: Ramon, whose expedition founded this mission, wrote in has Derrotero that nine leagues east-southeast of the principal Hasinai village (the Hainai), on the Angelina River, he arrived at the “village of the Nacogdoches,” and that on the next day he “set out from this mission,” implying clearly that the mission was located where he was writing, at the Nacogdoche village.1 As is well known, all of the missions of this section were abandoned in 1719 because of fear of a French invasion. Pena reports in his diary of the Aguayo expedition of 1721 that Aguayo, who rebuilt the abandoned missions, entered “the place where stood the mission of N. S. de Guadalupe de Nacodoches,” and rebuilt the church. The inference is that the site was the old one, more especially since in one instance in the same connection where a mission site was changed Peña mentions the fact.2 This mission was continued without any known change till 1773, when it was abandoned. But when in 1779 (not 1778, as is commonly stated) Antonio Gil Ybarbo laid the foundations...

Nacogdoche Tribe

Nacogdoche Indians (Na-ko-hodó-tsi). A tribe of the Hasinai confederacy of Texas. It has been said that their language differed from that of the Hasinai group in general, but there is much evidence to indicate that this is not true. For example, Ramón, who founded missions at the Neche, Hainai, Nasoni, and Nacogdoche villages in 1716, states in his report that “these four missions will comprise from four to five thousand persons of both sexes, all of one idiom”1 . On the same day the missionaries wrote that the Nacogdoche mission “N. S. de Guadalupe is awaiting people of the same language and customs” as those of the Indians of mission Concepción, i. e., the Hainai2 . In 1752, when the governor of Texas was arranging to inspect the villages of the Hainai, Nabedache, Nacogdoche, Nasoni, and Nadote, Antonio Barrera was appointed interpreter, because he was a person “understanding with all perfection the idiom of these Indians,” the implication being that they all spoke a single language3 . Mezières said that the Nabedache, Nadaco (Anadarko), Hainai, and Nacogdoche spoke the same language4 . Other similar evidence might be cited. Their main village at the opening of the 18th century and for a long time thereafter was approximately on the site of the modern city of Nacogdoches, where four Indian mounds existed until recently. This place seems to have been called Nevantin. The Nacogdoche were mentioned apparently by the Gentleman of Elvas in his account of the De Soto expedition; but they were first made definitely known by Jesus Maria in 1691, who called them the Nazadachotzi, indicated correctly their location,...

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