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Mescalero Apache Reservation

The area of New Mexico was acquired by the United States by capture and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of February 2, 1818, and the Gadsden purchase of December 30, 1853. The Indians discovered therein by the Spaniards in 1539 were the Pueblos, or Towndwellers, along the Rio Grande or on streams tributary to it, the Apaches, in the south and west, some Utes in the north, with occasional foraging parties of Comanches, Pawnees, Sioux, and others. The Texan Indians, including the Lipans (Apaches), frequently roamed the southeastern portion and down into Mexico. The Navajos (Apaches) were the fierce and warlike Indian’s. They covered at times almost all of the area of New Mexico excepting the portion occupied by the Pueblos and their lands directly adjoining the missions or churches. Prior to 1846, the date of occupation by the United States, the Spanish and afterward the Mexican government had frequent difficulties with the New Mexican roaming tribes. The Apaches about Fort Stanton, known as the Fort Stanton Apaches, who removed to the Mescalero agency and reservation in 1873-1874, were most dangerous to the white people. The Santa Fe Trail, the road from St. Joseph or Westport, Mo., to Santa Fe and Mexico, became famous as an Indian raiding ground, for over it the commerce of an enormous region passed by pack train or in wagons. Finally a mail route was created. The Apaches made life cheap along this route for many years. Kit Carson and the trappers and hunters of fame, who made their headquarters along the Arkansas and Cimarron, and at Taos and Santa Fe, were at almost...

Mescalero Apache Tribe

Mescaleros Apache Indians (Spanish: `mescal people,’ from their custom of eating mescal). An Apache tribe which formed a part of the Faraones and Vaqueros of different periods of the Spanish history of the southwest. Their principal range was between the Rio Grande and the Pecos in New Mexico, but it extended also into the Staked plains and southward into Coahuila, Mexico. They were never regarded as so warlike as the Apache of Arizona, otherwise they were generally similar. Mooney1 records the following divisions: Nataina Tuetinini Tsihlinainde Guhlkainde Tahuunde These bands intermarry, and each had its chief and suhchief. The Guhlkainde are apparently identical with the “Cuelcajenne” of Orozco y Berra and others, who classed them as a division of the Llaneros; the “Natages” are probably the same as the Nataina rather than the Lipan or the Kiowa Apache, while the Tsihlinainde seem to be identifiable with the “Chilpaines.” In addition Orozco y Berra gives the Lipillanes as a Llanero division. The Mescaleros are now (1905) on a reservation of 474,240 acres in southern New Mexico, set apart for them in 1873. Population 460 in 1905, including about a score of Lipan, q. v.FootnotesMooney, field notes, B. A. E.,...

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