Treaty of October 14, 1864

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Klamath Lake, Oregon, on the fourteenth day of October, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, by J. W. Perit Huntington, superintendent of Indian affairs in Oregon, and William Logan, United States Indian agent for Oregon, on the part of the United States, and the



Kumbatuash Tribe

Kumbatuash Indians. The native name of the inhabitants of Kumbat, a rocky tract of land southwest of Tule or Rhett Lake, California, extending from the lake shore to the Lava beds. These people are a mixture of Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians, and are said to have separated from these after 1830. Alternate Spellings Cum-ba-twas



Klamath Tribe

Klamath Indians (possibly from máklaks, the Lutuami term for `Indians,’ `people,’ ‘community’; lit. ‘the encamped’). A Lutuamian tribe in south west Oregon. They call themselves Eukshikni or Auksni,’ people of the lake,’ referring to the fact that their principal seats were on Upper Klamath lake. There were also important settlements on Williamson and Sprague Rivers.



Siletz Reservation

Siletz Indian Agency and Reservation, Oregon



Klamath Reservation

Klamath Indian Agency and Reservation, Oregon



Extracting Wokas Seeds by the Diachas Process

Extracting wokas seeds by the diachas process

In wokas pods properly roasted as well the interior tissues are in the condition of a mucilaginous paste. The seeds do not separate from this paste as readily as they do from the mucilage in pods of the spokwas grade, and therefore the Indian has invented another method of extracting them. This method is known



Wokas as an Article of Commerce

Illustration of a wokas camp at the close of the season

In the preparation of lolensh and of shiwulinz the broken seed shells (tsi’-hlak) are winnowed, as already described, from the seed kernels. These seed shells or hulls are not always thrown away, but they are often saved for a later curious use. In the manufacture of their finer baskets and trays the Klamaths use for



Spokwas

One day's wokas harvest of two women.

The basketful of spokwas as it is brought from the boat is emptied into a pit dug in the ground for the purpose, to which each successive day’s harvest of spokwas is added. The disintegrating pods undergo some process of fermentation, which changes them into a mucilaginous liquid mass having the texture of a thin



Lolensh

Wokas in process of grinding on a mealing stone

Fresh wokas seeds, in which the kernels are still moist, are in the condition necessary for manufacture into what is called lolensh (lo-lensh’). This condition exists in spokwas and in the two grades of seeds, nokapk and chiniakuni, derived from cooked pods, or away described below. The dried seeds, lowed and stontablaks, can not be



Shnaps and Lowak

Wokas drying pile and implements

In the preparation of shnaps from shelled wokas, kernels, or lolensh, the primitive method of roasting with live coals in a wokas shaker, as described under shiwulinz, seems to have been entirely discarded. The frying pan is now used instead by all the Indians. A handful or two of lolensh, either the fresh or the



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