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Pitchlynn Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Pitchlynn Choctaw family, although represented by one of the smallest name lists in this study, has a long and noted history in the literature of the Old Southwest and Indian Territory (see Chart 18). The eldest Pitchlynn, Isaac, was still alive in 1804 although in ill health. His son, John Pitchlynn, Jr., is recorded as the Choctaw interpreter at the Treaty of Hopewell in 1786 and for nearly half a century was a respected and honored countryman in Choctaw country. John lived a long while on Old Woman’s Creek, a tributary of the Oknoxabee (or Noxobee) River which itself flows into the Tombigbee. John and his family eventually resettled in present-day Lowndes County, Mississippi, near the modern city of Columbus. There the Alabama pioneer Gideon Lincecum met him in 1818 after the Treaty of the Choctaw Trading House in 1816 had opened some lands on the eastern banks of the Tombigbee to white settlers. Interestingly, Lincecum was a distant relative of John Pitchlynn and for a while was in business with his intemperate son, Jack Pitchlynn. Lincecum recalled that: “As soon as I got my house done, I went over the [Tombigbee] river to see the Choctaws. They were not exceeding two miles distant. I also found there a white man by the name of John Pitchlynn. He had a large family of half breed children; was very wealthy; sixty-two years of age; possessed a high order of intelligence and was from every point of view, a clever gentleman. He was very glad to hear that we were settling so near to him, and he also said he...

Nail Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

[92]Another ubiquitous family, the Nails (see Chart 17), was intermarried into several full-blood and mixed-blood families. Cushman, while visiting the gravesites of some noted Choctaws in Indian Territory, discussed the Nail family: “Close by that of Colonel David Folsom’s was the grave of Joel H. Nail, a brother-in-law to Colonel Key to Chart Probable = P,  Countryman = C,  Yes = Y,  Trader = T, Married = md,  Mixed Blood = mb Chart 17[92a] Nail List of Mixed Bloods NameLocationMBRemarks Nail, AdamYson of Joel Nail, BenjaminP Nail, CatherineYdaughter of Joel Nail, Daniellm E AgencyP1 in family Nail, Daniel P Nail, Daniel W.P Nail, DelilahYdaughter of Joel Nail, EP Nal, EdwinYson of Joel Nail, EmmaYdaughter of Joel Nail, GreenwoodP Nail, HarrietYdaughter of Joel Nail, HenryC Nail, HenryWashington Co. PTombigbe claim Nail, IsabelleY daughter of Joel Nail, J. H.E Bucatuna Ck.P18 in family Nail, JenyP Nail, JoelY Nail, Joel Y7 mb chil. Nail, Joel AP Nail, Joel H Nail, John MP Nail, JonathonYson, J. H. Nail Nail, MarcheliP Nail, MauriceP Nail, MelvinaYdaughter of Joel Nail, MollyPland reserve Nail, MorrisYson of Henry Nail, Nellylm E AgencyP5 in family Nail, RobertYson: Edwin Nail, RobertPLand reservation Nail, Sally P Nail, SelinaYdaughter of Joel Nail, WilsonP [93]Folsom, and grandfather of Joel H. Nail, now living in Caddo, Indian Territory. He was another true and noble specimen of a Choctaw Christian man. A beautiful marble monument also marked his place of rest…. “The present Nail family of the Choctaws are the descendents of Henry Nail, a white man, who came among the Choctaws about the time Nathaniel Folsom, John Pitchlynn and Louis Le Fiore came; and as they did, so did...

LeFlore Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

When prominent mixed-blood families began to emerge from the Choctaw people in the early 1800s they usually did so where one or both parents were mixed bloods themselves. A case in point is the Leflore family. According to Cushman,1 the brothers Michael and Louis were living in[90] Choctaw country as early as the late eighteenth century.2 Cushman has the LeFlores in Mobile not long after the end of the French and Indian War and identifies them as French Canadians who entered Choctaw country as traders, Louis marrying into the mixed-blood Cravat family already in residence there (see Chart 16). J.F.H. Claiborne claimed to have personally known Louis LeFlore and recounted that: “Louis Le Fleur…owned one of these boats [used in trade with Panton & Company in Pensacola and Natchez], and in this business laid the foundation of his large fortune. When 1 knew him, in my early life, he had established an extensive plantation and cattle ranche [sic] in the Yazoo prairies, in the present county of Holmes, where he died a few years after the last treaty with the Choctaws. He had one hundred slaves and as many Indians, living about him. He was a small man, a Canadian, speaking a singular patois of provincial French and Choctaw, and though over eighty years old, was an indefatigable hunter, spending whole days in the overflowed prairies and swamps. He told me that he had been a great dancer in his youth, in Canada, and was called the flower of the fete. Hence the name Le Fleur, and the sobriquet superseded his original name.”3 Claiborne also stated that: Key to Chart Probable...

Juzan Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

One of the earliest and most colorful of the mixed-blood lines is the Juzan family (see Charts 14 and 15). The noted Choctaw historian Muriel Wright discussed the history and genealogy of the family in a little-known, private letter to a Juzan descendent in 1931, writing: “A young Frenchman by the name of De Juzan, acting as military aide to Chevalier De Noyan, fell in a battle [Ackia] between the French and the Chickasaws, in May 1736….Whether De Juzan was connected in any way with the Juzan family among the Choctaws is uncertain at this time, although it has been my understanding that the ancestor of the Juzans was a Frenchman who settled among the Choctaws in the latter half of the 18th century. “I am of the strong opinion that the fifth signer of the Treaty of Doaks Stand, in 1820, ‘James Hunizon’ was a James Juzan Hunizon being a corruption of the correct spelling ‘Juzan.’ In 1823, the missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions (Boston) established a school at Mr….Juzan’s who lived about 85 miles southeast of the Mayhew Mission (present Lowndes County, Miss.) and on the old Choctaw trading path to Mobile. In 1828, Pierre Juzan was among the older Choctaw boys who attended the Choctaw Academy at Blue Springs, Kentucky. He and George Harkins, another student, were reported to have been “an ornament to the nation.” …Major Juzan (probably the father, James) was said to have inspected the Academy [85]and given his approval of the institution In 1829 William Juzan was enrolled as a student.1 Key to Chart Probable = P, ...

Jones Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Blood

[80]The Jones family represents one of the longest lists of this study with sixty-one family members being listed in records (see Chart 13). Despite the probable duplication of Key to Chart Probable = P,  Countryman = C,  Yes = Y,  Trader = T, Married = md,  Mixed Blood = mb Chart 13[81a] Jones List of Mixed Bloods NameLocationMBRemarks Jones, (nfn)TensawC Jones, AnnaP Jones, BillyRobinson Road P 9 in familyP9 in family Jones, CharlesW Tombigbee R. P 3 in familyP3 in family Jones, CorneliusP Jones, DelilahP Jones, ElijahP Jones, FredP Jones, FredericP Jones, GincyP Jones, HoganP1 in family Jones, HolinP Jones, IsaacLapluoursP Jones, IsaacAgencyP9 in family Jones, JackP Jones, JacksonP Jones, JamesP9 in family Jones, JenniferRobinson RoadP4 in family Jones, JesseP Jones, JimmyP Jones, JimpsonP Jones, JohnP Jones, JohnP12 in family Jones, JohnP1 in family Jones, John, Sr.C2 mb chil. Jones, JonathonTombigbee RCRev War Vet Jones, JosephP Jones, LenTombigbee RP8 in family Jones, LeviP15 in family Jones, LoganP Jones, LucyTombigbee RP4 in family Jones, MahaleP Jones, MichaelBigbeeP Jones, Mollynear HebrinP2 in family Jones, Mrs. JaneP Jones, Na SheP Jones, NatPearl RiverP9 in family Jones, NorrisP Jones, PhillisP Jones, PollyAlabamaY Jones, RobertP1 in family Jones, Robert M.P2 in family Jones, S.P Jones, SabalaP Jones, SamuelTrading HouseP Jones, Samuel2m fm FactoryPdeceased Jones, SamuelP(Jr?) Jones, Samuel, JrNoxubeeP Jones, SinahP Jones, SineyP Jones, SolomonPearl RiverY6 in family Jones, TennesseOknoxoby CreekP3 mb chit. Jones, ThomasP Jones, TredrickNoxubeeF5 in family Jones, WidowRobinson RoadP2 in family Jones, WidowP6 in family Jones, WilliamY Jones, WilliamYT500 debtor Jones, WilliamY Jones, WilliamP10 in family Jones, Wilson N.P [82]names there are by conservative estimate more than fifty valid individuals represented. Of...

Indian Removal and the Legacy

[177]The articles of removal of the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek were set into motion immediately. By 1831 and 1832 when Removal was in full force mixed bloods still maintained their positions of trust and authority within the tribe. During Removal the percentage of mixed-blood captains — the headmen and leaders of the organized emigrant bands bound for the new Indian nation -was greater than their percentage within the overall population of the tribe (see Chart 22). Their understanding of the English language and the ways of Americans became even more valuable as the bands of emigrants made their way into western Arkansas and present day Oklahoma. As the emigrants reported to the government agents west of the Mississippi River a note of each arrival was entered in a journal in order to establish eligibility for the year’s supplies granted in the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (see Database of Choctaw Mixed Blood Names). [178] Prior to the emigrants’ departure from Mississippi federal officials had conducted a census to ascertain not only a population count but also to obtain available information about individual land holdings and improvements. Popularly called the Armstrong Roll, this census indicated sizes of families and also identified some mixed bloods (see Database of Choctaw Mixed Blood Names). The Armstrong Roll also contained the geographical locations of the Indians, documenting the fact that many mixed bloods and full bloods either lived together in the same or adjoining household or as close neighbors, while others lived in communities made up exclusively of full bloods or exclusively of mixed bloods.1 The full blood Indian wives of countrymen and mixed...

From Alliance to Removal

[138]Throughout the Jeffersonian period and later, the white countrymen and mixed bloods expanded their influence over the full-blood tribal members. One aspect of this can be seen by analyzing the ratio of full-blood to mixed-blood Choctaw signers of treaties with the United States. CHART 19 Breakdown of Choctaw treaty Signers Year Treaty Full Bloods Mixed Blood 1786 Hopewell 29  0 1801 Ft. Adams 15 1 (6%) 1802  Ft. Confederation 10  0 1803 Hoe Buckintoopa 10 0 1805 Mt. Dexter 14  9 (39%) 1816 Trading House 11 2 (15%) 1820 Doaks Stand 78 25 (24%) 1825 Washington 4* 4 (50%) 1830 Dancing Rabbit Creek 127 44 (26%) Two major Choctaw chiefs in the treaty party died before it was signed. Had they lived the mixed-blood percentage would have been 40%. Extracted from Kappler[139] One of the most apparent facts to emerge from Chart 19 is the high percent of mixed bloods participating in the major cession treaties of 1805, 1820, and 1830. The treaties of 1816 and 1825 were not major cessions. The 1816 treaty of the Choctaw Trading House extinguished Choctaw claims to lands also claimed by the Creek Indians and ceded at Fort Jackson in 1814. The Treaty of 1825 in Washington, D. C. was an adjustment to the Treaty of Doaks Stand in 1820 and resulted in a net land gain for the tribe. When analyzing the treaties signed in Choctaw country after the Creek War, there is an ascending percentage of mixed bloods signing, from 15 percent in 1816, to 24 percent in 1820, to 26 percent in 1830. The figures for the treaty held in...

Jefferson, Mixed Bloods and Frontier Defense

[102]By the beginning of the nineteenth century at least two major changes had altered the political environment affecting the Choctaw Indians. Within the Choctaw tribe several countrymen were beginning to exert influence in tribal decisions. Although not yet accepted as equals to the chiefs, white men such as Nathaniel Folsom and John Pitchlynn were respected and utilized as counselors in negotiations between the tribe and American officials. External to the tribe, the United States had negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo in 1795 with Spain and assumed economic hegemony over the tribes which mainly resided on lands north of the thirty-first parallel. Because this 1795 treaty agreed to American control of Indians within the newly recognized borders, the following year President Washington named Benjamin Hawkins, a senator from North Carolina and Revolutionary War veteran, to the post of Superintendent of Southern[103] Indians.1 Washington’s successor, John Adams, later oversaw the creation of Mississippi Territory and named a puritanical, New England Federalist, Winthrop Sargent, to be its governor and share with Hawkins the responsibility for Indian matters in the region. The state of world affairs was in great flux at the turn of the new century: France exerted efforts to reacquire its Louisiana territories lost to Britain earlier in the French and Indian War; the United States was on the brink of war with revolutionary France which resented Jay’s Treaty in 1795 with England; and Spanish officials in West Florida continued to oppose American expansion into the Gulf region. In essence the United States was just beginning to feel the economic pressures created by the Anglo-French clash brought about by the French...

Choctaw Indian Treaty Signers, 1830

There exists several thousand names from government claims records and commission hearings, as well as genealogical evidence, which indicate a broad occurrence of mixed bloods in the Choctaw tribe. This study lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This study includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value. Readers interested in more information should start their research here: Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal Choctaw Indian Treaty Signers, 1830. Done, and  signed, and executed by the Commissioners of the United States, and the chiefs, captains and head men of the Choctaw Nation, at Dancing Rabbit Creek, this 27th day of September, eighteen and thirty. Name Name Jno. H. Eaton Yobalarunehahubbee, his x mark Jno. Coffee Holubbee, his x mark Greenwood Leflore Robert Cole, his x mark Musholatubbee, his x mark Mokelareharhopin, his x mark Nittucachee, his x mark Lewis Perry, his x mark Holarterhoomah, his x mark Artonamaratubbe, his x mark flopiatinchahubbee. his x mark Hopeatubbee, his x mark Zishomingo, his x mark Hoahahoomah, his x mark Captainthalke, his x mark Chuallahoomah, his x mark James Shield, his x mark Joseph Kincaide, his x mark Pistiyubbee, his x mark Eyarhocuttubbee, his x mark Iyaeherhopia, his x mark Heshohomme, his x mark Offahoomala, his x mark John McKnIbery, his x mark Archalater, his x mark Benjm. James, his x mark Onnahubbee, his x mark Tikbachahambe, his x...
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