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Geography of the Ocmulgee-Altamaha River Basin

Along with the Oconee River, the Ocmulgee River is a major tributary of the Altamaha River System. Although little known outside of Georgia, the Altamaha is the third largest river on the Atlantic Coast. The Ocmulgee is 225 miles long from its beginning in the Georgia Piedmont to its confluence with the Oconee River in Southeast Georgia near Lumber City. The Altamaha continues another 140 miles to the coast at the old colonial port of Darien. The largest tributaries of the Ocmulgee begin on the eastern edge of the Atlanta Metropolitan Area. They include the Alcovy, South and Yellow Rivers – all three of which are often flanked by swamps or seasonal wetlands. The location where the three rivers once joined is now under Lake Jackson. Several other important tributaries join the river farther downstream. The Towaliga River flows southeastward from High Falls and joins the Ocmulgee just north of Juliette, GA. Rocky Creek is as large as many rivers in the state. It carries the water of Indian Springs via Big Sandy Creek to the Ocmulgee, south of Jackson, GA. Tobesofkee Creek joins the river just north of Macon. Echeconnee Creek forms the southwestern border of Bibb County and joins the river at the southern tip of Bibb. The Little Ocmulgee River flows out of Gum Creek Swamp and joins the Ocmulgee immediately east of Lumber City, GA and just upstream from the confluence of the Ocmulgee with the Oconee River. Below Lake Jackson, the Ocmulgee drops at gentle slope of about 1 foot per mile. Between the wetlands that spawn the Ocmulgee’s tributaries in Metropolitan Atlanta and...

Geographical Names of the Norwich VT Locality

Of the little settlements in the township of Norwich which seem to be existing in the sunset of their former glory, may be mentioned Beaver Meadow, or West Norwich. This place presents a notable instance of that decline in population and decay of business interests in a rural community, of which Vermont affords many examples since the advent of railroads and the fever of western emigration set in. For more than thirty years population, wealth, and enterprise have been drifting away from that section of the town. Probably the settlement reached the height of its prosperity previous to 1840. During the decade that preceded this date two churches were built here, a Baptist church in 1835, and Methodist church about two years later. Regular meetings were held, and full congregations gathered from the immediate neighborhood. Large families of children filled the schools, to the number of sixty pupils of a winter, sometimes. The village had for many years its well-stocked country store, and a variety of mechanics’ shops. Intelligent and thrifty farmers cultivated the productive farms. Before 1850 the exodus commenced. The Baptist society had its last settled minister in 1869, and a few years later, the church having become nearly extinct, the meeting house was taken down, and the lumber used to build a parsonage for the Baptist church in Sharon village. Four years earlier the Methodists had their last regular appointment from the Conference, though regular preachers were had some portion of the time much later. Many farms tilled forty years ago are wholly abandoned as homesteads, and others are in process of abandonment. It is impossible...

Map of part of North America from Cape Charles to the Mouth of the River Mississipi

Captain John Barnwell, otherwise known as Tuscarora Jack, was a well known frontier settler who was active in the 1711 Tuscarora War. His travels throughout the Southeast enabled him to draw a relatively accurate map of the area of his travels and exploration, some from second hand information, but most from first hand. For researchers of the Southeast this map is critical, and never before seen online in such a large form as to be able to read the hand writing and personal descriptions and historical details as outlined by Barnwell. In order to view this map in a form that made it legible you had to travel to one of the two locations the actual versions exist.

Sauthier’s 1779 Map of New York

Sauthier’s map of New York summarizes much of the British military mapping done in the years preceding the revolution. Sautier himself typifies the multi-cultural staff of the British corps of engineers. Born in Strasbourg, Sautier practiced surveying in his native Alsace. He was eventually employed by Governor Tyron in 1776, and appointed surveyor for the Province of New York in 1773. As surveyor for New York he was involved in determining the disputed boundaries of the province.  After 1776 he was employed as a military surveyor. In compiling this map Sauthier drew on his detailed surveys, as well as on the surveys of Bernard Ratzer, another important surveyor and map maker in the years preceding the Revolution. Predictably, Sauthier’s map focuses on New York’s boundaries, including an area disputed between New York and New Jersey, and New York’s extensive claims in what is now Vermont. Depicted in this map are the locations of Indian villages, Jesuit missions, and the names of many proprietors of vast tracts of claimed New York...

Map of Zwaanendael

Nautical chart of Zwaanendael (“Swanendael”) and Godyn’s Bay in New Netherland. Zwaanendael was a patroonship founded by Samuel Godyn, a director of the Dutch West India Company, in 1629. Godyn made his land claim to the West India Company under jurisdiction of the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions. After a short time, the initial 32 inhabitants were murdered by local Indians and Godyn sold his land back to the West India Company. The West India Company kept the names of the local area, including Godyn’s Bay, which eventually became Delaware Bay. The text in Dutch at left side of the map reads: The nations at the South River are Great Sironese at the Hoerenkil, Sewapois, Remkokes, Small Sironese, Minquaen also named Machaorikyns, Naraticonck, Atsayonck, Mantaes, Rechaweygh, Armewamix, Matikongh, Momakavaongk, Sankikans. These above described nations have friendships with each other. And are mostly one people with one language, with the exception of the Machaoretijns that are named like this because of their language that is Minquaens and is as much similar as with us old Dutch or Wallonian. The life of these people is totally free. Their soothsayers or devil preachers have nothing to say over them, their shamans can’t order them and have no authority to give someone a death penalty. The marriages are not fixed, most have one wife, the chief more than one. And they leave their women easily, and these will go from one to another like a whore, usually women are disowned after having a child and as a result the population remains low. Translation of the tribal names: Sironese – Ciconicine Sewapois – Sewaposees,...

Map Making, from Majorca to Appalachia

From the moment that Europeans learned that a New World existed across the waters of the Atlantic, map makers in Western Europe began turning maps of that New World. At first these maps were grossly inaccurate and assumed the either the Americas were part of the Orient or merely consisted of islands off the shores of Asia. As more and more log books and navigation charts were returned to Spain, Portugal, France and England by explorers, the maps grew more precise.

John Mitchell’s Map

The Mitchell Map remained the most detailed map of North America available in the later eighteenth century. Various impressions (and also French copies) were directly used to help establish the boundaries of the new United States of America by diplomats at the Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the American Revolutionary War. The map’s inaccuracies subsequently led to a number of border disputes, such as in Maine. Its supposition that the Mississippi extended north to the 50th parallel (into British territory) resulted in the treaty using it as a landmark for a geographically impossible definition of the border in that region. It was not until 1842, with the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, that the U.S.-Canadian border was clearly drawn from Maine to the Oregon Country. This finally ended ambiguities resulting from use of the map to define American territory at the end of the Revolution. Since Mitchell’s main objective was to show the French threat to the British colonies, there is a very strong pro-British bias in the map, especially with regard to the Iroquois. The map makes clear that the Iroquois were not just allies of Britain, but subjects, and that all Iroquois land was therefore British territory. Huge parts of the continent are noted as being British due to Iroquois conquest of one tribe or another. French activity within the Iroquois claimed lands are noted, explicitly or implicitly, as illegal. In cases where the imperial claims of Britain and France were questionable, Mitchell always takes the British side. Thus many of his notes and boundaries seem like political propaganda today. Some of the claims seem to...

Historical Maps of the United States

Other then adding a splash of color to a web page, maps provide the researcher valuable clues to historic why’s. Here at AccessGenealogy we believe early maps play a valuable role in identifying the location and names of Indian villages and towns. While not always accurate as to the actual placement of villages (especially the early American ones), maps do shed light on the tribal affiliations, the identification of the tribe by various government entities (mainly French, Spanish and British), and approximate locations. Historical Maps of the United States 1640 Virginiae et Floridae Map 1718 de L’Isle Map 1755 Mitchell Map 1779 Map of Georgia Alabama Land Cessions Map De Bry’s Map of 1561 Northern Alabama Land Cessions Map Sewall’s Map of Minnesota,...

A Geospatial Analysis

As stated in Part Three, the Stratum Unlimited, LLC report in 2001 (Other Missing Stone Archaeological Sites) virtually ignored the Native American communities in northern Georgia. Almost all were contemporary with the occupation of the Track Rock Terraces. This omission was particularly inexcusable for the town sites that were adjacent to the two creeks, which flow off of Track Rock Gap, Town Creek and Arkaqua Creek.  In 1930s and 1940s, archaeologist George Wauchope found evidence of long term occupancy at these sites that apparently began before the Track Rock terraces were constructed, and sometimes continued into the Federal Period. It should be understood, however, that since only two test pits were dug, the Track Rock terraces may be older than currently assumed. The two large towns on the Etowah River in Georgia, known today as the Leake Mounds (100 BC-750 AD) Etowah Mounds (990 AD – 1585 AD,) culturally dominated the Lower Southeast for many centuries.  It is 68 miles southwest of Track Rock Gap.  The “logo” of the town of Etowah is on both the Track Rock petroglyphs and the Judaculla petroglyphs in North Carolina. The Judaculla petroglyphs are approximately the same distance northeast of Track Rock Gap as Etowah Mounds. However, the Judaculla petroglyphs were discussed extensively in the Stratum Unlimited, LLC report, while Etowah Mounds was ignored.  As stated earlier, the main plaza at Etowah Mounds was supported by a six feet high retaining wall.  A large complex of concentric fieldstone ellipses and other walls overlooked Etowah Mounds from Ladds Mountain. Geospatial Relationship to Georgia Sites In order to define the geospatial relationship between site 9UN367...
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