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Brotherton Tribe

Brotherton Indians. The name of two distinct bands, each formed of remnants of various Algonquian tribes. The best-known band was composed of individuals of the Mahican, Wappinger, Mohegan, Pequot, Narraganset, etc., of Connecticut and Rhode Island, and of the Montauk and others from Long Island, who settled in 1788 on land given them by the Oneida at the present Marshall, Oneida County, New York, near the settlement then occupied by the Stockbridge. Those of New England were mainly from Farmington, Stonington, Groton, Mohegan, and Niantic (Lyme), in Connecticut, and from Charlestown in Rhode Island. They all went under the leadership of Samson Occum the Indian minister, and on arriving in Oneida county called their settlement Brotherton. As their dialects were different they adopted the English language. They numbered 250 in 1791. In 1833 they removed to Wisconsin with the Oneida and Stockbridge and settled on the east side of Winnebago Lake, in Calumet County, where they soon after abandoned their tribal relations and became citizens, together with the other emigrant tribes settled near Green Bay. They are called Wapanachki, “eastern people,” by the neighboring Algonquian tribes. The other band of that name was composed of Raritan and other divisions of the Delaware who, according to Ruttenber1, occupied a reservation called Brotherton, in Burlington County, New Jersey, until 1802, when they accepted an invitation to unite with the Stockbridge and Brotherton then living in Oneida County, New York. In 1832 they sold their last rights in New Jersey. They were then reduced to about 40 souls and were officially recognized as Delaware and claimed territory south of the Raritan as...

Metoac Tribe

Metoac Indians (contraction of Meht-anaw-ack, ‘land of the ear-shell or periwinkle. Tooker). A collective term embracing the Indians of Long Island, New York, who seem to have been divided into the following tribes, subtribes, or bands: Canarsee, Corchaug, Manhasset, Massapequa, Matinecoc, Merric, Montauk, Nesaquake, Patchoag, Rockaway, Secatoag, Setauket, and Shinnecock. There were besides these some minor bands or villages which have received special designations. They were closely connected linguistically and politically, and were probably derived from the same immediate ethnic stein. Ruttenber classes them as branches of the Mahican. The Montauk, who formed the leading tribe in the eastern part of the island, are often confounded with the Metoac, and in some instances the Canarsee of the western part have also been confounded with them. The eastern tribes were at one time subject to the Pequot and afterward to the Narraganset, while the Iroquois claimed dominion over the western tribes. They were numerous at the first settlement of the island, but rapidly wasted away from epidemics and wars with other Indians and with the Dutch, disposing of their lands piece by piece to the whites. About 1788 a large part of the survivors joined the Brotherton Indians in Oneida county, N. Y. The rest, represented chiefly by the Montauk and Shinnecock, have dwindled to perhaps a dozen individuals of mixed blood. The Indians of Long Island were a seafaring people, mild in temperament, diligent in the pursuits determined by their environment, skilled in the management of the canoe, seine, and spear, and dexterous in the making of seawan or wampum (Flint). The chieftaincies were hereditary by lineal descent, including...

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