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Condition of New York Indians in the 1890 Census

This collection of material provides an extensive look into the New York Indian tribes as they existed in 1890. While some attention is given to the remnants of the Long Island Indians, most of the material is specific to the Six Nations. The data includes maps of the Reservations, and lists and photographs of occupants of those reservations in 1890.

Mescalero Apache Reservation

The area of New Mexico was acquired by the United States by capture and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of February 2, 1818, and the Gadsden purchase of December 30, 1853. The Indians discovered therein by the Spaniards in 1539 were the Pueblos, or Towndwellers, along the Rio Grande or on streams tributary to it, the Apaches, in the south and west, some Utes in the north, with occasional foraging parties of Comanches, Pawnees, Sioux, and others. The Texan Indians, including the Lipans (Apaches), frequently roamed the southeastern portion and down into Mexico. The Navajos (Apaches) were the fierce and warlike Indian’s. They covered at times almost all of the area of New Mexico excepting the portion occupied by the Pueblos and their lands directly adjoining the missions or churches. Prior to 1846, the date of occupation by the United States, the Spanish and afterward the Mexican government had frequent difficulties with the New Mexican roaming tribes. The Apaches about Fort Stanton, known as the Fort Stanton Apaches, who removed to the Mescalero agency and reservation in 1873-1874, were most dangerous to the white people. The Santa Fe Trail, the road from St. Joseph or Westport, Mo., to Santa Fe and Mexico, became famous as an Indian raiding ground, for over it the commerce of an enormous region passed by pack train or in wagons. Finally a mail route was created. The Apaches made life cheap along this route for many years. Kit Carson and the trappers and hunters of fame, who made their headquarters along the Arkansas and Cimarron, and at Taos and Santa Fe, were at almost...

Condition of the Nevada Indians in 1890

The Moapa River reservation has no subagent. It is a small reservation, 1,000 acres, in southeastern Nevada, and is a mere rallying point for wandering Shoshone Indians. It is nominally attached to the Nevada agency. The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Nevada, counted in the general census, number 3,599 (1,913 males and 1,686 females), and are distributed as follows: Churchill County, 230; Douglas County, 117; Elko County, 301; Esmeralda, County, 406; Eureka County, 194; Humboldt County, 425; Lander County, 382; Lincoln County, 355; Nye County, 414; Ormsby County, 134; Storey County, 100; Washoe County, 303; White Pine County, 238. These Indians have no peculiarities not indicated in the general descriptions following: Agencies and Reservations Tribe Total Males Females Ration Indians Total 1,552 701 758 494    Nevada agency 966 484 482 110    Western Shoshone agency 586 310 276 294 Nevada agency 966 484 482 110    Pyramid Lake reservation Piute (Pah Ute) 485 250 235 75    Walker River reservation Piute (Pah Ute) 181 234 247 35 Western Shoshone agency 586 810 270 294    Duck Valley reservation (a) Piute (Pah Ute) 203 104 99 102 Western Shoshone 383 206 177 192 Tribe, Stock and Location of the Indians in Nevada Tribes Stock Reservation Agency Gosh Ute Shoshonean Duck Valley Western Shoshone Kaibabit Shoshonean Moapa River Komahwivi (Tantawait, Chimehneva) Shoshonean Moapa River Malheur Shoshonean Duck Valley Western Shoshone Pah Ute Shoshonean Duck Valley Western Shoshone Pah Ute (Paviotso) Shoshonean Pyramid Lake and Walker River Pawipit Shoshonean Monpa River Piute Shoshonean Monpa River Shiwit Shoshonean Monpa River Shoshone (Western band) Shoshonean Duck Valley Western Shoshone Nevada Agency The Indians of...

Condition of the Nebraska Indians in 1890

The Flandreau Sioux (Santee), who are Indians taxed, are not on a reservation, but are attached to the Santee agency for the purpose of government aid only. They own their lands and are citizens, voting in South Dakota. During 1889 rations were issued to them for 6 months because of failure of crops. The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Nebraska, counted in the general census, number 2,893 (1,480 males and 1,413 females), and are distributed as follows: Boyd County, 107; Cuming County, 39; Knox County, 625; Nance County, 201; Thurston, County, 1,898; other Counties (5 or less in each), 23. Agencies and Reservations, Tribe, Total, Males, Females, Ration Indians Total, 3,536, 1,707,1,760, 95 Omaha and Winnebago agency, 2,373, 1,184, 1,189, 61 Santee agency, 1,086, 541, 545, 34 Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha agency, Kansas 77, 42, 00 Omaha and Winnebago agency 2, 373, 1,184, 1,189 Omaha reservation, Omaha Tribe, 1,158, 567, 591, 00 Winnebago reservation, Winnebago Tribe, 1,215, 617, 598, 61 Santee and Flandreau agency, _______ Tribe, 1,086, 541, 545, 34 Niobrara reservation, Santee Sioux, 869, 426, 433, 34 Ponca reservation, Ponca of Dakota, 217, 105, 112, 00 Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha agency, Kansas, Sac and Fox reservation, Sac and Fox of Missouri, 77, 42, 35, 00 Omaha and Winnebago Agency The Omahas have been here from the earliest history of the country. They settled on the Omaha reservation in 1854-1855. The Winnebagos were first heard of in the vicinity of Rockford, Illinois. They were taken thence to Green Bay, or Fort Winnebago, in 1827, then to Turkey River, Iowa, leaving there in 1819, going to Long Prairie, Wisconsin, where they...

Condition of the Mississippi Indians in 1890

The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Mississippi, counted in the general census, number 2,030 (1,044 males and 992 females), and are distributed as follows: Attala County, 24; Greene County, 37; Hancock County, 39; Hinds County, 14; Jasper County, 179; Kemper County, 34; Lauderdale County, 14; Leake County, 435; Neshoba, County, 623; Newton County, 349; Perry County, 38; Scott County, 123; Sharkey County 12; Winston County, 41; other counties (9 or less in each), 74. To the east of the gate capital in Mississippi in the uplands are a number of counties not traversed by any railroad, and therefore locally known as cow counties from their dependence for communication on roads and trails, suggestive of cow paths. The greater part of the Indians of the state are out in contiguous cow counties. They are remnants of The Five Civilized Tribes, mainly Choctaws, descendants in part of those who originally were found in this region and did not go west of the Mississippi river, and partly representing those who from time to, time have returned from the west. These people generally own little patches of a few acres, which they cultivate and add to their means of living by working for others, hunting, and some simple handicraft. In the spring they go into the larger towns to dispose of such pelts as they may have collected and sell baskets made in considerable numbers from the cane. White, boys in the towns at the season are generally supplied with blowguns, made by these Indians from the hollow cane stems, and furnished with darts fitted with feathers or cotton down. Wild blackberries for a...

Condition of the Maine Indians in 1890

The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Maine, counted in the general census, number 559 (299 males and 260 females), and are distributed as follows: Aroostook County, 24; Penobscot County, 387; Piscataquis County, 37; Washington County, 89; other counties (9 or less in each), 22. The United States has no dealings with the Indians of Maine as tribes. The Penobscot Indians have their headquarters at Old Town and dwell chiefly along the Penobscot river in the county of the same name. The state of Maine has an agent for them, and the state treasurer reports $11,026.70 paid out on their account in 1890, of which 82,982 was for shore rents. They are generally of the Roman Catholic faith. Their children attend schools under the town authorities and there is one school under the Sisters of Charity. They carry on a limited agriculture, receiving a bounty from the state for produce. The Penobscot Indians received in the aggregate in 1890 bounties of $200 for the following numbers of bushels of articles named: potatoes, 2,244; beans, 154; pease, 28; oats, 510; barley, 45; buckwheat, 35; root crops, 212. A large part of the tribe goes to summer resorts to sell baskets and other articles of their manufacture. The young men find profitable employment in lumbering, and are esteemed as excellent river drivers. The state agent notes ninny signs of improvement among them. He considers their love for intoxicating drink the greatest enemy these Indians have, and recommends the appointment of a constable among them to arrest drunken and disorderly persons. These Indians elect a representative in the state legislature. The Passamaquoddy Indians have...

1890 Census Guide – Questions & Information

The census of 1890 was taken, under the supervision of Robert P. Porter,14 according to an act of March 1, 1889, and modeled after that used for the 1880 Census. The enumeration began on June 2, 1890, because June 1 was a Sunday. The census employed 175 supervisors, with one or more appointed to each state or territory, exclusive of Alaska and Indian territory. Each subdivision assigned to an enumerator was not to exceed 4,000 inhabitants. Enumeration was to be completed in cities with populations under 10,000 (according to the 1880 Census results) was to be completed within 2 weeks. Enumerators were required to collect all the information required by the act by a personal visit to each dwelling and family. As in 1880, experts and special agents were hired to make special enumerations of manufactures,15 Indians living within the jurisdiction of the United States, and a separate enumeration of Alaska. Furthermore, the schedule collecting social statistics was withdrawn from enumerators; the work of obtaining statistics concerning mines and mining, fisheries, churches, education, insurance, transportation, and wealth, debt, and taxation, also was conducted by experts and special agents. Robert P. Porter was appointed as Superintendent of Census by the President on April 17, 1889. He resigned the position on July 31, 1893. In 1890, the manufactures schedules were withdrawn from the general enumeration for 1,042 “important” manufacturing centers (opposed to 279 in 1880). Special agents were responsible for collecting the detailed data in these areas. Robert B. Porter served as Superintendant of Census until his resignation on July 31, 1893. On October 3, 1893, Congress enacted a law that...
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