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1870 Census Guide – Questions & Information

The 1870 census commenced on June 1, 1870, and was taken under the provisions of the census act of May 23, 1850. 12 The Secretary of Interior appointed General Francis A. Walker Superintendent of the Ninth Census on February 7, 1870. Although the 1870 Census was under the 1850 act, a new bill approved on May 6, 1870, made the following changes: The marshals were to submit the returns from “schedule 1” (free inhabitants) to the Census Office by September 10, 1870. All other schedules were to be submitted by October 1, 1870. The 1850 law authorizing penalties for refusing to reply to the inquiries was expanded to apply to all inquiries made by enumerators. Redesigned schedules used for 1870 and the omission of a “slave” schedule made possible several additional inquiries as follows: General Population Schedule. This schedule collected data from the entire population of the United States. Mortality. This schedule collected data on persons who died during the year. In addition to the 1860 inquiries, inquiries were modified to include Schedule 1’s additions to collect data on parentage and to differentiate between Chinese and American Indians. Inquiries concerning “free or slave” status and “number of days ill” were discontinued. Agriculture. The 1860 inquiries were used with additional requests for (1) acreage of woodland, (2) production of Spring and Winter wheat, (3) livestock sold for slaughter, (4) total tons of hemp produced, (5) total wages paid, (6) gallons of milk sold, (7) value of forest products, and (8) estimated value of all farm productions. Products of Industry. Using the 1860 schedule as a basis, additional information was requested...

Indian Census of 1853-1890

Census of 1850 The United States censuses prior to 1850 did not include Indians, and they were not stated in the total of population. The Indian census of 1850 grew out of an enumeration of the Indians under authority of the following clause in the Indian appropriation act of June 27, 1846: And it shall be the duty of the different agents and subagents to take a census and to obtain such other statistical information of the several tribes of Indians among whom they respectively reside as may bo required by the Secretary of War, and in melt form as he shall prescribe. In the Seventh Census of the United States, 1850, page XCIV, appears as table of Indian population, which includes a statement by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated November 10, 1853, of the number of’ Indians in the United States at that time, The aggregate, wording to this statement, was 400,764, but this does not profess to be accurate, for the number of Indians in the states of South Carolina, California, and Texas, the territories of Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico, and those belonging to the Blackfeet, Sioux, Kiowa, Comanche, Pawnee, “and other tribes”, numbering, according to the table, 279,130, are confessedly “estimates”. Thus, while Schoolcraft, in the statement dated July 1850, reports the California Indians at 32,231, this statement, 3 years later, “estimates” their number at 100,000. Indians In The United States In 1853 The following statement was made up on November 10, 1853, at the request of the Superintendent of the Seventh Census, 1850, by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, It is valuable...

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