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History of Manufactures of Keene, New Hampshire
Posted By Dennis Partridge On In New Hampshire | No Comments
Cheshire county, with perhaps a few towns in the northerly portion of Worcester county, Mass., adjacent thereto, may be regarded as the birthplace of wooden-ware manufacturing, and until 1860 it was noted as the principal center of that class of manufacture, and it is yet quite a prominent industry of the vicinity, though the business, as it has extended, has gone largely to other places where timber is more plentiful. It is said that the first wooden-pails made by machinery were manufactured at Keene, by Jehiel Wilson, who now resides at South Keene.
The manufacture of clothes-pins by machinery is said to have originated in Rindge, or Winchendon, Mass., and forty years ago was confined almost exclusively to a few towns in that immediate vicinity. The machinery then used was of the most primitive nature, consisting only of the hand lathe, in which the pins were turned by the ” gouge and chisel,” applied by the dextrous hand of the workman, and a few circular saws used in preparation of the timber and in cutting the slots. At that time the product of a shop employing half a dozen operatives would be about sixty gross per day; but soon after this the introduction of special machinery began to increase the facilities of production, and to-day the output of a like number of operatives would be at least five times as great as in 1845. With improved facilities and increasing demand, a larger number of manufactories sprung up in different parts of the county, until at onetime, from 18S5 to 1865, perhaps forty or fifty might have been enumerated, with capacities for turning out from loo to 300 or 400 gross of pins each per day. Limited timber supply, however, has caused them to scatter in various directions, until at present we think only two of any note remain-those of Z. Willard and Farwell Bros., of Harrisville.
The manufacture of shoe-pegs was formerly carried on at Chesterfield, Swanzey, Troy and Dublin, and, from 1861 to 1865, quite extensively at Keene, where they have been made on a quite limited scale until within two or three years past. But this business is now numbered among the things of the past in this section of the country, having been transferred principally to a few establishments located in Pennsylvania, with two or three perhaps in New York and northern New Hampshire. Most of the modern machinery for this branch of manufacturing is of New Hampshire origin, and from 1860 to 1870, and later, it was manufactured largely at Keene, whence it has been sent to various parts of the United States, British provinces, and Germany.
In the line of machinery, Keene was the starting point of the J. A. Fay Co., and other extensive wood-working machinery establishments, which now have branches at Cincinnati, Chicago, New York, and Norwich, Conn., and formerly at Worcester, Mass. The business having developed from a small beginning in the manufacture of patent mortising machines, by one George Page, at a shop on Washington street, operated by horse-power. This afterwards engaged the attention of the late Hon. Thomas M. Edwards and Aaron Davis, who had a small iron foundry at South Keene, to which place the works were removed, and a manufactory driven by waterpower was established. They were afterward joined by J. A. Fay, an energetic and shrewd business man, who succeeded in developing the business so. largely and rapidly as to give occasion for the establishment of branch manufactories at Norwich, Conn., Worcester, Mass., and Cincinnati, Ohio, while that at Keene grew to mammoth proportions, and was continued until after the death of Mr. Fay, being wound up by the resident partner and manager, Edwin Joslin, Esq., who retired from active business in that line, and transferred its good-will to the branch at Norwich, which is still continued under the style of C. B. Rogers & Co., who have sales.rooms at New York city, while the branch at Cincinnati continues under the old and widely-known firm name of J. A. Fay & Co., with branch salesrooms at Chicago, New York, &c. The Worcester branch having been sold many years since to Messrs. R. Ball & Co., and later to Messrs. Witherby, Rugg & Richardson, who are at present extensively engaged in the manufacture of a line of wood-working machinery which has been developed from the parent establishment many years ago at Keene.
The manufacture of glass was also carried on quite extensively at one time. For this purpose the New Hampshire Glass Co. was incorporated, about the -close of the war of 1812. They carried on the manufacture of window-glass about one year, upon the present site of the county jail, when they failed. Aaron Appleton and his nephew, John Elliott, then purchased the property, and the business was conducted by them or under their auspices until about 1845, when circumstances arose which rendered the manufacture of glass unprofitable here, and it was abandoned. The land was sold as a site for the county jail in 1884. A company was also formed, about 1815, for manufacturing glass bottles, of which Henry Schoolcraft was manager. This company also failed, and the plant was sold to Justus Perry, who accumulated a handsome property in the manufacture of demijons and black bottles. His half-brother, Samuel, and Quincey Wheeler succeeded him in the business, which they carried on until 1840 or 45, when it was removed to Stoddard, where, after a few years, the buildings burned, and the business ceased.
Cheshire Steam Mills. – In the latter part of 1854 a large lot of old growth pine timber was blown down on land situated in the northerly part of the town, and to work the same into merchantable lumber a steam mill of about fifty horse power was erected on Court street, by Messrs. Stephen and Charles Chase, which was operated by them some five or six years, when it was sold to Charles Chase and Madison Fairbanks, who removed it to a site on Davis and Ralston streets, near the Ashuelot railroad, about 1860, putting up quite extensive shops, and increasing the steam plant to about 120 horse-power, which was used by various manufacturing enterprises, such as saw and grist-mills, machine shop, and manufacture of pails, shoe-pegs, sash, blinds and doors, etc., etc., being run by Messrs. Chase and Fairbanks, and afterward by Mr. Fairbanks alone, until January 15, 1869, when the main building was burned. It was partially rebuilt, however, by Mr. Fairbanks, but soon after sold to Hon. S. W. Hale, who disposed of portions of the estate to A. B. Heywood and D. W. Beekly, who erected a brick building about 80 x 45 feet, three stories in height, and afterward (about 1872) disposed of the same by sale and lease to W. B. Wadner, of Boston, who, being unable to operate it profitably, discontinued business and transferred his interests to a Mr. H. Emerson, also of Boston. After standing idle several years, the property was again purchased by Mr. Hale, who made extensive additions to the buildings, which were furnished with machinery for the manufacture of furniture, which business was run until the buildings were destroyed by fire, July 23, 1884. As the engine and boiler, etc., were but slightly injured, it is probable that the mills will again be rebuilt.
The Beaver Mills. – The history of the Beaver Mills runs back to 1871, when a company known as the Beaver Mills Company was organized for the manufacture of pails, operating a grist-mill, and furnishing power and apartments to various manufacturing enterprises. The original company conducted business until January 1, 1874, when a new company, known as the Hope Steam mills, succeeded it, continuing until January. 1881, when the corporation again assumed its original name. The company own two large and substantial brick structures, each z00 by 60 feet and one loo by 60 feet, all three stories high, and lease ground upon which supplemental buildings of the Cheshire Chair Co. and Keene Furniture Co. stand. Within these buildings scenes of activity are presented on all sides. A 250 horse power engine furnishes motive power for the entire plant, while six forty-horse boilers generate steam for power, heat and numerous dry houses. Among the numerous industries which here find a home and the necessary power are the Humphrey Machine Co., J. M. Reeds box factory, Cheshire Chair Co., Keene Furniture Co., Spauldings chair stock factory, grist-mill, saw-mill and pail shop of the Beaver Mills. The industries conducted by the Beaver Mills are very important. Their saw-mill cuts thousands of feet of lumber annually, doing custom work, getting out stock for chair and furniture companies, dimension timber, and in the cutting of staves and heading for the pail and tub shop. For the latter industry about z,500 cords of sapling pine is cut annually. The pail shop is one of the largest in New England and produces 30,000 pails and 4,000 tubs per month. The production is what is termed grained pails, the staves being tongued and grooved and pails being of a quality which commands the very highest prices. This department is fitted with modern machinery, all perfectly adapted to the work of the company. The refuse from the pail stock, the furniture and chair companies and the box shop, is utilized as fuel in generating the steam for heating and power in all the structures.
The grist-mill of the company is the only establishment of its kind in Keene, and is run on both custom and merchant work. Three run of stones are operated, and the business of this department is large. The mill has been arranged by a master hand and is complete in every detail both in elevating grain and the storage of ground products. The officers of the company are, J. H. Elliott, president; W. H. Elliott, treasurer; F. A. Faulkner, clerk; H. N. Stone is superintendent; A. A. Woodward, cashier.
The management of Beaver Mills is in charge of an executive committee appointed by the stock holders, consisting of J. H. Elliott, the president, Edward Joslyn and F. A. Faulkner. Since these gentlemen entered upon their duties the affairs of the company have been excellently managed and a larger amount of work done than ever before.
The Humphrey Machine Co., – builders of turbine water-wheels and general and special machinery of various kinds, was organized as a corporation company, under the laws of New Hampshire, in 1874, J. Humphrey, president and general manager, A. B. Heywood, secretary and treasurer, succeeding to the business of J. Humphrey & Co., which was established by Mr. Humphrey, at Keene, in 186 r. Their shops at Beaver Mills occupy 150×60 feet of floor space, with storage and pattern lofts 60×30 feet each. They usually employ from twenty-five to thirty men, and have facilities for doing various kinds of work in their line. They have an extensive assortment of patterns for woodworking and other machinery, of special and improved designs, including circular and band saw-mills, box board machines, board jointers, planers matchers, &c., &c., also tub, pail, clothes.pin and shoe-peg machinery, being almost exclusive builders of the last named varieties. They likewise manufacture an improved caliper scale for lumbermen to measure and compute the contents of round timber or logs, in board or card measure, by a decimal System, recently devised and copy-righted by Mr. Humphrey, which saves much time, many figures, and ensures accuracy of computation. Their principal specialties, however, are the improved patent I-X-L and X-L-C-R waterwheels and rotary force pumps, with traction gearing hydrant, &c., which are among the best and most effective appliances for motive power and protection against fire. Of the I-X-L turbines they make about twenty sizes, ranging from 100 inches down to ten inches, or less, in diameter. They are used with vertical shafts, in the usual manner of applying turbines, while the X-L-C-R is a modification adapted to use with horizontal shafting, saving the cost, annoyance, and loss of power incident to the use of gears for transmitting motion from the vertical to the horizontal movers, making a very much more desirable motor than a vertical shaft-wheel, and as they are reputed as very economical in the use of water, they are fast gaining the attention and favor of the most discerning and progressive manufacturers and mill-owners. In conconnection with their water-wheels, the company give attention also to the construction of flumes, penstocks and mill-gearing generally, and make surveys, plans and estimates, for the development and improvement of waterpowers, and for the construction of machinery of various kinds.
Faulkner & Colony. – In 1815 Francis Faulkner and Josiah Colony commenced business on what is now West street, carding wool, cloth-dressing, and running a saw and grist-mill. They commenced in a small way, but did for that time quite a business. In 1825 they had the misfortune of being burned out, but immediately rebuilt, with brick. In 1835 they started the manufacture of woolen flannels, running one set of machinery. In 1838 fire again visited them, burning them out entirely; but nothing daunted, they commenced preparations for a new mill, and before 1839 they had completed a brick mill, which was enlarged in 1859, so that it now is 120×42 feet, four stories and an attic, with dye-house attached, 42X50 feet, one story, and dryinghouse; pickinG.house, 20×40 feet, two stories, second story used for pickers, first for drying wool, these buildings being of brick. They have a building in the rear 92×36 feet, two stories, used for storing wood and dye stuff, and wool in second story, or attic; storehouse south of mill, on the Cheshire railroad, 72×36 feet, one story, with capacity for storing 2,000 sacks of wool, this building being fire-proof; cloth drying and storage building, 24×75 feet, two stories. The office building is of brick, situated on the opposite side of the -street, 44×55 feet, two stories, sorting room being in the second story. In 1842 Francis Faulkner died, and the business was carried on by Mr. Colony, the family of the deceased retaining an interest in the film, and in 1846 Charles S. Faulkner became the junior member of the firm. Since his death, in July, 1879, the estate has been represented by Frederick A- Faulkner, son of Charles S. In 1866 Mr. Colony retired in favor of his two sons, George D. and Horatio, under the same name as when first started, in 1815. They run six sets of woolen cards, and thirty-two looms, employing fifty-five hands using about 350,000 pounds of wool, and produce 700,000 yards of twilled flannel per annum.
Nims, Whitney & Co. – Nearly forty years ago a small steam engine was put in operation to drive a carpenter shop on Mechanic street. This establishment, with increased building and power appliances, grew into quite an extensive manufactory of sash, blinds and doors, which business is at present continued by Messrs. Nims, Whitney & Co. Mr. Lanmon Nims, the senior partner of the present firm, was one of the earliest proprietors of the concern, and was the senior member of the firms of Nims & Buss, and Nims, Buss & Woodward, who were in business until about 1858, when, through some disagreement, Mr. Nims retired and Buss & Woodward carried 0n the business until about 1861 or 62, when they failed, and the property was sold to Messrs. Osborne & Hale, who had formerly leased room and power for the manufacture of chairs. The sash, blind, and door business was then taken by Mr. Nims, with Samuel B. Crossfield, who leased room and power of Messrs. Osborne & Hale, who run the steam power until a boiler explosion occurred, March 25, 1864, when Messrs. Osborne & Hale removed their works to South Keene, and the Mechanic street mills were leased and repaired by Messrs. Nims & Crossfield, and run by them until destroyed by fire about August, 1867, when the real estate was transferred to the Keene Steam Power Co. A stock company organized for the purpose of re-building the mills, which was done in the fall and winter of 1867-68, and has since been leased and run by Nims & Crossfield, and Nims, Crossfield & Scott, and Nims, Whitney & Co., the present lessees. The firm now employs fifty men, and manufactures 25,000 doors, 40,000 window sash, and 25,000 pairs of blinds per annum, making a specialty of custom work.
John Shaw, 2ds, shoe-factory. – October 1st, 1884, John Shaw, 2d, a large manufacturer of Lynn, Mass., came on and commenced the erection of the large factory he now occupies. The building is 126} x 40 feet, five stories, with brick engine and boiler-house 30 x 30 feet, one story high, with a thirty horse power engine and sixty horse power boiler. The factory was opened for business the first of December. He now employs 125 hands, and when in full operation will employ 400 hands. Capacity about 4,500 pairs of ladies boots and shoes per day. Mr. Shaw has been engaged in the business since 1867. He was induced to come here partly from the arbitrary conduct of the employees of the large manufacturing towns of Massachusetts, and partly from the liberality of the citizens of Keene, the Keene Improvement Co. having built the factory and gives him rent free for ten years, free of taxation. The building, put up under contract by E. S. Foster, cost $15,000.00. It is supplied all through with the Grinnell Automatic Fire Spinkler, greatly decreasing the danger of loss by fire.
Cheshire Foundry. – About 1850 or 53, Mr. Aaron Davis retired from the Fay &. Co. establishment at South Keene, and, with his sons removed the foundry business to Keene village, establishing the same on Davis street, near the Ashuelot railroad, where it has since been run by A. Davis & Co., then by Alfred S. Davis (son of Aaron D.). and afterwards sold by him, some twenty years since, to Moses Ellis, the present proprietor, who has since that time rebuilt the foundry building and generally enlarged and improved his facilities for making all kinds of heavy and light iron castings. He gives employment to about twelve men, and manufactures barrel heaters, box-stoves and other castings to order.
George L. Burdetts chair factory. – ID 1872 George L. Burdett commenced the manufacture of basket-seat chairs at Munsonville, in Nelson, giving employment to six men. He continued the business there until February, 1876, when he moved to Keene, locating first on Mechanic street, a year later on Washington street, and finally, in 1880, at its present place, opposite the county jail. He employs from twenty-five to thirty-five hands, manufactures 20,000 chairs per year. This is said to be the first manufactory of hand-pounded basket-seat chairs in New England.
N. G. Woodburys pail factory. – Mr. Woodbury is proprietor of a steammill on Armory and Spruce streets, and of three water-power mills on Washington street. He began the manufacture of pails at Richmond, in 1850, and removed to Keene in 1870. He now employs an average force of seventyfive hands, and manufactures about 2,500 pails per day, on and average, though he has produced 4,000 some days.
Cheshire Chair Co. – The business of this company was established January 1, 1869, starting in a brick building on Mechanic street, being subsequently removed to its present location at the Beaver Mills. The company consists of G. W. McDuffee, Charles e – Joslyn and Edward Joslyn, Mr. McDuffee being manager. The works are provided with every known appliance for the rapid execution of the work, each machine performing the work of several men. The productions are oak, black walnut, maple, and chestnut dininG.room, kitchen, sittinG.room, and bed-room chair, of which some sixtyfive different varieties are made, and veranda ash splint or basket chairs, which are made in fifteen styles. At the factory employment is given to about fifty hands, but quadruple that number are given work at home in bottoming the productions. From 600 to 800 dozen chairs are made each month.
The Keene Furniture Co. – This business, established by F. L. Sprague in 1868, is located on Mechanic street. In June of that year the present company was formed, and in 1872 they removed to their present location in the Beaver Mills. They do an extensive business in the manufacture of all kinds of chamber furniture, employing seventy-five hands.
H W. Hubbards machine manufactory – located on Mechanic street, was established by G. F. Sanborn and H. W. Hubbard in 1869. In 1878 Mr. Sanborn retired, since which time Mr. Hubbard has conducted the business alone. He manufactures all kinds of wood-working machines, and makes a specialty of manufacturing and designing machinery to order.
Cheshire Tannery. – This manufactory, located on West street, the largest of the kind in New Hampshire, was established by John Symonds in 1872, and was conducted by him until his death, March 28, 1885. In 1842 Mr. Symonds went to Marlow, residing there ten years, working for his brother, C. B. Symonds. In 1854 he went to East Sullivan, opened a tannery, and carried on business there until 1872, when he came to Keene and established business here. There are 260 vats, and the works tan 150 hides per day, or 1,800 sides per week. The leather is only tanned here, being sent to Grafton for currying. This latter. work is done at the establishment of A. M. Bigelow & Co., who also have a leather store in Boston, at 36 Lincoln street.
The firm was composed of A. M. Bigelow and Mr. Symonds. Thirty-five men are employed at the works here and an equal number at Grafton. The production is what is termed upper leather, exclusively, and ranks among the best produced, obtaining the very highest prices. The works are supplied by water from the city mains, a special pipe being laid `or the accommodation of the tannery at an expense of $8,000.00. A branch track of the Cheshire railroad, forty rods long, connects the works with the main line. This track was laid at an expense of $i,600.00, $1,000 of which was paid by the company and the balance by Mr. Symonds. Tile establishment consumes over 3,000 cords of bark per year, and sixty barrels of lime per month.
The Impervious Package Co. – This company has been in existence since June. 1881. its first productions being shipped two months later. The excellence of the wares, however, at once created a strong demand, and the company soon found their facilities altogether too limited to keep up the supply, and accordingly, in 1882. removed to more commodious quarters. The business was first commenced in an apartment of the Beaver Mills, 100×60 feet in dimensions, where twenty hands were employed in the production of 200 packages daily. During nine months succeeding the first shipment of goods the company filled orders from over 2,000 customers, and such a healthy demand has been created that it was found impossible to fill orders. Selling agents were called from the road and enlarged quarters sought. May 10th the works were removed to Mechanic street, in buildings formerly used by Keene Furniture Co. and Cheshire Chair Co. The space here obtained consists of a three story substantial brick building 100×50 feet, with an ell 40×30 feet, and a lumber yard 150×100 feet, provided with suitable sheds for the storage of lumber, and aggregates 33.600 square feet. The productions of the company are oil cans, paint packages, pickle packages, sugar buckets, grocers show tubs, syrup kegs, and kegs for paints and oils generally, with capacity from five to twenty-five gallons. They employ fifty hands, and manufacture about 250,000 packages per year.
John A. Wright & Co., Manufacturers of Red Star Cleaning Powder. – The powder for cleaning and polishing gold, silver, glass, etc., is made from a substance sometimes called ” Float Stone ” and White Infusorial Earth,” The deposit is located at Troy, N. H., and lies three feet from the surface, reaching down from five to twenty-five feet and spreading over some two acres lying in a basin at the foot of granite ridges or hills. This substance is mined, and after being submitted to atmospheric changes, is pulverized and sifted, the powder being as fine as flour and of a white color. It is transported to Keene, where it is prepared for shipment, labeled with the trade mark of a red star, and sent out as the “Red Star Cleaning Powder.” This mine was discovered in 1872, and the product has been practically and thoroughly tested in thousands of cases since, each instance showing it to be a most superior article for polishing.
Victor Wringer Co. – D. B. Piper manufactures the Victor, Leader, and American clothes.wringers, of which he is the inventor and patentee. These wringers have been manufactured by him in Keene for the past six years, and thousands are in use in Cheshire county, giving entire satisfaction. He also does general light machinist work, and is a practical gun and locksmith. He has been connected with the manufacture of sewing machines for over twenty years, and does all work in that line.
Frenchs carriage factory – Jason and William French, brothers, and natives of Brattleboro, Vt., came from Walpole to Keene about 1846, and commenced the manufacture of carriages and sleighs, on Church street, on the site of the present factory. William subsequently sold his interest in the business to his brother Jason, who, in 1855, admitted to partnership, his brother Francis, also a native of Brattleboro, and from Walpole. under the firm name of J. & F. French. About 1872, William again became a partner, but retired in 1875, when the name, which, on his admission, had been changed to J. & F. French & Co., again became J. & F. French, under which the business has since been conducted, though, since the death of Jason, in November, 11884, Francis has been the sole proprietor. The business was commenced in a small way, but has increased to the largest establishment of its kind in the county, giving employment at present, to from fifteen to twenty men, and producing annually, manufactured goods valued at from $30,000 to $50,000. The Keene sleigh, which originated here, is known throughout the surrounding country for its durability.
C. N. Tottinghams carriage factory, on Mechanic street, was established by him in 1868. There have been several changes in the firm name, though Mr. Tottingham has been sole owner for the past four years. He employs from eight to ten men.
G. W Russells carriage and wagon shop, in the rear of the Eagle Hotel,. was established by him in 1873. He employs from three to five men, and does a general blacksmithing business.
R. C. Joness wagon and carriage shop, on Railroad street, was established by him in 1875. He employs from five to ten men.
Jehiel Harlows wagon and sleigh factory, on Elm street, was established by him in 1883.
Reuben Rays carriage and blacksmith shop, located on Mechanic street, was established in 1880. He makes all kinds of wagons and sleighs, and does a general blacksmithing business.
Mason Reeds box factory, located in the Beaver Mills, was established by him in Swanzey, in 1868, and moved to Keene in 1880. He employs from fifteen to twenty men, and manufactures lock-corner and other boxes, using about 600,000 feet of lumber per annum.
G. H Tilden dw Co.s paper and wood packing box manufactory, located on Main, near corner of Railroad street, was established in December, 1884, They manufacture all kinds of packing boxes from straw-board, also various sizes of packinG.boxes from wood.
Albert W. Green commenced the manufacture of lawn settees in a small way, in 1874, and in 1880 added the manufacture of ratan and carpet-seated chairs. He is located en Washington street, where he employs from ten to eighteen men, turning out about 1,000 settees and 3,000 chairs per annum.
Albert E. Fish, located on Vernon street, commenced the manufacture of window-screens in 1872. In 1881 he made an improvement in his goods, since which time he has been doing quite an extensive business.
Frank E. Fosters tannery, on Beaver street, was built by Harvey Rawson, of Gilsum, about twenty-five years ago. Mr. Rawson subsequently took in Francis Foster, as a partner, who eventually became sole owner. He died July 23, 1877, since which time his son, the present proprietor, has carried on the business. He employs twenty-five hands, and turns out 12,000 hides per year.
The Monadnock Agricultural Works, located on road 42, are operated by Jonathan Hall, who established them in 1882. He gives employment to about eight hands in the manufacture of plows, harrows, and other agricultural implements.
Morse Bros. soap manufactory, on Washington street, was established by W. H. Morse, in 1875, who associated his brother, T. F., with him in 1877. Until January, 1884, they manufactured only soft soap, since which time, however, they have manufactured both hard and soft soap. They employ four hands.
Harringtons marble works, on the corner of St- James and Church streets, were established by N. B. Harrington, in 1853, who conducted the business until 1879, since which time it has been carried on by his son, C. E. Harrington. He does all kinds of marble, granite and cemetery work.
Clipper Mowing Machine Works, James B. Elliot, proprietor, are located at South Keene station, and Mr. Elliot employs about twenty men and turns out about 300 machines per year.
Wilkinson & Mc Gregors harness, saddle and blanket strap manufactory, on Main street, is the oldest establishment in this line in Keene, and has been conducted by the present firm about eight years. They employ twenty-five hands.
D. M Nicholss seine, riddle and druggists hoop factory, on Mechanic street, was established by him in 1876. He employs six men.
Eames 6 Towne built, in 1884, a grist-mill at West Swanzey, with two runs of stones. Their business place is at Keene, where they have a large store-house and elevator, and also an iron mill used for cracking corn. They handle about a car-load of grain per day.
Ellis Brothers, seedsmen and florists, are located on Winchester street, where they began the business in 1872. They occupy twenty-two and a half acres of land and grow all kinds of flowers, small fruits and vegetables, their green-house having 10,000 feet of glass. They employ twelve men, and manufacture lock-corner boxes for putting up flowers, turning out over too; c00 in 1884.
D. A. Browns cider-mill, on road 24, was built by Mr. Brown in 1874. He makes 350 barrels of cider per year.
Charles Elliss saw and cider-mill, on road 13, was built in 1846- He makes about 300 barrels of cider per year, and does a small business with the saw-mill.
George W. Balls brick-yards, located in Keene and Troy, were established by H. Pond & Co., about 1856, Mr. Ball being the junior partner. Their first yard was located on Roxbury street, and the present one is on Appleton street. He employs fifteen men.
W. A. Barretts brick-yard, on Main street, was established by him in 1882. He employs seven omen and turns out about 700,000 bricks per annum.
C L. Russells brick-yard, on Water street, was purchased by him of William Dort, in 1878. John R. Russell, agent, employs ten men and manufactures about 1,000,000 bricks per annum.
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