Washington Indian Tribes
The State of Washington was occupied by a great number of
Indian tribes formerly very populous, particularly those along the coast.
There are few traditions regarding migrations and those which we have
apply almost entirely to the interior people. After the Whites came it was
unlikely that the Indians would move eastward in the face of the invasion
and impossible for them to move westward; hence we do not have to trace
various stages of long migrations due to displacement by the Whites and
the overland retreat which followed, so marked in the history of the
eastern Indians. Contrary to an older view, which held that Salishan
tribes formerly extended to the lower Columbia and were driven north by
Shahaptian, pushed forward in turn by Shoshonean peoples, it seems that
the relative positions of Salishan and Shahaptian has been unchanged for
an uncertain period of time and that, as a matter of fact, the Shoshonean
have been pushed southward although this movement was very recent. The
Athapascan Kwalhioqua must represent a comparatively late invasion
although that may not have been so recent as their anomalous position
would lead one to suppose. There is also evidence of a much earlier
movement when the Salishan came down upon the coast. The earliest European
to meet any of the peoples of Washington was probably Juan de Fuca, a
Greek navigator sailing under the Spanish flag, who, in 1592, visited the
straits which now bear his name. Other Spanish explorers followed, and
were later succeeded by English and Americans. The continual resort of
trading vessels to Nootka on the west coast of Vancouver Island served to
distribute European commodities and had a considerable influence among the
tribes of Washington. In the latter part of the eighteenth century traders
of the Hudson Bay and Northwest Companies made their appearance, but the
Washington peoples first come squarely out upon the stage of history with
the descent of the Columbia by Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. These pioneers
gave the first general description of the region, enumerated the
aboriginal peoples found in occupancy, and attempted estimates of their
numbers. For some time afterward the territory was dominated by
representatives of British companies and the land was claimed by England,
while the only attempt to exploit it on the part of Americans, the
settlement of Astoria, was soon abandoned. Following upon the acceptance
of the 49th parallel of latitude as the International Boundary, however,
and still more the discovery of gold in California and the opening up of
the "Oregon trail," settlers from the Eastern States began to pour in in
numbers. It was thereafter inevitable that friction should develop between
the newcomers and the aborigines. There were wars with the Nez Peru,
Yakima, and other tribes, but the Indians suffered less in this way than
from European diseases, particularly the smallpox, which began their
ravages before Lewis and Clark appeared, from spirituous liquors, and from
a general dislocation of their aboriginal adjustments. The destruction was
greatest in the Columbia Valley, which as the main artery of travel and
trade was peculiarly exposed to epidemics, and within a few years the
greater part of the once teeming populations of the lower valley were
practically wiped out of existence. Roman Catholic missions sprang up at
an early date in the eastern part of the territory, and were soon followed
by those of Protestant denominations, notable among which was that
conducted among the Cayuse by Marcus Whitman (1838-47). As in other parts
of the United States, the Indians gradually parted with their lands and
were placed upon reservations, though in most cases they were not removed
so far from their original homes as in the eastern parts of the Union.
The above sketch will show enough of the history
of most of the tribes in this area, though some details have been added in
certain cases (i. e., in connection with the Cayuse, Chilluckittequaw,
Chimakum, Chinook, Klickitat, and Yakima. (See Ray, 1932, and Spier and
Guasámas, or Guithlamethl,
by the Clackamas.
Kathlamet, own name.
Kwillu'chini, by the Chinook.
Cathlamet belonged to the Chinookan stock. The dialect to which they have
given their name was spoken as far up the Columbia River as Ranier.
Location. On the south
bank of Columbia River near its mouth, claiming the territory between
Tongue Point and the neighborhood of Puget Island, and on the north bank
from the mouth of Grays Bay to a little east of Oak Point.
Ika'naiak, on the north side of the Columbia River at the mouth
of Coal Creek Slough just east of Oak Point.
Ilo'humin, on the north side of Columbia River opposite Puget Island
and near the mouth of Alockman Creek.
Kathla'amat, on the south side of Columbia River about 4 miles below
Ta'nas ilu', on Tanas Ilahee Island on the south side of the
Wa'kaiyakam, across Alockman Creek opposite
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimated 450 Cathlamet in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In
1849 Lane reported 58. They are now extinct as a separate group.
Connection in which they have
become noted. The capital of Wahkiakum County, Washington, perpetuates
the name of the Cathlamet.
Meaning "people of Lewis (Na'p!ōLx.) River."
Cathlapotle belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and were placed by
Spier (1936) in the Clackamas division of Upper Chinook but by Berreman
(1937) apparently with the Multnomah.
Location. On the lower
part of Lewis River and the southeast side of the Columbia River, in
Villages. The main
village of the Cathlapotle was Nahpooitle, at the mouth of Lewis River,
but to this should perhaps be added Wakanasisi, opposite the mouth of
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimated 1,300 Cathlapotle in 1780; Lewis and Clark, 900 in 1806.
Connection in which they have
become noted. Lewis River was once known by the name of Cathlapotle.
The Cayuse were located about the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers,
extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and
Meaning "sand," the name derived
originally, according to Gibbs (1877), from a village at the entrance of Grays
Harbor. See Chehalis Location
The name is derived from Chelan Lake.
Connections. An interior
Salish tribe speaking the Wenachee dialect and separated tentatively from
that tribe by Spier (1927).
Location. At the outlet
of Lake Chelan.
Population. No data.
Connections in which they
have become noted. The name Chelan is shared not only by the lake
above mentioned but by Chelan Falls, a range of mountains, a county, and
two post villages, Chelan and Chelan Falls.
Chilluckittequaw belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock.
Location. As reported by
Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw lay along the north side of Columbia
River, in the present Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles
below the Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks
they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River group of
Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must suppose that they
extended to the south side of the Columbia.
Subdivisions and Villages.
Itkilak or Ithlkilak (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at
White Salmon Landing.
Nanshuit (occupied jointly with
Klickitat), at the present Underwood.
Smackshop, a band of Chilluckittequaw extending from the River
River ?) to the Cascades.
Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with Klickitat), said to be about
½ mile west of a long, high mountain
opposite Mosier, Oreg., and at the same time about a mile above White
Salmon Landing, an apparent inconsistency:
Thlmieksok or Thlmuyaksok, ½
mile from the last; in 1905 the site of the Burket Ranch.
Historical Note. According to Mooney (1928), a remnant of the
Chilluckittequaw lived near the mouth of the White Salmon River until 1880
when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895.
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimated 3,000 for this tribe in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark placed the
figure at 1,400, besides 800 Smackshop, or a total of 2,200.
Significance of the name is unknown.
Aqokdlo, own name.
Port Townsend Indians, popular name.
Chimakum, the Quileute, and the Hoh (q. v.) together constituted the
Chimakuan linguistic stock, which in turn was probably connected with the
Location. On the
peninsula between Hood's Canal and Port Townsend.
History. The Chimakum
were constantly at war with the Clallam and other Salish tribes and, being
inferior in numbers, suffered very much at their hands. They were included
in the Point-no-Point Treaty of 1855 and placed on the Skokomish
Reservation, where they gradually diminished in numbers until, in 1890,
Boas was able to find only three individuals who could speak their
language, and then but imperfectly.
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimates 400 Chimakum in 1780, and Gibbs (1877), 90 in 1855. The census
of 1910 enumerated 3.
Connection in which they have
become noted. Attention was called to the Chimakum in early days by
their warlike character and the uniqueness of their language.
both sides of the Columbia, but I prefer to follow Berreman (1937) in limiting the term to
groups living on the Oregon side. (See
Meaning "strong people." See
So called because of their former prominent association with Columbia
River, where some of the most important bands had their homes. See
The name is derived from Fort
Colville, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company at Kettle Falls, which was in turn
named for the London governor of the company at the time when the post was
founded, i. e., in 1825. See
Connections. The Copalis
belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location. Copalis River
and the Pacific Coast between the mouth of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor.
Population. Lewis and
Clark in 1805 estimated a population of 200 Copalis in 10 houses. The 5
individuals assigned to a "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by
Olson of the year 1888 probably refers to them.
Connections in which they
have become noted. The name Copalis is perpetuated in that of Copalis
River, and in the post villages of Copalis Beach and Copalis Crossing,
Grays Harbor County, Wash.
name given by Indians not on the Sound to Upper Cowlitz and Upper
Connections. The Cowlitz
belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, yet
shared some peculiarities with the inland tribes.
Location. Most of the
lower and all the middle course of Cowlitz River. Later they were divided
between Chehalis and Puyallup Reservations.
Towns. Ray (1932) gives:
Awi'mani, at the mouth of Coweman River, south of Kelso, and Manse'la, on
site of Longiew. (See Curtis, 1907-9.)
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimated the number of the Cowlitz, along with the Chehalis, Humptulips,
and some other tribes, at 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 Gibbs stated that they
and the Upper Chehalis counted not more than 165. About 1887 there were
127 on Puyallup Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 105. The United
States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 490, probably including other
Connections in which they
have become noted. The name Cowlitz is perpetuated by Cowlitz River
and Cowlitz Pass; by Cowlitz Glacier, which radiates from Mount Ranier;
and by Cowlitz County, Cowlitz Park, Cowlitz Chimney, Cowlitz Cleaver, and
some small towns in the same region.
Connections. The Hoh spoke the Quileute language and were often
considered part of the same tribe, constituting one division of the
Chimakuan linguistic stock and more remotely connected with the
Location. On Hoh River on the west coast of Washington.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 500 in the Hoh and the Quileute
together in 1780. In 1905 the Hoh numbered 62. Connection in which they
have become noted.-The name Hoh is preserved in that of the Hoh River.
Said to signify "chilly region."
Connections. The Humptulips belonged to the coastal division of the
Salishan linguistic stock, being connected most closely with the
Location. On the Humptulips River, and part of Grays Harbor, including
also Hoquiam Creek and Whiskam River.
Hli'mtimi (Curtis, 1907-9), near North Cove.
Hoquiam, on Hoquiam Creek.
Hooshkal (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor.
Kishkallen (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor.
Klimmim (Gibbs), 1877).
Kplelch (Curtis), at the mouth of North River.
Kwapks (Curtis, 1907-9), at the mouth of North River.
Mo'niltimsh (Curtis), at Georgetown.
Nooachhummik (Gibbs), on the coast north of Grays Harbor.
(Gibbs), north of Grays Harbor.
Nu'moihanhl (Curtis), at Tokeland.
Whishkah, on Whishkah River.
These are placed under the Humptulips only on account of their locations
Population. See Chehalis. In 1888 according to Olsen 18 Humptulips were
reported. In 1904 there were 21.
Connection in which they have become noted. Humptulips River and a village
in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Humptulips Indians.
Kalispel extended over into the eastern edge of the
State from Idaho.
Chinook term meaning "beyond" and having reference to
the Cascade Mountains. See
Kwû-teh-ni, Kwalhioqua name.
Nū-sō-lupsh, by Sound Indians, referring to the rapids of their stream.
Stak-ta-mish, a name for this and other inland tribes, meaning "forest
Upper Chehalis, common name.
Connections. The Kwaiailk belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan
linguistic family but a part of them were associated with the inland
tribes by certain peculiarities of speech. Their nearest relatives seem to
have been the Cowlitz and Chehalis.
Location. On the upper course of Chehalis River.
Subdivisions and Villages Cloquallum, on Cloquallum River.
Population. In 1855, according to Gibbs (1877), the Kwaiailk numbered 216
but were becoming amalgamated with the Cowlitz. (See Chehalis.)
From their Chinook designation, meaning "a lonely place
in the woods."
Axwē'lāpc, "people of the Willapa," by the Chinook and Quinault Indians.
Gilā'q!ulawas, from the name of the place where they usually lived.
Owhillapsh or W illapa, applied to this tribe erroneously.
Tkulhiyogoā'ikc, Chinook name.
Connections. The Kwalhioqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location. On the upper course of Willopah River, and the southern and
western headwaters of the Chehalis. Gibbs (1877) extends their territory
eastward of the Cascades, but Boas (1892) doubts the correctness of this.
Suwal, on headwaters of the Chehalis.
Wela'pakote'li, on Willapa River.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 200 in 1780; Hale (1846) gives about
100, but in 1850 it is said that only 2 males and several females
survived, which indicates that an error had been made by one or the other.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Kwalhioqua were
distinguished almost solely by the fact that they belonged to the great
Athapascan group yet were the only tribe of that stock in the State of
Washington in historic times, having become entirely isolated from their
Significance unknown. Also spelled Há-lum-mi, Nuh-lummi, and
Qtlumi. See Lummi Location
"cape people." See
Meaning unknown. The Battle-le-mule-emauch of Ross
(1847, p. 290).
Connections. The Methow spoke a dialect belonging to the interior division
of the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location. On Methow River. A detached band called Chilowhist wintered on
the Okanogan River between Sand Point and Malott.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that this band and the Columbia
Indians, or rather Moses' band of Columbia Indians, numbered 800 in 1780.
In 1907 there were 324.
Connection in which they have become noted. Methow River and Valley and a
post village perpetuate the name of the Methow Indians.
Connections. The Mical were a branch of the Shahaptian tribe called
Location. On the upper course of Nisqually River. Population.-No separate
From the native word o'kelcul, significance unknown.
Connections. The Muckleshoot belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of
the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location. On White River, their territory extending from Kent eastward to
the mountains, but it seems also to have included Green River.
Subdivisions. The following names appear applied to bands in their territory:
on White River.
Skopamish, on upper Green River.
Smulkamish, on upper White River
Smith (1940) adds Dothliuk, at South Prairie below where Cole Creek enters
South Prairie Creek, an affluent of Carbon River.
Population. The Muckleshoot are probably included in the 1,200 "Nisqually,
Puyallup, etc." estimated by Mooney (1928) as in existence in 1780. The
Skopamish numbered 222 in 1863 and the Smulkamish about 183 in 1870.
Mooney estimated a total of 780 in 1907 for the group above given. In 1937
the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 194 Indians of this
Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Muckleshoot is
preserved in that of Muckleshoot Indian Reservation.
A supposed Salishan tribe placed by Teit's informants at an
early period near and above the Dalles. Ray (1932), however, discredits
the existence of an independent tribe of this name.
division of the Sanpoil.
From Skwale'absh, the native name of Nisqually River. Also
spelled Quallyamish, and Skwalliahmish. See
Meaning "mountain men." Also spelled Nooksak and Nooksak.
Connections. The Nooksack belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan
linguistic family. Hill-Tout (1902) says they separated from the Squawmish
of British Columbia and speak the same dialect.
Location. On Nooksack River, Whatcom County. (See also Canada.)
Population. In 1906, 200 Nooksack were officially returned, but Hill-Tout
(1902) states that in 1902 there were only about 6 true male members of
the tribe. The census of 1910 gives 85 under this name, and the Report of
the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 returned 239. (See
Connection in which they have become noted. Nooksack River and Nooksack
town in Whatcom County, Washington, preserve the name.
The southern bands of this tribe hunted over in the territory now embraced in
Washington. (See Canada.)
Connections. The Ozette were a southern branch of the Makah
and belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family.
Location. On the Ozette Lake and Ozette River in Clallam County.
Ozette, at Flattery Rocks.
Sooes, 4 miles south of the Makah village of Waatch.
Makah.) A single Ozette Indian was reported
Connections in which they have become noted. An island, a lake, a river,
and a village are named Ozette after them.
Significance unknown. See
Meaning "the stony ground." Also called Upper Yakima.
Connections. The Pshwanwapam belonged to the Shahaptian
division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family, and probably were most
closely connected with the Yakima.
Location. On the upper course of Yakima River.
From Pwiya'lap, the native name of Puyallup River.
See Puyallup Location
or Quaitso. Significance unknown.
Connections. The Queets belonged to the Coastal division of the Salishan
linguistic family and were most intimately related to their
neighbors to the south, the Quinault.
Location. On Queets River and its branches.
Population. Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated that the Queets numbered
250. They then occupied 18 houses. Mooney (1928)
estimated that in 1780 they and the Quinault together numbered 1,500, but
Olson (1936) regards this figure as too high. Olson prints an estimate of
82 as their present population, including 23 males over 18, 32 females
over 14, and 16 children between 6 and 16. In 1909 there were 62.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Queets is
perpetuated in that of Queets River.
Connections. Together with the Hoh and Chimakum, the Quileute constituted
the Chimakuan linguistic family which is possibly more remotely related to Wakashan and Salishan.
Location. On Quilayute River, on the west coast of Washington. They are
now on the Quileutc and Makah Reservations.
Population (including the Hoh).-Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there
were of the Quileute and the Hoh 500 Indians. Olson (1936) quotes a figure
of 64 in 1888. The census of 1910 returned 303 and the United States
Office of Indian Affairs in 1937 gave 284.
Connections in which they have become noted. The town of Quillayute in
Clallam County, preserves the name of the Quileute and it was formerly
that of Soleduck River. Otherwise the tribe is particularly noted on
account of the uniqueness of its language, which was spoken by no other
known tribes except the Hoh and Chimakum.
Meaning unknown but evidently that of a locality. See
Signification unknown. See
See Sanpoil Location
Connections. The Satsop belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan
linguistic family, and have usually been classed with the Lower Chehalis.
Location. On Satsop River, a branch of the Chehalis.
Population. The population of the Satsop is usually given with that of the
Chehalis, but in 1888 a census of the Satsop alone, obtained by
Olson (1936, gave 12.
Connections in which they have become noted. Satsop River and a village
called Satsop in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Satsop.
Birch Bay Indians, from a place occupied by them.
Connections. The Semiahmoo belonged to the coastal division of
the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location. About Semiahmoo Bay in northwest Washington and
southwest British Columbia.
Population. In 1843 the Semiahmoo numbered 300; in 1909 there were 38 in
British Columbia; none were enumerated on the American
side of the line.
Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the Semiahmoo is
preserved in Semiahmoo Bay and a township in Whatcom County, Wash.
Lake Indians, a popular name for them because they lived on the Arrow
Connections. The Senijextee belonged to the inland division of the
Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the
Location. On both sides of the Columbia River from Kettle Falls to the
Canadian boundary, the valley of Kettle River, Kootenay
River from its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow
Lakes, B. C. The Lake Indians on the American side were placed
on Colville Reservation.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates their numbers at 500 in 1780. In 1909
the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 342 on Colville
Reservation. The census of 1910 identifies them with
the Colville and returns 785.
Significance unknown; an Anglicized form of their own
Connections. The Sinkaietk are sometimes classed with the Okanagon, and
called Lower Okanagon, both constituting a dialectic
group of interior Salishan Indians.
Location. Okanagan River from its mouth nearly to the mouth of
Kartar, from the foot of Lake Omak to the Columbia River.
Konkonelp, winter sites, from about 3 miles above Malott to the turn of
Okanagan River at Omak.
Tonasket, from Riverside upstream to Tonasket.
Tukoratum, winter sites, from Condon's Ferry on the Columbia to the mouth
of the Okanagan River and up the latter to about 4 miles above Monse,
Ray (1932) mentions four villages belonging to the Kartar and Tukoratum
Population. Included with the Okanagon.
Meaning "between people."
Connections. The Sinkakaius belonged to the interior division of the
Salishan linguistic stock and were composed largely of people from the Tukoratum Band of Sinkaietk and the Moses Columbia people.
Location. Between Columbia River and the Grand Coulee in the latitude of
Significance unknown. See
Connections. The Skilloot belonged to the Clackamas dialectic division of
the Chinookan linguistic family.
Location. On both sides of Columbia River above and below the mouth of
Cowlitz River. (See also Oregon.)
Subdivisions and Villages.
Cooniac (at Oak Point on the south side of Columbia River, below the mouth
of the Cowlitz, in the present Columbia County, Oregon) was their
principal village in later times. The Hullooetell, reported to Lewis and
Clark as a numerous nation north of Columbia River on Cowlitz and Lewis
Rivers, may have been a
subdivision, although perhaps Salishan. The Seamysty, at the mouth of
Cowlitz River before 1835, were undoubtedly a Skilloot band, and the
Thlakalama and Tlakatlala of Boas 1(1901, and personal information 1905),
at the mouth of Kalama River, about 3 miles above Oak Point, had best be
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Skilloot at 3,250 in
1780 including 250 Tlakalama. In 1806 Lewis and Clark give 2,500 and in
1850 Lane places the Skilloot population at 200.
They have now entirely disappeared as an independent group.
Taken from a town name.
Connections. The Skin belonged to the Shahaptian division of the
Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Location. On Columbia River from The Dalles to a point about 75 miles
Ka'sawi, on the Columbia opposite the mouth of Umatilla River. Skin,
opposite the mouth of Deschutes River.
Uchi'chol, on the north bank of the Columbia in Klickitat County.
Waiya'mpam, about Celilo.
Eneeshur is used by Lewis and Clark for part of the above people, perhaps
all of them.
Population. Mooney (1928) includes the Skin in a group under the general
name Tapanash, which he estimates to have numbered
2,200 in 1780.
Meaning unknown but evidently the
name of a place. See Snohomish
From the native word sdo'kwalbiuqu.
Connections. The Snoqualmie belonged to the Nisqually branch of the
coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location. On Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers.
Subdivisions and Villages
Skykomish, on Skykomish River above Sultan, and on the same below Goldbar.
Snoqualmie, on Snoqualmie River, including villages at Cherry Valley, on
Snoqualmie River opposite the mouth of Tolt River; at Fall City; and below
Stakta'ledjabsh, on Skykomish River as far up as Sultan, including Sultan
Creek, including villages above Monroe at the mouth of Sultan Creek and on
Sultan Creek 4 miles above its mouth.
Snohomish.) Tho population of the
alone was reported as 225 in 1857.
Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the
Snoqualmie is perpetuated by Snoqualmie River and a town upon it in King
Phonetically Spōkē'.n or Spō.qē'in); said by some to signify "Sun
(people," though this origin is doubtful. See
or Squakson. Their own name.
Connections. The Squaxon belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coast
division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location. On North Bay, Puget Sound.
On North Bay at the mouth of Coulter Creek and at Allyn at the mouth of
Population. With the Skokomish and Toanho (Twana), Mooney (1928) estimated
that there were 1,000 Squaxon in 1780. In 1909 there were 98 under this
name, and in 1937, 32.
From a native place name.
Connections. They belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division
of the Salishan linguistic stock, their closest connections being with the
Duwamish. The famous Seattle was chief of both tribes.
Location. On the west side of Puget Sound, according to Paige (1857)
claiming the territory from Applegate Cove to Gig Harbor.
Subdivisions and Villages
Saktabsh, on Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, and southern Blakely, Blakely
with villages at Bremerton and on Eagle Harbor.
Suquamish, on Liberty Bay, at Port Madison, and on the northern part of
Island, with villages at. Suquamish, above Poulsbo, and at Point Monroe.
Population. (See Duwamish.) The Suquamish numbered 441 in 1857, 180 in
1909, and 307 in 1910, according to the census of that year. The United
States Indian Office returned 204 "Susquamish" Indians in 1910, probably
meaning this tribe. In 1937 it returned 168 "Suquamish."
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Suquamish is applied
to a town in Kitsap County, Wash.
A name applied by Eells (1889).
Swalash, by Mallet (in Ind. Aff. Rep., 1877, p. 198).
Connections. The Swallah belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan
Location. On Orcas Island and San Juan Island and the group to which they
Hutta'tchl, on the southeast end of Orcas Island.
Klala'kamish, on the east side of San Juan Island.
Lemaltcha, on Waldron
Stashum, on Waldron Island.
A place name. See
Also called Upper Cowlitz.
Connections. The Taidnapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the
Shapwailutan linguistic family.
Location. On the headwaters of Cowlitz River and perhaps extending over
into the headwaters of the Lewis River.
Population. Mooney estimates the population of the Taidnapam and the Klickitat. together at 600 in 1780, but extinct as independent tribes by
Said to signify "a portage,"
referring to that between the upper end of Hoods Canal and the headwaters of
Puget Sound. See Twana Location
Meaning "little river"; called Walula by Spier (1936).
Connections. The Wallawalla language belongs to the Shahaptian division of
the Shapwailutan linguistic stock and is very closely related to the Nez
Location. On the lower Wallawalla River, except perhaps for an area around
Whitman occupied by Cayuse, and a short span along the Columbia and Snake
Rivers near their junction, in Washington and Oregon. They are now on
Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.
Population. Mooney (1928) gives 1,500 for the Wallawalla and the Umatilla
together in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 1,600 but they
included other bands now known to be independent. The census of 1910 gave
397, the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1923,
628, and that for 1937, 631, the two last evidently including some other
Connections in which they have become noted. The name Wallawalla is perpetuated in that of the city of Walla Walla, Wash.;
Walla Walla County; Walla Walla River, which flows through Oregon and
Washington; and appears in the name of a small place in Illinois.
Connections. The Wanapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the
Shapwailutan linguistic stock and were connected closely with
Location. In the bend of Columbia River between Priest Rapids and a point
some distance below the mouth of Umatilla River, and extending east of the
Columbia north of Pasco.
They seem to have included two branches, the Chamnapum and Wanapam proper.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates their population as 1,800 in 1780.
The Watlala occupied. the north side of Columbia River from the
Cascades to Skamania and perhaps to Cape Horn, but a larger territory on
the south side. (See under
Connections. They belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan
linguistic family and were very closely related to the Palouse.
Location. On Snake River below the mouth of the Palouse.
Population. Unknown but probably included with the Palouse, which Mooney
(1928) estimates to have numbered 1,800 in 1780.
(Wina't ca). So called by the
Wasco, and it has become a popular name for them. See
From Wu'cxam, the name given them by the Yakima and Klickitat
Indians. See Wishram Location
Significance of word is unreported.
Connections. The Wynoochee were closely connected with the Chehalis
Indians and belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic
Location. On the Wynoochee, an affluent of Chehalis River.
Meaning "runaway." See
Notes About the Book:
Source: The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton, 1953, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
Online Publication: The manuscript was scanned and then ocr'd. Minimal editing
has been done, and readers can and should expect some errors in the textual