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Treaty of September 30, 1825

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For the purpose of perpetuating the friendship which has heretofore existed, as also to remove all future cause of discussion or dissension, as it respects trade and friendship between the United States and their citizens, and the Pawnee tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America, by Brigadier General Henry Atkinson, of the United States’ army, and Major Benjamin O’Fallon, Indian Agent, with full powers and authority, specially appointed and commissioned for that purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs, head men and Warriors of said Pawnee tribe of Indians, on behalf of their tribe of the other part, have made and entered into the following Articles and Conditions; which, when ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall be binding on both parties—to wit:

Article I. It is admitted by the Pawnee tribe of Indians, that they reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection.—The said tribe also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade and intercourse with them.

Article II. The United States agree to receive the Pawnee tribe of Indians into their friendship, and under their protection, and to extend to them, from time to time, such benefits and acts of kindness as may be convenient, and seem just and proper to the President of the United States.

Article III. All trade and intercourse with the Pawnee tribe shall be transacted at such place or places as may be designated and pointed out by the President of the United States, through his agents; and none but American citizens, duly authorized by the United States, shall be admitted to trade or hold intercourse with said tribe of Indians.

Article IV. That the Pawnee tribe may be accommodated with such articles of merchandise, &c. as their necessities may demand, the United States agree to admit and license traders to hold intercourse with said tribe, under mild and equitable regulations: in consideration of which, the said Pawnee tribe bind themselves to extend protection to the persons and the property of the traders, and the persons legally employed under them, whilst they remain within the limits of their particular district of country. And the said Pawnee tribe further agree, that if any foreigner or other person, not legally authorized by the United States, shall come into their district of country, for the purpose of trade or other views, they will apprehend such person or persons, and deliver him or them to some United States’ superintendent, or agent, of Indian Affairs, or to the commandant of the nearest military post, to be dealt with according to law. And they further agree to give safe conduct to all persons who may be legally authorized by the United States to pass through their country, and to protect in their persons and property all agents or other persons sent by the United States to reside temporarily among them; nor will they, whilst on their distant excursions, molest or interrupt any American citizen or citizens, who may be passing from the United States to New Mexico, or returning from thence to the United States.

Article V. That the friendship which is now, established between the United States and the Pawnee tribe, shall not be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby agreed, that for injuries done by individuals, no private revenge or retaliation shall take place, but instead thereof, complaints shall be made, by the party injured, to the superintendent, or agent of Indian affairs, or other person appointed by the President; and it shall be the duty of said Chiefs, upon complaint being made as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or persons against whom the complaint is made, to the end that he or they may be punished, agreeably to the laws of the United States. And, in like manner, if any robbery, violence, or murder, shall be committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to said tribe, the person or persons so offending shall be tried, and if found guilty, shall be punished in like manner as if the injury had been done to a white man. And it is agreed, that the Chiefs of said Pawnee tribe shall, to the utmost of their power, exert themselves to recover horses or other property, which may be stolen or taken from any citizen or citizens of the United States, by any individual or individuals of said tribe; and the property so recovered shall be forthwith delivered to the agents or other person authorized to receive it, that it may be restored to the proper owner. And the United States hereby guaranty to any Indian or Indians of said tribe, a full indemnification for any horses or other property which may be stolen from them by any of their citizens: Provided, That the property stolen cannot be recovered, and that sufficient proof is produced that it was actually stolen by a citizen of the United States. And the said Pawnee tribe engage, on the requisition or demand of the President of the United States, or of the agents, to deliver up any white man resident among them.

Article VI. And the Chiefs and Warriors, as aforesaid, promise and engage that their tribe will never, by sale, exchange, or as presents, supply any nation, tribe, or band of Indians, not in amity with the United States, with guns, ammunition, or other implements of war.

Done at Fort Atkinson, Council Bluffs, this thirtieth day of September, A. D. 1825, and of the independence of the United States the fiftieth.

In testimony whereof, the said commissioners, Henry Atkinson and Benjamin O’Fallon, and the chiefs, head men, and warriors, of the Pawnee tribe, have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals.

H. Atkinson, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army
Benj. O’Fallon, United States Agent Indian Affairs
Esh-ca-tar-pa, the bad chief, his x mark
Shar-co-ro-la-shar, the sun chief, his x mark
La-cota-ve-co-cho-la-shar, the eagle chief, his x mark
La-tah-carts-la-shar, the war eagle chief, his x mark
La-ta-le-shar, the knife chief, his x mark
Scar-lar-la-shar, the man chief, his x mark
La-ke-tar-la-shar, the partizan chief, his x mark
Lark-tar-ho-ra-la-shar, the pipe chief, his x mark
Esh-ca-tar-pa, the bad chief, republican band, his x mark
Co-rouch-la-shar, the bear chief, his x mark
Ah-sha-o-ah-lah-co, the dog chief, his x mark
La-ho-rah-sha-rete, the man who strikes men, his x mark
Tah-rah-re-tah-coh-sha, the singing crow, his x mark
Lah-ro-wah-go, the hill chief, his x mark
Ta-rah-re-tah-nash, the big horse stealer, his x mark
La-shar-pah-he, the tranquil chief, his x mark
Ah-re-cah-rah-co-chu, the mad elk, his x mark
Ta-lah-re-ta-ret, the partizan that strikes and carries his bird on his back, his x mark
Ta-lah-re-we-tail, the crow that strikes, his x mark
Lo-lah-re-wah, the horse stealer who suffers his prize to be retaken, his x mark
Ta-hah-lah-re-esh-lah, the handsome bird, his x mark
Ah-sho-cole, the rotten foot, his x mark
Ah-shar-o-ca-tah-co, the poor man, his x mark
Cha-nuck-cah-lah, the partizan that strikes, his x mark
Ta-lah-we-cah-wah-re, the man that is always at war, his x mark

In presence of:
A. L. Langham, Secretary to the Commission
A. R. Woolley, Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army
John Gale, Surgeon, U. S. Army
John Gantt, Captain, Sixth Infantry
S. MacRee, Aide de Camp
Thomas Noel, Adjutant, Sixth Regiment
J. Rogers, Lieutentant, Sixth Infantry
R. Holmes, Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry
M. W. Batman, Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry
J. Nichols, Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry
W. W. Eaton, Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry
G. H. Kennerly U. S. S. Indian Agent
A. L. Papin
William Rodgers


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