The Eufaula Tribe
The Eufaula tribe was an independent body as
far back as history takes us. According to
one of my informants they branched off from
Kealedji, while another seemed to think that
they originated from
Hilibi. Practically no
confidence can be placed in these opinions.
Not even a plausible guess can be furnished
by the living Indians regarding the origin
of the name. It is an interesting commentary
on the reliability of name interpretation
that a story is told to account for the
designation of this place, the point of
which depends on its resemblance to the
English "you fall."
In Bartow County, Georgia, is a creek called
Euharlee, corrupted from Cherokee Yuhali.
According to the Cherokee, fide
Mooney, this in turn is a corruption of the
Creek tribal name Eufaula.1 There
is every reason to credit this and to
suppose that the Eufaula were once located
in the neighborhood. Perhaps it was their
seat before the Yamasee war, in 1715. As the
and Kawita were in this region there is no
reason why the Eufaula may not have been
there as well. Their next location known to
us was on Talladega Creek, a few miles south
of the present Talladega, Alabama. It was
afterwards known as Eufaula Old Town, but
Hawkins calls it "Eu-fau-lau-hat-che"
(Eufaula Creek or River), and describes it
fifteen miles up that creek (Eufaula or
Talladega], on a flat of half a mile,
bordering on a branch. On the left side of
the creek the land is rich and waving; on
the right sides are steep hills sloping off
waving, rich land; hickory, oak, poplar and
walnut. It is well watered, and the whole a
desirable limestone country; they have fine
stocks of cattle, horses, and hogs.2
This description dates
from a time long after the Eufaula
settlements next to be considered had been
made, but it is probable that its
inhabitants were also Eufaulas, some who had
remained behind after the removal of the
bulk of the population. James Lesley was the
trader stationed there in 1796. He died in
the spring of 1799.3 Bartram and
Swan mention this town, which they call
Upper Eufaula, Swan describing it as "the
Creek town farthest up Coosa River."4
At a comparatively early date in the
eighteenth century, as appears from the
maps, particularly that of De Crenay,5
a large part of the Eufaula Indians moved
southeast and settled on the middle course
of the Tallapoosa. These are the "Lower
Yufale" of Bartram, and the "Eu-fau-lau" of
Hawkins6 Swan mentions two
settlements here, "Big Ufala" and "Little
Ufala."7 It is the Eufaula of the
censuses of 1738, 1750, 1760, and 1761.8
The following is Hawkins's description of
Eu-fau-lau; on the right
bank of Tallapoosa, five miles below
Oc-fus-kee, on that side of the river, and
but two in a direct line; the lands on the
river are fit for culture; but the flats are
narrow, joined to pine hills and reedy
They have hogs and cattle,
and the range is a good one; they have moss
in the shoals of the river; there are
belonging to this town, seventy gun men, and
they have begun to settle out for the
benefit of their stock. This season, some of
the villagers have fenced their fields. They
have some fine land on Hat-che-lus-te [Hňtci
several settlements there, but no fences;
this creek joins the right side of the
river, two miles below the town. On Woc-cau
E-hoo-te [Waka ihuti, "cow yard"], this
year,1799, the villages, five families in
all, have fenced their fields and they have
promised the agent to use the plough the
next season. On black creek, Co-no-fix-ico [Kono
fiksiko; kono="skunk"] has one hundred
cattle, and makes butter and cheese. John
Townshend, the trader of the town, is an
honest Englishman, who has resided many
years in the nation, and raised a numerous
family, who conduct themselves well. His
daughters, who are married, conduct
themselves well, have stocks of cattle, are
attentive to them, make butter and cheese,
and promise to raise cotton and learn to
spin. The principal cattle holders are
Conofixico, who has one hundred; Choc-lo
Emautlau's stock is on the decline, thirty;
Will Geddis Taupixa Micco [Tapiksi miko;
tapiksi="flat"], one hundred; Co Emautlau [Kowai
imala; kowai=quail,] four hundred under
careful management. John Townshend, one
hundred and forty, and Sally, his daughter,
This is the only Upper
Creek town of the name represented in the
census list of 1832,10 and the
only one now recognized among the Creeks in
Oklahoma. It is, and since the removal
always has been, located in the extreme
southeastern part of the nation near the
modern town of Eufaula, Oklahoma, which
bears its name.
A Eufaula settlement
was also made among the Lower Creeks, and
although this appears on very few maps
before the end of the eighteenth century, we
know that it antedates 1733, because it
occurs on the De Crenay map of that year.11
November 20, 1752,
Thomas Bosomworth visited the Eufaula town
among the Lower Creeks in search of some
horses which had been stolen from the
English. He describes it as ''the Lowest in
the Nation but two'' and ''about forty five
miles from the Cowetas, and as it is chiefly
composed of Runagados from all other Towns
of the Nation, it is reckoned one of the
most unrully, as they all Command and none
The name of this town
appears in the census lists of 1760 and
1761,13 but it is wanting from
the lists of Bartram and Swan. The official
trader there in 1761 was James Cussings.13
Hawkins gives the following description:
Eu-fau-lau; is fifteen
miles below Sau-woog-e-lo, on the left bank
of the river, on a pine flat; the fields are
on both sides of the river, on rich flats;
below the town the land is good.
These people are very
poor, but generally well behaved and very
friendly to white people; they are not given
to horse-stealing, have some stock, are
attentive to it; they have some land fenced,
and are preparing for more; they have spread
out their settlements down the river; about
eight miles below the town, counting on the
river path, there is a little village on
good land, O-ke-teyoc-en-ne.14
Some of the village is well fenced; they
raise plenty of com and rice, and the range
is a good one for stock.
From this village they
have settlements down as low as the forks of
the river; and they are generally on sites
well chosen, some of them well cultivated;
they raise plenty of corn and rice, and have
cattle, horses, and hogs. Several of these
Indians have Negroes, taken during the
Revolutionary War, and where they are there
is more industry and better farms. These
Negroes were, many of them, given by the
agents of Great Britain to the Indians, in
payment for their services, and they
generally call themselves ''King's gifts."
The Negroes are all of them attentive and
friendly to white people, particularly so to
those in authority.15
Lower Eufaula appears
again in the census rolls of 1832, which
also mention a branch village on a creek
Among the Creeks in Oklahoma the town is
known as "Yufā′la
far-away Eufaula" and it maintained its own
square ground for some time after the
emigration, but this has now been given up.
Part of the Eufaula went to Florida in 1761
and made a settlement afterwards known as
Tcuko tcati, ''Red house."17
- 1 19th Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.,
- 2 Ga. Hist. Soc. Colls., III, pp.
- 3 Ibid., IX, pp. 34, 169.
- 4 Bartram, Travels, p. 461;
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, p. 262.
- 5 Plate 5; Hamilton, Col. Mobile, p.
- 6 Bertram, op. cit.; Ga. Hist. Soc.
Colls., III, p. 25.
- 7 Schoolcraft, op. cit.
- 8 MSS., Ayer Coll.; Miss. Prov.
Arch. I, p. 95; Ga. Col. Docs, VIII, p.
9 Ga. Hist. Soc.
Colls., III, p. 48; cf. Taitt in
Mereness, Trav. Am. Col., p. 528.
10 Senate Doc. 512,
23d Cong., 1st sess., pp. 275-278.
11 Plate 5;
Hamilton, Col. Mobile, p. 190.
12 Bosomworth's MS.
Journal, in S. C. Archives.
13 Miss. Prov.
Arch., I, p. 96; Ga. Col. Docs., VIII,
14 This was a
branch of Sawokli; see p. 143.
15 Ga. Hist. Soc.
Colls., III, p. 66.
16 Senate Doc. 512,
23d Cong., 1st sess., IV, pp. 337-342,
17 See p. 403.
Notes About Book:
Source: Swanton, John R., Early
History of the Creek Indians and Their
Neighbors. Pub. Smithsonian
Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bulletin 73. Washington, 1922.
Notes about Online Publication: This manuscript has been ocr'd and heavily
edited. Many of the Native American words have been reproduced as clearly as
online publication will allow us, but not all are exactly the way they were in
the original work. The structure of this manuscript has been changed to allow
better online presentation.