The Creek Indians, who had been allies of the British during the War of 1812, were angered by white encroachment on their hunting grounds in Georgia and Alabama. In 1813, some Creeks under Chief Red Eagle (William Weatherford) (1780-1824) attacked and burned Fort Mims on the lower Alabama River, killing about 500 whites [the Fort Mims Massacre]. Afterward, US militiamen, led by General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), invaded Creek territory in central Alabama and destroyed two Indian villages, Talladega and Tallasahatchee, in the fall of 1813. Jackson pursued the Creek, and on March 27, 1814, his 3,000 man army attacked and defeated them at that Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River in eastern Alabama. More than 800 Creek warriors were killed, and the power of the Creek nation was completely broken. At the Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814, the Creek were compelled to cede 23 million acres (half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia) to the whites. It is sometimes considered to be part of the War of 1812.
Creek Indian Treaties
- Treaty of August 7, 1790
- Treaty of June 29, 1796
- Treaty of June 16, 1802
- Treaty of November 14, 1805
- Treaty of August 9, 1814
- Treaty of January 22, 1818
- Treaty of January 8, 1821
- Treaty of January 8, 1821 (2)
- Treaty of February 12, 1825
- Agreement of June 29 1825
- Treaty of January 24, 1826
- Treaty of November 15, 1827
- Treaty of March 24, 1832
- Treaty of February 14, 1833
- Treaty of August 24, 1835
- Treaty of November 23, 1838
- Treaty of January 4, 1845
- Supplemental Treaty of June 13, 1854
- Treaty of August 7, 1856
- Agreement of September 13, 1865
- Treaty of June 14, 1866
The United States continued to gain title to Native American land after the Treaty of Greenville, at a rate that created alarm in Indian communities. In 1800, William Henry Harrison became governor of the Indiana Territory and, under the direction of President Thomas Jefferson, pursued an aggressive policy of obtaining titles to Indian lands. Two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, organized another pan-tribal resistance to American expansion.
While Tecumseh was in the south attempting to recruit allies among the Creeks, Cherokees, and Choctaws, Harrison marched against the Indian confederacy, defeating Tenskwatawa and his followers at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. The Americans hoped that the victory would end the militant resistance, but Tecumseh instead chose to openly ally with the British, who were soon at war with the Americans in the War of 1812.
A faction of Creeks known as Red Sticks sought aggressively to return their society to a traditional way of life. Red Stick leaders such as William Weatherford (Red Eagle), Peter McQueen, and Menawa, who were allies of the British, violently clashed with other chiefs within the Creek Nation over white encroachment on Creek lands and the programs administered by U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. Before the Creek Civil War began, the Red Sticks attempted to keep their activities secret from the old chiefs.
In February 1813, a small party of Red Sticks, led by Little Warrior, were returning from Detroit when they killed two families of settlers along the Ohio River. Hawkins demanded that the Creek turn over Little Warrior and his six companions. Instead of handing the marauders over to the federal agents, the old Chiefs decided to execute the war party themselves. This decision was the spark which ignited the civil war between the Creeks.
Creek War of 1836
The Creek War of 1836 was a conflict fought between the Muscogee Creek people and non-Native land speculators and squatters in Alabama in 1836. Although the Creek people had been forced from Georgia, with many Lower Creeks moving to the Indian Territory, there were still about 20,000 Upper Creeks living in Alabama.
However, the state moved to abolish tribal governments and extend state laws over the Creeks. Opothle Yohola appealed to the administration of President Andrew Jackson for protection from Alabama; when none was forthcoming, the Treaty of Cusseta was signed on 24 March 1832, which divided up Creek lands into individual allotments. Creeks could either sell their allotments and received funds to remove to the west, or stay in Alabama and submit to state laws. Land speculators and squatters began to defraud Creeks out of their allotments, and violence broke out, leading to the so-called “Creek War of 1836″. Secretary of War Lewis Cass dispatched General Winfield Scott to end the violence by forcibly removing the Creeks to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
- Creek and Cherokee 1817 (hosted at USGenWeb Archives))
- Solders that died at Shepherds Plantation (hosted at CouchWeb)
- Creek and Cherokee Western Georgia 1836
- Creek Rosters 1836
- 1836 – Arms Distribution
- Baker Co Hentz, Capt Michael 1836
- Baldwin Co Hussars Gaither, Hamilton Capt 1836
- Bartow/Cass Co. Gideon, Capt. Berry W 1838
- Bibb County Macon Vol – 1825 Wright, Capt. Edward W.
- Bibb County Macon Volunteers – 1836
- Camden Co Centreville Rifle Company
- Campbell Co Word, Capt James 1st Mounted Militia Volunteers 1838
- Carroll County Bogges, Capt. Giles 2nd GA Militia
- Carroll Co – 74th Reg. Capt T. Bonner 1836 Indian War Co
- Carroll Co Rangers Wagner, Capt. William O.
- Cavalry Formation (Misc Counties)
- Chatham Co Formation 1st Regiment 1835
- Cherokee Co Rifle Rangers
- Claims of Georgia Volunteers (1837 and 1838)
- Clarke Co Vincent, Isaac Capt 1st GA Militia
- Coweta County Greer, Capt. Gilbert D.- Cavalry Company
- DeKalb Co Calhoun, Capt E.N. 67th GA Militia
- DeKalb Co Calhoun, Capt James M. GA Militia
- DeKalb Co Ezzard, Wm Independent Guards 54th Regiment
- Early Co Wilson, Capt William Hardee’s Battalion, GA Militia 1836
- Fayette County Mann, Capt. Young 53rd Reg Ga Militia, Co 1
- Fayette County Stell, Capt. John Fayette Dragoons
- Fayette County Stell, Capt. John
- Fayette County Stinson, Wm Capt. Fayette Dragoons
- Floyd Co Watters, Capt Joseph Roster 1838
- Franklin County Shackelford, Capt. J 1836
- Franklin County Turk, Capt.William 1836
- Fulton Co Watkins, Capt B. F. Cherokee War 2nd Georgia Militia Co A
- Gwinnett Co Capt Hammond Garmany – Mounted Vol. 1836
- Gwinnett Co Capt James Garmany – Mounted Vol. 1836
- Gwinnett Co Gholston, N. Benjamin Capt Col Austin’s Militia 1836
- Gwinnett Co Hamilton, Capt Mathew T -1st Ga Mil 1838
- Gwinnett Co Tuggle, James Militia 1838
- Hall Co Capt Samuel Beck- 1st Regiment, first Brigade of Ga Mounted Volunteers 1838
- Hall Co. Dorsey, John Rev. Capt Lindsay’s Ga Militia 1836
- Hancock Co Brown, Capt A.C. 1838
- Harris Co Hightower, Capt Elisha 67th GA Militia
- Harris Co Hutchinson, Capt H 67th GA Militia
- Harris Co Walker, Capt Virgil Homer 67th GA Militia
- Heard CountyCaptain W B W Dent’s company
- Henry Co Dodson, Capt Daniel Roster 1836(Col T. Allen-49th Military
- Henry Co Harris, Capt Thomas W. 1836
- Houston Co Smith, Capt Jesse 1836
- Jasper Co Lane, Capt Davis 38th Ga Mil 1836
- Jasper Co Roe, Capt Zechariah 1836
- Jones Co. Hardeman, Capt Robert V. (Brewer’s Regiment)
- Liberty Co Co 4th Battalion 1st Brigade- Gainey’s Hill 1825
- Liberty Co Robinson,Capt Wm. G. – Taylor’s Creek Rifle Co
- Lowndes Co Capt Jesse Carter’s 1838 Repel Indian Invasion
- Lowndes Co Capt David E. Bryan’s 1838 Repel Indian Invasion
- Lowndes Co Capt Levi J. Knight Roster 1838 War
- Lowndes Co McCranie, Capt Archibald Capt H.W. Sharp’s Payroll
- Marion Co Capt Berry 1st GA Drafted Militia 1836 (Ltr)
- Meriwether Co Sloan, Capt Richard 1836
- Monroe Co Cureton, Capt John (Monroe Musketeers) Feb 1836
- Monroe Co Russell, Capt Alexander 1st GA Drafted Militia
- Monroe Co Rifle Company
- Morgan Co Foster, Capt Nathaniel 67th GA Militia
- Murray Co Bishop, Absalom Capt – Highland Batt’n – 1838 ?
- Muscogee County The Columbus Guards – 1836 Urquhart, Capt. John A.
- Newton Co Campbell, Capt Charles H. – 1838
- Oglethorpe Co Cook, Capt F.W. 2nd Georgia Militia 1838
- Pike Co Varner, Capt 56th milita “Zebulon Volunteers”.
- Putnam Co Capt James A. Meriwether’s
- Talbot Co. Durham, Sander Capt Company partial
- Taliaferro Co Sanford, Capt James M.
- Thomas Co Capt R. D. Bradley’s Fl Mil, James White Service 1841
- Thomas Co Capt Andrew Robb Fl Mil, James White Service 1841
- Thownsend, John Capt – Highland GA Batt’n
- Troup Co Capt Robt H. Sledge Roster 1836
- Troup Co Hardin, Capt John Roster 1836
- Troup Co Kendrick, Capt John W. Roster 1836
- Upson Co Light Dragoon Jan 1836
- Upson Co Beall, Capt.Thomas [Capt Carey W. Allen-Porter’s 1st GA 537th GMD Roster Feb 1836
- Upson Co Brown, Capt. Alfred H. Porter’s 1st GA 537th GMD Roster Feb 1836
- Walker Co Fariss, Capt Samuel 1836 45th Ga Mil
- Walton Co Brewster, Capt Sheriff 1st Georgia Militia
- Ware Co Capt Miller’s Roster 1838
- Ware Co Capt Sweat’s Roster 1838
- Ware Co. Capt Walker’s Roster 1838
- Wilkinson Co. Capt Green B. Burney’s Roster 1836
- Creek and Cherokee Individual Records – Pensions
- Allen, Charles Pension 1879
- Cassada, David J. (Casada)
- Chapman, Newton M.
- Cole, Monroe (Widow Mrs. Nancy J. Cole) 1893
- Crow, Martin (wid Sarah J.)
- Dunlap, William O. 1892 Capt Dent’s GA Vols
- Forrester, Thomas K. Capt S. Beck 1838
- Lee, Elam S. (widow Anna) Wilson’s Co. Hardee’s Battalion, GA Militia
- Rowell, Dudley
- Langley, John B. 1837 Cap Ben. Watkins
- Stuckey, Nelson-Cap Burney’s Co. Wilkinson Co
- Tate, Isaac (Widow Mrs. Cynithia Tate) 1892
- Tate, Samuel (Widow Mrs. Lydia Tate) 1895
- Carroll County
- Muscogee County
Creek Indian Tribe
A confederacy forming the largest division of the Muskhogean family. They received their name form the English on account of the numerous streams in their country. During early historic times the Creek occupied the greater portion of Alabama and Georgia, residing chiefly on Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, the two largest tributaries of the Alabama River and on the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. They claimed the territory on the east from the Savannah to St. Johns River and all the islands, thence to Apalachee Bay, and from this line northward to the mountains. The south portion of this territory was held by dispossession of the earlier Florida tribes. They sold to Great Britain at an early date their territory between Savannah and Ogeechee Rivers, all the coast to St Johns river, and all the islands up to tidewater, reserving for themselves St Catherine, Sapelo, and Ossabaw Islands, and from Pipemakers Bluff to Savannah (Morse, N. Am., 218, 1776).
Consult Further: Creek Tribe History
- Notes on the Creek Indians
Notes on the Creek Indians was published in 1939 by Swanton and taken from the notes of Maj. J. W. Powell. Those notes were initially written down in interviews with two Creek Indians from Okmulgee Town in Oklahoma in the early 1880's, Legus F. Perryman and Gen. Pleasant Porter. While not extensive, and in part, duplicates Swanton's Early History of Creek Indians, there is specific information found within the manuscript not available elsewhere.
- Tribal Migrations East of the Mississippi
The map entitled "Linguistic Families of American Indians North of Mexico", by J. W. Powell, issued by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, some years ago and several times revised and reprinted, indicates the position of the various groups of tribes when they first became known to Europeans. The map, as its title implies, includes the entire North American continent north of Mexico, but in the present paper, only that portion bordering on the lower Mississippi, and eastward to the Atlantic coast, will be considered.
- Contact Between the Southern Indians and Mexico
- Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors
- A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians
Writing more then just a book about an Indian legend, Samuel Gatschet’s classic ethnographic manuscript delves deeply into the enthnography of the Southern tribes of Creek Indians, providing a look into the linguistic groups of the Gulf States, the tribes which spoke those languages, the villages they lived in, and a more comprehensive study of Creek life. Finally, Gatschet provides an overall look at Indian migration legends, and then gives an English translation of the Creek migration legend.