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Constitution Of The Cherokee Nation
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The elected delegates met and formed the following constitution:
Constitution Of The Cherokee Nation
Formed by a Convention of Delegates From the Several Districts, at New
Echota, July 1827
We, the Representatives of the people of the Cherokee Nation, in Convention assembled, in order to establish justice, ensure tranquility, promote our common welfare, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of liberty; acknowledging with humility and gratitude the goodness of the sovereign Ruler of the Universe, in offering us an opportunity so favorable to the design, and imploring His aid and direction in its accomplishment, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Government of the Cherokee Nation.
Article 1. – Sec. 1. – The boundaries of this Nation, embracing the lands solemnly guaranteed and reserved forever to the Cherokee Nation by the Treaties concluded with the United States, are as follows, and shall forever hereafter remain unalterably the same, to-wit:
Beginning on the north bank of Tennessee River at the upper part of the Chickasaw old field, thence along the main channel of said river, including all the islands therein, to the mouth of the Hiwassee River, thence up the main channel of said river, including islands, to the first hill which closes in on said river about two miles above Hiwassee Old Town, thence along the ridge which divides the waters of the Hiwassee and Little Tillico, to the Tennessee River at Tallassee, thence along the main channel, including islands, to the junction of the Cowee and Nanteyalee, thence along the ridge in the fork of said river, to the top of the blue ridge, thence along the blue ridge to the Unicoy Turnpike road, thence by a straight line to the main source of the Chestatee, thence along its main channel, including islands, to the Chattahoochy, and thence down the same to the Creek boundary at Buzzard Roost, thence along the boundary line which separates this and the Creek Nation, to a point on the Coosa River opposite the mouth of Wills Creek, thence down along the south bank of the same to a point opposite Fort Strother, thence up the river to the mouth of Wills Creek, thence up along the east bank of said creek to the west branch thereof, and up the same to its source, and thence along the ridge which separates the Tombeccee and Tennessee waters to a point on the top of said ridge, thence due north to Camp Coffee on Tennessee River, which is opposite the Chickasaw Island, thence to the place of beginning.
Sec. 2 – The sovereignty and Jurisdiction of this Government shall ex-tend over the country within the boundaries above described, and the lands therein are, and shall remain, the common property of the Nation; but the improvements made thereon, and in the possession of the citizens of the Nation, are the exclusive and indefeasible property of the citizens respectively who made; or may rightfully be in possession of them; Provided that the citizens of the Nation, possessing exclusive and indefeasible right to their respective improvements, as expressed in this article, shall possess no right nor power to dispose of their improvements in any manner whatever to the United States, individual states, nor individual citizens thereof; and that whenever any such citizen or citizens shall remove with their effects out of the limits of this Nation, and become citizens of any other Government, all their rights and privileges as citizens of this Nation shall cease; Provided nevertheless. That the Legislature shall have power to re-admit by law to all the rights of citizenship, any such person or persons, who may at any time desire to return to the Nation on their memorializing the General Council for such readmission. Moreover, the Legislature shall have power to adopt such laws and regulations, as its wisdom may deem expedient and proper, to prevent the citizens from monopolizing improvements with the view of speculation.
Article II. – Sec. 1. – The power of this government shall be divided into three distinct departments; the Legislative, the Executive, and Judicial.
Sec. 2 – No person or persons belonging to one of these Departments shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except in the cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.
ARTICLE III – Sec. 1. – The Legislative power shall be vested in two distinct branches; a Committee and a Council, each to have a negative on the other, and both to be styled the General Council of the Cherokee Nation; and the style of their acts and laws shall be.
“Resolved by the Committee and Council, in General Council convened.’
Sec. 2. The Cherokee Nation, as laid off into eight Districts, shall so remain.
Sec. 3 – The Committee shall consist of two members from each District, and the Council shall consist of three members from each District, to be chosen by the qualified electors of their respective Districts, for two years; and the elections to be held in every District on the First Monday in August for the year 1828, and every succeeding two years thereafter; and the General Council shall be held once a year, to be convened on the second Monday of October in each year, at New Echota.
Sec. 4 – No person shall be eligible to a seat in the General Council, but a free Cherokee male citizen, who shall have attained the age of twenty-five years. The descendants of Cherokee men by all free women, except the African race, whose parents may have been living together as man and wife, according to the customs and laws of this Nation, shall be entitled to all the rights and privileges of this nation, as well as the posterity of Cherokee women by all free men. No person who is of negro or mulatto parentage, either by the father or mother side, shall be eligible to hold any office of profit, honor or trust under this Government.
Sec. 5- The electors and members of the General Council shall, in ail cases except those of treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at election, and at the General Council, and m going to, and returning from the same.
Sec. 6- In all elections by the people, the electors shall vote viva voce. Electors for members to the General Council for 1828, shall be held at the places of holding; the several courts, and at the other two precincts in each District which are designated by the law under which the members of this Convention were elected; and the District Judges shall superintend the elections within the precincts of their respective Court Houses, and the Marshals and Sheriffs shall superintend within the precincts which may be assigned them by the Circuit Judges of their respective Districts, together with one other person who shall be appointed by the Circuit Judges for each precinct within their respective Districts; and the Circuit Judges shall also appoint a clerk to each precinct. – The superintendents and clerks shall, on the Wednesday morning-succeeding the election, assemble at their respective Court Houses and proceed to examine and ascertain the true state of the polls, and shall issue to each member, duly elected, a certificate, and also make an official return of the state of the polls of election to the Principal Chief, and it shall be the duty of the Sheriffs to deliver the same to the Executive; Provided nevertheless, The General Council shall have power after the election of 1828, to regulate by law the precincts and superintendents and clerks of elections in the several Districts.
Sec. 7. – All free male citizens, (excepting Negroes and descendants of white and Indian men by negro women who may have been set free,) who shall have attained to the age of eighteen years, shall be equally entitled to vote at all public elections.
Sec. 8. – Each house of the General Council shall judge of the qualifications and returns of its own members.
Sec. 9 – Each house of the General Council may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish a member for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member; but not a second time for the same cause.
Sec. 10 – Each house of the General Council, when assembled shall choose its own officers; a majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalty as each house may prescribe.
Sec. 11. – The members of the Committee shall each receive from the public Treasury a compensation for their services which shall be two dollars and fifty cents per day during their attendance at the General Council; and the members of the Council shall each receive two dollars per day for their services during their attendance at the General Council: – Provided, that the same may be increased or diminished by law, but no alteration shall make effect during the period of service of the members of the General Council, by whom such alteration shall have been made.
Sec. 12. – The General Council shall regulate by law, by whom and in what manner, writs of elections shall be issued to till the vacancies which may happen in either branch thereof.
Sec. 13. – Each member of the General Council before he takes his seat shall take the following oath or affirmation, to-wit:
“I. A. B., do solemnly swear, (or affirm, as the case may be,) that I have not obtained my election by bribery, treats or any undue and unlawful means used by myself, or others by my desire or approbation, for that purpose; that I consider myself constitutionally qualified as a member of and that, on all questions and measures which may come before me, I will so give my vote, and so conduct myself, as may in my judgment, appear most conducive to the interest and prosperity of this Nation; and that 1 will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and to the utmost of my ability and power observe, conform to, support and defend the Constitution thereof.”
Sec. 14. – No person who may be convicted of felony before any court of this Nation, shall be eligible to any office or appointment of honor, profit or trust within this Nation.
Sec. 15. – The General Council shall have power to make all laws and regulations, which they shall deem necessary and proper for the good of the Nation, which shall not be contrary to this Constitution.
Sec. 16. – It shall be the duty of the General Council to pass such laws as may be necessary and proper, to decide differences by arbitrators to be appointed by the parties, who may choose that summary mode of adjustment.
Sec. 17. – No power of suspending the laws of this Nation shall be exercised, unless by the Legislature or its authority.
Sec. 18. – No retrospective law, nor any law, impairing the obligations of contracts shall be passed.
Sec. 19. – The legislature shall have power to make laws for laying and collecting taxes, for the purpose of raising a revenue.
Sec. 20. – All bills making appropriations shall originate in the Committee, hut the Council may propose amendments or reject the same.
Sec. 21. – All other bills may originate in either house, subject to the concurrence of rejection of the other.
Sec. 22. – All acknowledged Treaties shall be the Supreme law of the land.
Sec. 23. – The Genera! Council shall have the sole power of deciding on the construction of all Treaty stipulations.
Sec. 24. – The Council shall have the sole power of impeaching.
Sec. 25. – Any impeachments shall be tried by the Committee; – when sitting for that purpose, the members shall be upon oath or affirmation; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.
Sec. 26. – The Principal Chief, assistant principal Chief, and all civil officers, under this Nation, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office, but Judgment, in such cases, shall not extend further than removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit, under this Nation. The party whether convicted or acquitted, shall nevertheless, be liable to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
ARTICLE IV.- Sec. 1. The Supreme Executive Power of this Nation shall be vested in a Principal Chief, who shall be chosen by the General Council, and shall hold his office four years; to be elected as follows,- The General Council by a joint vote, shall, at their second annual session, after the rising of this Convention, and at every fourth annual session thereafter, on the second day after the House shall be organized, and competent to proceed to business, elect a Principal Chief.
Sec. 2. – No person, except a natural born citizen, shall be eligible to the office of Principal Chief; neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years.
Sec. 3. – There shall also be chosen at the same time, by the General Council, in the same manner for four years, an assistant Principal Chief.
Sec. 4. – In case of the removal of the Principal Chief from office, or his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the assistant principal Chief, until the inability be removed, or “the vacancy filled by the General Council.
Sec. 5. – The General Council may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability of both the Principal and assistant Principal Chiefs, declaring what officer shall then act as Principal Chief, until the disability be removed, or a Principal Chief shall be elected.
Sec. 6. – The Principal Chief, shall, at stated times, receive for their services, – a compensation – which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which they shall have been elected; and they shall not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the Cherokee Nation, or any other government.
Sec. 7. – Before the Principal Chief enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath, or affirmation; “1 do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 1 will faithfully execute the office of Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, and will; to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend, the Constitution of the Cherokee Nation.”
Sec. 8. – He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Council at the Seat of Government.
Sec. 9. – He shall from time to time give to the General Council information of the State of the Government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may think expedient.
Sec. 10. – He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
Sec. 11. – It shall be his duty to visit the different districts, at least once in two years, to inform himself of the general condition of the Country.
Sec. 12. – The assistant Principal Chief shall, by virtue of his office, aid and advise the Principal Chief in the Administration of the Government, at all times during his continuance in office.
Sec. 13. – Vacancies that may happen in offices, the appointment of which is vested in the General Council, shall be filled by the Principal Chief, during the recess of the General Council, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the end of the Session.
Sec. 14. – Every Bill which shall have passed both Houses of the General Council, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation. If he approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journals, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. If any bill shall not be re-turned by the Principal Chief within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he signed it; unless the General Council by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall be a law, unless sent back within three days after their next meeting.
Sec. 15. – Members of the General Council and all officers. Executive and Judicial, shall be bound by oath to support the Constitution of this Nation, and to perform the duties of their respective offices with fidelity.
Sec. 16. – In case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the Principal Chief shall have the power to adjourn the General Council to such a time as he thinks proper, provided, it be not to a period beyond the next Constitutional meeting of the same.
Sec. 17. – The Principal Chief shall, during the sitting of the General Council, attend to the Seat of Government.
Sec. 18. – There shall be a Council to consist of three men to be appointed by the joint vote of both Houses, to advise the Principal Chief in the Executive part of the Government, whom the Principal Chief shall have full power, at his discretion, to assemble; and he, together with the assistant Principal Chief, and the Counselors, or a majority of them may, from time to time, hold and keep a Council for ordering and directing the affairs of the Nation according to law.
Sec. 19. – The members of the Council shall be chosen for the term of one year.
Sec. 20. – The resolutions and advice of the Council shall be recorded in a register and signed by the members agreeing thereto, which may be called for by either house of the General Council; and any counselor may enter his dissent to the resolution of the majority.
Sec. 21. – The Treasurer of the Cherokee Nation shall be chosen by the joint vote of both Houses of the General Council for the term of two years.
Sec. 22. – The Treasurer shall, before entering on the duties of his office, give bond to the Nation with sureties to the satisfaction of the Legislature, for the faithful discharge of his trust.
Sec. 23. – No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but by warrant from the Principal Chief, and in consequence of appropriations made by law.
Sec. 25.- It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive all public monies, and to make a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public monies at the annual Session of the General Council.
ARTICLE V.- Sec. 1.- The Judicial Powers shall be vested in a Supreme Court, and such Circuit and Inferior Courts, as the General Council may, from time to time ordain and establish.
Sec. 2. – The Supreme Court shall consist of three Judges, any two of whom shall be a quorum.
Sec. 3. – The Judges of each shall hold their Commissions for four years, but any of them may be removed from office on the address of two thirds of each house of the General Council to the Principal Chief, for that purpose.
Sec. 4. – The Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts shall, at stated times, receive a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office, but they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor hold any other office of profit or any other power.
Sec. 5. – No person shall be appointed a Judge of any of the Courts be-fore he shall have attained to the age of thirty years, nor shall any person continue to execute the duties of any of the said offices after he shall have attained to the age of seventy years.
Sec. 6. – The Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts shall be appointed by a joint vote of both houses of the General Council.
Sc. 7. – There shall be appointed in each District, under the Legislative authority, as many Justices of the Peace as it may be deemed the public good requires, whose powers, duties and duration in office, shall be clearly designated.
Sec. 8. – The Judges of the Supreme Court and Circuit Courts shall have complete criminal Jurisdiction in such cases and in such manner as may be pointed out by law.
Sec. 9. – Each Court shall choose its own Clerks for the term of four years; but such Clerks shall not continue in office unless their qualifications shall be adjudged and approved of by the Judges of the Supreme Court, and they shall be removable for breach of good behavior at any time, by the Judges of their respective courts.
Sec. 10. – No Judge shall sit on trial of any cause, where the parties shall be connected with him by affinity or consanguinity, except by consent of the parties. In case all the Judges of the Supreme Court shall be interested in the event of any cause, or related to all, or either of the parties, the Legislature may provide by law for the selection of three men of good character and knowledge, for the determination thereof, who shall be especially commissioned by the Principal Chief for the case.
Sec. 11. – .All writs and other process shall run in the name of the Cherokee Nation, and bear test, and be signed by the respective clerks.
Sec. 12. – Indictments shall Conclude, ”against the peace and dignity of the Cherokee Nation.”
Sec. 13. – The Supreme Court shall hold its session annually at the seat of Government to be convened on the second Monday of October in each year.
Sec. 14. – In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have the right of being heard, of demanding the nature and cause of the accusation against him, of meeting the witnesses face to face, of having compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and in prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; nor shall he be compelled to give evidence against himself.
Sec. 15.- The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions, from unreasonable seizures and searches, and no warrants to search any place or to seize any person or things, shall be issued without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without good cause, supported by oath, or affirmation. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient security unless for capital offenses, where the proof is evident, or presumption great.
ARTICLE VI. – Sec. 1. – Whereas, the ministers of the Gospel are, by their profession, dedicated to the service of God and the care of souls, and ought not to be diverted from the great duty of their function, therefore, no minister of the Gospel, or public preacher of any religious persuasion, whilst he continues in the exercise of his pastoral functions, shall be eligible to the office of Principal Chief, or a seat in either house of the General Council.
Sec. 2. – No person who denies the being of a God, or a future state of rewards and punishment, shall hold any office in the civil department of this Nation.
Sec. 3. – The free exercise of religious worship, and serving God without distinction shall forever be allowed within this Nation; Provided, That this liberty of conscience shall not be so constructed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this Nation.
Sec. 4. – Whenever the General Council shall determine the expediency of appointing delegates or other Agents for the purpose of transacting business with the Government of the United States; the power to recommend, and by the advice and consent of the Committee, shall appoint and commission such delegates or public agents accordingly, and all matters of interest touching the rights of the citizens of this Nation, which may require the attention of the government of the United States, the Principal Chief shall keep up a friendly correspondence with that Government, through the medium of its proper officers.
Sec. 5. – All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the Cherokee Nation, and be sealed with the seal of the Nation, and signed by the Principal Chief.
The Principal Chief shall make use of his private seal until a National seal shall be provided.
Sec. 6. – A Sheriff shall be elected in each District by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold his office for the term of two years, unless sooner removed. Should a vacancy occur subsequent to an election, it shall be filled by the Principal Chief as in other cases, and the person so appointed shall continue in office until the next general election, when such vacancy shall he filled by the qualified electors, and the Sheriff then elected shall continue in office for two years.
Sec. 7. – There shall be a Marshal appointed by a joint vote of both houses of the General Council, for the term of four years, whose compensation and duties shall be regulated by law, and whose jurisdiction shall extend over the Cherokee Nation.
Sec. 8. – No person shall for the same offense be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall any person’s property be taken or applied to public use without his consent; Provided, That nothing in this clause shall be so construed as to impair the right and power of the General Council to lay and collect taxes. All courts shall be open, and every person for an injury done him in his property, person or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law.
Sec. 9 – The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.
Sec. 10 – Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government, the preservation of Liberty, and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged in this Nation.
Sec. 11 – The appointment of all officers, not otherwise directed by this Constitution shall be vested in the Legislature.
Sec. 12 – All laws in force in this nation at the passing of this Constitution, shall so continue until altered or repealed by the Legislature, except where they are temporary, in which case they shall expire at the times respectively limited for their duration; if not continued by an act of the Legislature.
Sec. 13 – The General Council may at any time propose such amendments to this Constitution as two-thirds of each house shall deem expedient; and the Principal Chief shall issue a proclamation, directing all the civil officers of the several Districts to promulgate the same as extensively as possible within their respective Districts, at least nine months previous to the next general election, and if at the first session of the General Council after such general election, two thirds of each house shall, by yeas and nays, ratify such proposed amendments they shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the Constitution; Provided, That such proposed amendments shall be read on three several days, in each house as well when the same are proposed as when they are ratified.
Done in Convention at New Echota, this twenty-sixth day of July, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven; In testimony whereof, we have each of us, hereunto subscribed our names.
JNO. ROSS, Pres’t Con.
Jno. Baldrige, Geo. Lowrey, Jno. Brown, Edward Gunter, John Martin, Joseph Vann, Kelechulee, Lewis Ross, Thomas Foreman, Hair Conrad, James Daniel, John Duncan, Joseph Vann, Thomas Petitt John Beamer, Ooclenota, Wm. Boling, John Timson, Situwaukee, Richard Walker,
A. McCOY, Sec’y to Con.
The emigration of Cherokees to Arkansas met with strenuous objections as may be evidenced by the following acts of council:
“Resolved by the National Committee and Council, That any person or persons, whatsoever, who shall choose to emigrate to the Arkansas country, and shall sell the possessions he or they may be in possession of, to any person or persons whatsoever, he or they, so disposing of their improvements shall forfeit and pay unto the Cherokee Nation the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars; and be it further
“Resolved, That any person or persons whatsoever, who shall purchase any improvements from any person or persons so emigrating, lie or they, so offending shall also forfeit and pay a fine of one hundred and fifty dollars to the Nation, to he collected by the marshal of the district. By order or the National Committee.
JONH ROSS, Pres. National Committee.
ALEXANDER McCOY, Clerk National Committee.
Approved: October 27th, 1821.
PATH X KILLER His Mark
Chas. R. Hicks
Resolved by the National Committee and Council, in General Council Convened, That from and after the passage of this act, if any citizen of the Nation shall bind themselves by enrollment or otherwise as emigrants to Arkansas, or for the purpose of removing out of the jurisdictional limits of the Nation, he, she or they so enrolling or binding themselves, shall forfeit thereby all the rights and privileges he, she or they may have previously thereto claimed or enjoyed as citizens of this Nation and shall be viewed in the same light as others not entitled to citizenship, and treated accordingly.
Be it further resolved, That if any person or persons, citizens of this Nation, shall sell or dispose of his, her or their improvements to any person or persons so enrolled or otherwise bound as above mentioned, he, she or they, shall he viewed as having disposed of his, her or their improvements to a citizen of the United Slates, and shall be ineligible to hold any office of honor, profit or trust in this Nation, and upon conviction thereof, before any of the circuit courts of the several districts, be fined in a sum not less than one thousand dollars, nor exceeding two thousand dollars, and be punished with one hundred lashes.
Be it further resolved. In order to prevent any person from screening him, her or them from the penalties above prescribed by pretending to have sold or disposed of his, her or their improvements to a lawful citizen and not an emigrant, all citizens of this Nation who may hereafter buy, sell or dispose of in any manner their improvements to each other, be, and they are hereby required, the disposer as well as the purchaser of such improvements, to make affidavit, to be filed in the clerk’s office of the district, before any of the District Judges of Clerks of the several courts, that he, she or they did not dispose of or transfer, purchase or obtain any improvement for the purpose of having it valued by the United States commissioners or agents, or were not acting as agents or emigrants in making such purchase or transfer, and in case any such person or persons shall fail to comply with this requirement, such person or persons shall, upon conviction before any of the Circuit Courts of the Nation, pay a tine of not less than one dollar, nor exceeding two hundred dollars, for every offense so committed.
Be it further resolved, That if any citizen or citizens of this Nation shall dispose of or transfer his, her or their improvements without complying with the requirements of the third section of this act, and the person or persons to whom the sale or transfer of such improvements may he made, should thereafter by enrollment or otherwise become an emigrant or emigrants, and shall get said improvement or improvements valued by the agents of the General Government, within thirty days after such purchase or transfer shall have been made, or at any time whilst the disposer continues to remain in possession of the same, then, in that case, the person or persons who may have so disposed of or transferred the improvements as aforesaid shall be subject to the same penalty prescribed in the second section of this act, for disposing of improvements to emigrants.
Be it further resolved, That any person or persons, whosoever, who have bound themselves together by enrollment or otherwise as emigrants under the treaty of 1828, with the Arkansas Cherokees, or who have had, or intend to have their improvements valued by the agents of the General Government, and do not remove out of the jurisdictional limits of this Nation within fifteen days after the passage of this act, they shall be viewed and treated as intruders in the same manner as those who may become emigrants hereafter.
Be it further Resolved, That the Principal Chief of the Nation be, and he is hereby authorized, by and with the advice of the executive councilor, to order the apprehension of any intruders within the limits of the Nation, to be delivered over to the agents of the United States for the Cherokees, to be prosecuted under the intercourse laws of the United Stales, or to expel or punish them as they please.
Approved: JOHN ROSS, Principal Chief, Cherokee Nation.
New Echota, October 31, 1820.
Encroachments on the Cherokee Nation in Arkansas were increasingly troublesome and on May 28, 1828 the following treaty was made by the delegation at Washington:
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