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Algonquian Language

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Algonquian Words

1. Substantives

Spiritual and Human Existence: Terms of Consanguinity: Names of Parts of the Human Frame.

1. GodManitooGen. xxiv. 26
2. DevilMannitoosh Job i. 7.  Chepian. Life of Eliot, p. 97
3.AngelEnglish employed.
4. ManWosketomp
5. WomanMittomwossisGen. xxiv. 8. Job xxi. 9.
6. BoyMukkutchouksJob iii. 5
7. Girl, or maidNunksquaGen. xvi. 24. Luke viii. 54. Ps. clviii. 12
8. Virgin1
PenompGen. xxiv. 16. Job xxxiii. 4. Isa. vii. 14. Mat. i. 23
9. Infant, or childMukkieGen. xxv. 22. Job xxxiii. 25
10. Father, myNooshGen. xxii. 7. Luke x. 21
11. MotherNokasSong of Sol. iii. 4
12. HusbandMunumayenokGen. xxx. 15
13. WifeNunaumonittumwosJob xxxi. 10
14. SonNunaumonGen. xxiv. 6
15. DaughterNuttanisMat. ix. 22
16. BrotherNemetatSong of Sol. xiii. 1
17. SisterNummissis. NetompasSong of Sol. iv. 9
18. An Indian
19. A white man
20. HeadUppuhkukMark xiv. 3. Song of Sol. v. 2
21. HairMeesunkLev. xi. 41. Ps. Ixix. 4. Mat. x. 30
22. FaceWuskesukProv. xxvii. 20, xxx. 10
23. ScalpQanonuhquePs. lxviii. 21
24. EarMehtauogJob xxix. 11. Plu. in og.
25. EyeWuskesukJob xxviii. 10
26. NoseMutchanJob iii. 21. Isa. xxxvii. 29
27. MouthUttoonJob xxix. 9, xxxiii. 2, xl. 4
28. TongueWeenauJob xli. 1. Prov. x. 20
29. ToothWeepitJob xxix. 17
30. BeardWeeshittoounLev. xiii. 30. Isa. vii. 20.
31. NeckKussittspukSong of Sol. iv. 4. Isa. xlvii. 4
32. ArmKuppitanitSong of Sol. vii. 6
33. ShoulderWuttukeitIsa. xi. 4, 6
34. BackUppusqIsa. 1. 6. Uppusqantoonk. Prov. xxvi. 3
35. HandNutcheg Job ii. 5
36. FingerMuhpuhkukquaitchDan. v. 5
37. NailWuhkossDan. iv. 33. Wuhkas. Deut. xxi. 12.
38. BreastWohpannogLev. vii. 30
39. BodyNuhogLuke xx. 19. Mark xiv. 22. My in N
40. LegWuhkontSong of Sol. v. 15. Plu. in ash. Prov. xxvi. 7
41. NavelWenweSong of Sol. vii. 2
42. ThighWehquaoshDan. ii. 32
43. KneeMukkuttogJob iv. 4. Plu. in og
44. FootWuseetRev. x. 2
45. ToeKetuhquasitLev. xiv. 25
46. HeelWogquanJer. xiii. 22. Plu. in ash. Gen. in. 15, xxv. 26
47. BoneKonJob xxx. 30, xxxi. 22
48. HeartUttahJob xxxi. 7. Metah. Prov. xxvii. 23.
49. LiverWusquenitLev. iii. 4, ix. 19. Wusqun. Prov. vii. 23
50. Windpipe
51. StomachWunnokusJob xxx. 27. Song of Sol. v. 14
52. BladderWishq
53. BloodMusqueActs ii. 19. Wusqueheonk. Lev. vii. 26
54. VeinKutchehtIsa
55. SinewKutchehtIsa
56. Flesh WeyausGen. xxvii. 3. Job xxiii. 21, 25, xxxiv. 15
57. SkinNatuhquabJob xxx. 30. My in N
58. SeatPosketteau. Isa. xx. 4. Buttocks
59. Ankle

War, Hunting and Traveling

60. TownOtanJosh. viii. 8
61. HouseWekitJob i. 13
62. DoorSquantamJob xxx. 9
63. LodgeWunneepogqukkomukqutLev. xxiii. 42
64. ChiefKetassootLuke xxiii. 38. Song of Sol. iii. 9, 11
65. WarriorAummenuhkesuenomohDan. iii. 20
66. FriendNetompLuke xi. 5, 6
67. EnemyMatwamoPsalms Ixxiii. 21. Matwoh. Prov. xxvii. 6.
68. KettleOhkeékJob xli. 20
69. ArrowKôhquodtJob xli. 26, 28. Isa. v. 28. I. Sam. xx. 20
70. BowAhtompehII. Sam. i. 18
71. War-club
72. SpearQunuhtugJob xli. 26, 29
73. AxeTogkuokI. Kings vi. 7
74. Gun2
75. KnifeQuogwoshJosh. v. 2
76. FlintQussukquanitIsa. v. 28
77. BoatNoonshoonunActs xvii. 16
78. ShipKuhtoonagqutMark. iv. 36. Acts xx. 38. Prov. xxx. 19
79. SailOmoquashActs xvii. 17
80. MastSehoghonganuhtugquotxxiii. 24
81. OarHunkaueehteangEzek. xxvii. 6
82. PaddleWuttuhunkDeut. xxiii. 13

Costume and Decorations

83. ShoeMukussinLuke x. 4
84. LeggingMetasDan. iii. 21. Plu. in ash
85. CoatHogkooongashLev. viii. 7. Mark. vi. 9.
86. Shirt
87. BreechclothAmpauishIsa. xx. 2
88. SashUppetukquobpisIsa. xi. 5
89. Head-dressWunasohquabesuII. Kings ix. 30
90. Pipe
91. Wampum
92. Tobacco
93. Shot-pouch

Astronomical and Meteorological Phenomena

94. SkyKesukqutRev. iv. 2
95. HeavenKesukquashGen. i. 8, 9. Josh. x. 13
96. SunNepauzJosi. x. 12
97. MoonNanepauzJosh. x. 12, 13
98. StarAnogqsJob xxvi. 5. Gen. i. 16. Plu. in og.
99. DayKesukodGen. i. 5. Josh. x. 13. Job i. 18
100. NightNukonGen. i. 5. Tibukod. Isa, xxi. 11
101. LightWequaiGen. i. 3. Habbakuk iii. 4. Isa. v. 20
102. DarknessPohkenumGen. i. 2. Isa. v. 20. Ex. x. 21
103. MorningMetompogGen. i. 5. Isa. xiv. 12
104. EveningWanunkwookZeph. ii. 7. Gen. i. 5, 8, 13, 19, 23
105. Mid-day
106. MidnightNouttipukokActs xvi. 25. Ex. xi. 4
107. EarlyNomponeuJohn xx. 1
108. LateMannuchishIsa. xliv. 6
109. SpringSontippogMark xiii. 28
110. SummerSequaneProv. xxvi. 1. Nepun. Gen. viii. 22. Prov. vi. 8
111. Autumn
112. WinterPoponSong of Sol. ii. 2
113. YearKodtumogI. Sam. xxvii. 7, xxix. 3. Isa. xxix. 1
114. WindWabanIsa. xvii. 13
115. LightningUkkutshaumunEx. xix. 16, xx. 10. Dan. x. 6
116. ThunderPahtuhquohanEx. xix. 16, xx. 18
117. RainSokanonJob xxix. 23
118. SnowKoonJob xxvi. 1, vi. 16
119. HailKusseginRev. xi, 19

Geographical Terms

120. FireNootaeIsa. ix. 5
121. WaterNippeProv. xxii. 19
122. IceKuppad Job vi. 16
123. EarthOhkeJob xxxviii. 4
124. SeaKehtahhanitProv. xxx. 19
125. LakeNepissepagLuke viii. 23, 33
126. RiverSepuJob xxvii. 10. Seip. Gen. ii. 10
127. SpringTohkekomSong of Sol. iv. 12, 15
128. Stream
129. ValleyOoneuhkoiJosh. viii. 11, x. 12
130. HillWudchuemesIsa. xli. 2
131. MountainWudchueJob xxxix. 8
132. Plain
133. ForestMehtugquehkontuxliv. 14
134. MeadowMoquashqutGen. xix. 17
135. BogNeppissipagwashIsa. xiv. 23
136. IslandMenohhannetIsa. xli. 1, 2

Metals and the Mineral Kingdom

137. StoneQussukProv. xxvii. 3
138. RockQussuk
139. Silver
140. Copper
141. IronMissechuagProv. xxvii. 17
142. LeadMa MuttattagZach. v. 7, 8. Mahmuttattag
143. Gold

Horticulture and Agriculture

144. Maize, or corn
145. Wheat.
146. Oats
147. Potatoe
148. Turnip
149. Pea
150. Rye
151. Bean
152. MelonMonaskootasquashLev. xi. 5
153. Squash
154. Barley

Botanical Terms and Vegetable Kingdom

155. TreeMehtugJob xl. 21, 22, xv. 7
156. LogUhtukq
157. LimbWuttukZach. vi. 12. Isa. x. 39
158. WoodUhtugquseSong of Sol. iii. 9
159. PostNepattunkquonIsa. vi. 4. Post of a door
160. StumpWequanunkDan. iv. 15, 23, 26
161. PineQunonuhquaIsa. xiv. 8. Fir-tree
162. OakNootimesIsa. vi. 13, i. 30, xliv. 14
163. AshMonunksohIsa. xliv. 14
164. Elm
165. Basswood
166. Shrub
167. LeafOneepIsa. i. 30
168. Bark
169. GrassMoskehttiGen. i. Prov. xxii. 25. Ex. vi. 10
170. HayMoskehtuIsa. xlii. 4
171. NettleKoussukIsa. v. 6. Brier
172. ThistleTaskookau
173. Weed
174. FlowerPeshaunSong of Sol. ii. 12
175. RosePeshaun
176. LilyPeshaunLuke xx. 27. Mat. vi. 38

General Articles of Food

177. BreadPetukquannukJob xxxiii. 20. Lev. xxiv. 5. Eccl. xi. 1
178. Indian-mealNokehickEliot s Life, p. 79, ed. of 1691
179. FlourNọokkikI. Sam. xxviii. 24
180. MeatWeyaus. MeetsuonkJob xxxiv. 3
181. FatWeesLev. iii. 3

Native Quadrupeds

182. Beaver
183. DeerAhtuhSong of Sol. ii. 9
184. Bison, or Buffalo
185. BearMosq.Prov. xvii. 12
186. Elk
187. Moose
188. Otter
189. FoxWonkussissSong of Sol. ii. 15. Dim. in emes. Plu. in og
190. WolfMukquooshimIsa. xlv. 25. Query plu. in im
191. DogAnumI. Sam. ix. 8
192. Squirrel
193. HareOgkoshkuProv. xxx. 26. Coney
194. Lynx
195. Panther
196. MuskratMishahpohquasIsa. Ixvi. 17. Mouse. Lev. xi. 29
197. Mink
198. Fisher
199. Martin
200. MoleMameechomitLev. xi. 80
201. Polecat

Domestic Animals Introduced at the Discovery3

202. Hog
203. Horse
204. Cow
205. Sheep

Reptiles, Insects, Etc.

206. Turtle, or TortoiseToonuppasLev. xi. 29. Plu. in og
207. ToadTinnogkooqusEx. viii. 2. Plu. in og
208. SnakeAskookJob xxvi. 13. Eccl. x. 2
209. Lizard
210. WormOohquaIsa. xiv. 11. Plu. in og
211. InsectMonitŏsPlu. in ug
212. FlyOchaas
213. WaspAmoPlu. in og
214. AntAununnekqsProv. xxx. 25, vi. 6

Birds and Ornithology Generally

215. BirdPsuksesJob xli. 5. Prov. xxvii. 8
216. EggWoouJob vi. 6. Woan. Isa. x. 14. Deut. xx. 6
217. FeatherUnnokon
218. ClawOokossaIsa. v. 28. Dan. iv. 23
219. Beak
220. WingNuppohwunIsa. vi. 2
221. Goose
222. Duck
223. SwanWequashLev. xi. 18
224. PartridgePohpohkussuI. Sam. xxvi. 20
225. PigeonNunneemLev. xv. 6
226. Plover
227. Woodcock
228. Turkey
229. CrowWeenontLev. xi. 15
230. RavenKonkontuJob xxxviii. 41. Song of Sol. v. 1. Gen. viii. 7
231. Robin
232. EagleWompisikLev. xi. 13. Isa. xl. 31
233. HawkQuanonLev. xi. 16
234. Snipe
235. OwlKookookhauJob xxx. 29. Isa. xiii. 21
236. Woodpecker

Fishes and Objects in Ichthyology

237. FishNamohsHab. i. 14. Luke xi. 11. Mat. xxxiv. 4
238. Trout
239. Bass
240. Sturgeon
241. Sunfish
242. Pike
243. Catfish
244. Perch
245. Sucker
246. Minnow
247. FinWapwekanegLev. xi. 10. Phi. in ig
248. ScaleWohhokgiegLev. xi. 10. Plu. in ig
249. Roe

Algonquian Adjectives

In the Algonquin group of languages, the adjective is furnished with a transitive inflection, to denote the class of the object, of the quality of which it is intended to speak; and these transitive forms are the simplest, in which all words denoting the properties and qualities of bodies are orally found to exist. In that language, the two classes of objects which impose rules of construction upon the speaker, in the use of adjectives, are those possessing and those wanting life or vitality, The adjective roots or primitive forms of the adjective, are therefore always encumbered with a transitive inflection, to make certain to the hearer the precise class of objects spoken of. Thus, waub is the root-form of white. Ish or ishk, is a declarative particle, but if it be intended to describe a white person, the particle izzie is added; if a white inanimate substance, the particle is changed to au. Denote whether this mode or any analogous one exists in the language of which you furnish a vocabulary.

250. WhiteWompiMat v. 36
251. BlackMooiSong of Sol. i. 5
252. RedMusquaIsa. Ixviii. 7
253. GreenAshkoshquiSong of Sol. v. 16
254. BlueOonôagEx. xxxix. 1, 2
255. YellowWesôagPs. Ixviii. 13
256. GreatMissiLuke x. 2
257. SmallPeasiII. Sam. xii. 8. Hag. i. 9
258. StrongMenuhkesuII. Sam. iii. 1. John ii. 14
259. WeakNoochumwisII. Sam. iii. 1. Isa. xvi. 10
260. OldKutchisIsa. xx. 4
261. YoungWuskeRev. v. 9. Lev. xxii. 20. Isa. vii. 21
262. GoodWunnegenIsa. v. 20. Gen. i. 4
263. BadMatchetIsa. v. 20
264. HandsomeNoonetSong of Sol. i. 14
265. Ugly
266. AlivePamotogLuke xxiv. 5
267. DeadNuppukLuke xxiv. 5
268. LifePemoantooonkIsa. xliii. 4. Sub. in onk
269. DeathNuppoonkProv. vii. 27. Sub. in onk
270. ColdKussopeuRev. iii. 15
271. ColdSonqueseaRev. iii. 15
272. SourSeogProv. x. 26
273. SweetWeekonEccl. xi. 7. Isa. v. 20
274. Pepper
275. Salt
276. BitterWesogkRev. x. 10. Isa. v. 10

In giving these examples, the substantive forms, Nos. 268, 269, and 274, 275, are given in immediate connection with the adjective, for obvious reasons.

Pronouns, Personal and Relative

The genius of the Indian language, to which reference has been above made, which requires that adjectives should have a transitive inflection, also imposes a similar rule of transition on the pro nouns, which are perpetually required to show whether the class of objects to which they apply be animate or inanimate. It is the succedaneum for gender; and there is, as a consequence of so general a principle having been taken, no concord required in that class of languages, to denote the masculine and feminine. State whether the personal, relative, or demonstrative pronouns, be transitive or intransitive.

277. INenJob xxxiv. 33
278. ThouKen Josh. x. 12
279. HeW
280 SheW
281.  They
282 YeKeneauLuke xxii. 20
283. We, including We, excluding
284. We, excluding the person addressedNenawunIsa. xvi. 10
285. This person, or animate being
This object or thing (inanimate)
YeuohMat. xxi. 10, 11
286. That person or animated being
That object or thing (inanimate)
287. These persons or animated beings
These objects or things (inanimate)
288. Those persons or animated beings
Those objects or things
289. AllWameMark xiv. 29
290. Part
291. WhoHowanMat. xxi. 10. Luke viii. 45, 46
292. What
What person
What thing
293. Which person
Which thing

Adverbs

294. NearPasooMark xiii. 28, 29
295. Far offNoondtitIsa. xlvi. 13, xlix. 1
296. TodayKesbukukII. Kings xxviii. 6
297. TomorrowMohtompogI. Sam. xxxi. 8. Saup. Ex. viii. 10
298. Yesterday
299. By and by
300. YesNuxMat. xvii. 25
301. NoMattaJohn. vii. 12. Mat. v. 37
302. Perhaps
303. Never
304. ForeverMitchemeIsa. xxvi. 4, xxxiv. 10. Mat. vi, 13

Prepositions and Prepositional Terms

305. AboveWaabeIsa. vi. 2
306. Under
307. Within
308. Without
309. Something–n
310. Nothing nMatteagLuke xxii. 35. Isa. xl. 17
311. OnOhtaLev. viii. 30
312. In
313. By
314. Through
315. In the sky
316. On the tree
317. In the house
318. By the shore
319. Through the water

Verbs

The simplest form of the Indian verb which has been found orally to exist in the languages examined, is the third person singular, present tense, of the indicative mood. The infinitive is only to be established by dissection. If this rule prevails in the language known to you, the equivalents of the verbs to eat, to drink, &c., will be understood to mean, he eats, he drinks, &c., unless it be otherwise denoted.

320. To eatMeetchJob xxxi. 8. Mark viii. 2, 8
321. To drinkWuttatIsa. v. 22
322. To laughHahaEccl. 18, 12
323. To cryMauooLuke viii. 52. Eccl. iii. 4
324. To loveWomonSong of Sol. ii. 9
325. To burnChikoswLev. iv. 12
326. To walkPapaumZach. vi. 7
327. To runKenoos Zach. ii. 4
328. To seeNaushRev. vi. 3
329. To hearNootaLuke viii. 8. Gen. iii. 8
330. To speakNoowaZach. ii. 4
331. To strikeNuttogkomJer. xxi. 6
332. To thinkMehquontamIsa. xlii. 18
333. To wish
334. To callWehkomIsa. Iv. 5, 6
335. To liveKuppamantamIsa. xliii. 4
336. To goMonchekI. Sam. xxix. 10
337. To singNukketooIsa. v. 1
338. To dancePumukomEccl. iii. 6
339. To dieNuppooGen. xxv. 8
340. To tieUpponamEx. xxxix. 31
341. To killNeshehteamEccl. iii. 3
342. To embark

Participles

343. Eating
344. Drinking
345. Laughing
346. Crying

Substantive-Verb

347. To be, or to exist
348. You are
349. He is
350. I am that I amNen Nuttinnien Nen NuttinnienEx. iii. 14
  1. Analogy and examples denote that there are no elementary participles in the aboriginal tongues, but that the sense of the equivalents generally returned, is, he (is) eating (is) drinking, &c.
  2. Conjugations are effected in the Indian languages, by tensal inflections of the pronouns and verbs. The entire absence of auxiliary verbs in the languages was observed at an early period. The Indian who is constantly in the habit of saying, I sick I well I glad I sorry was naturally supposed to speak a language, which, however rich in its inflections and power of description, had no word or radical particle to denote abstract existence. Such does not, however, appear to be the case in the Algonquin, from a scrutiny of some of the Scripture translations which have been received, and a comparison with their vocabularies. But the subject still requires examination. So far as can be judged, the term for abstract existence is of very limited use, and never, in any case, appears to be employed to express passion, emotion, suffering, or enjoyment. In this view, the forms No. 348, 349, are added. It is apprehended that no precise equivalent for 350 the test phrase proposed by Mr. Duponceau for the verb can be given. In the Algonquin, however, the phrase Nin dow iau Iaun has been rendered literally, I (the4 ) body I am. The whole question turning upon the primary meaning of the root-form IAU or IAH.5

Footnotes

  1. It must be evident, that if there be no equivalent for this word as contradistinguished from No. 7, there ran be no translation of Mat. i. 18, and the parallel passages of Luke, &c., which will convey to the Indian mind the doctrine of the mystery of the incarnation. 

  2. Here, and in most other cases where a blank occurs, there is no corresponding term to be found in the Bible. 

  3. Translations of these names are requested. 

  4. As there is no indefinite article in the -language, the [inclusive] term here is merely inferential. 

  5. The almost exact identity of the sound of this word with the Hebrew verb To Be, n in has not escaped notice. 

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