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Formed as a break-away republic from Mexico by the Texas Revolution, the state claimed borders that encompassed an area that included all of the present U.S. state of Texas, as well as parts of present-day New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Mexico. The eastern boundary with the United States was defined by the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain, in 1819. Its southern and western-most boundary with Mexico was under dispute throughout the existence of the Republic, with Texas claiming that the boundary was the Rio Grande, and Mexico claiming the Nueces River as the boundary. This dispute would later become a trigger for the MexicanAmerican War, after the annexation of Texas.
The Republic of Texas was created from part of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas as a result of the Texas Revolution. Mexico was in turmoil as leaders attempted to determine an optimal form of government. In 1835, when President Antonio López de Santa Anna abolished the Constitution of 1824, granting himself enormous powers over the government, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence and Safety. A central committee in San Felipe de Austin coordinated their activities. In the Mexican interior, several states revolted against the new centralist policies. The Texas Revolution officially began on 2 October 1835, in the Battle of Gonzales. Although the Texians originally fought for the reinstatement of the Constitution of 1824, by 1836 the aim of the war had changed. The Convention of 1836 declared independence on 2 March 1836, and officially formed the Republic of Texas.
Battles and Fights
- Following hosted at Texas State Library and Archives
- James Long Expedition, Oct. 9 1821
- Turtle Bayou Resolutions, June 13, 1832
- S.F. Austin’s Letter Regarding the Siege of Bexar, Nov. 1, 1835
- Sam Houston’s Call for Volunteers, Dec. 12, 1835
- The Grass Fight, Nov. 27, 1835
- The Goliad Massacre
- Battle of the Alamo
- Letter from the Alamo, 1836
- Battle of San Jacinto
- Republic Claims (hosted at Texas State Library and Archives)
- Mier Expedition (hosted Texas Genealogy)
- Index to Military Rolls of the Republic of Texas, 1835-1845 (hosted at TSHA)
- Battle of Gonzales, 1835 (hosted at Sons of DeWitt Colony Texas)
- The Texians, Online Database
Pensions, Rosters and Military Units
- USGenWeb Archives Pension Project
- USGenWeb Archives
- USGenWeb Project
- American Local History Network (Click on Topics or State)
- American History and Genealogy Project (Click on Topics or State)
- Cyndi’s List
Battlefields of Texas – Texas was the site of numerous battles both in its own war for independence from Mexico and in the Civil War. Battlefields of Texas is an overview of those significant and oftentimes controversial conflicts. Adobe Walls, Blanco Canyon, Gonzales, Salado, San Jacinto, the Alamo, Palo Duro Canyon, and Rattlesnake Springs are just a few of the many sites across the state where battles were fought. Maps of the battlefields are also included in this unique collection of Texas history.
Sacrificed at the Alamo: Tragedy and Triumph in the Texas Revolution – The Battle of the Alamo is one of the most compelling stories from American history. Students of the battle often wonder why William B. Travis and his small garrison were left alone to meet their fate at the hands of General Santa Anna. Author Richard B. Winders, the historian and curator at the Alamo, examines events that led to this epic struggle and concludes that in-fighting among the revolutionary leadership doomed the Alamo garrison.
Lone Star Nation: The Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence – From Stephen Austin, Texass reluctant founder, to the alcoholic Sam Houston, who came to lead the Texas army in its hour of crisis and glory, to President Andrew Jackson, whose expansionist aspirations loomed large in the background, here is the story of Texas and the outsize figures who shaped its turbulent history.
The Texas War of Independence 1835-1836: From Outbreak to the Alamo to San Jacinto – The Texas Revolution is remembered chiefly for the 13-day siege of the Alamo and its immortal heroes. This book describes the war and the preceding years that were marked by resentments and minor confrontations as the ambitions of Mexico’s leaders clashed with the territorial determination of Texan settlers. When the war broke in October 1835, the invading Mexicans, under the leadership of the flamboyant President-General Santa Ana, fully expected to crush a ragged army of frontiersmen.