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Medicine Man – North American Indians

But among the many things that are associated with the North American Indians as topics of conversation and subjects of the printer’s ink more talked about and less understood is the “Medicine Man.” On Nov. 14, 1605, the first French settlement was made in America, on the northeast coast of Nova Scotia, and they gave the name Arcadia to the country; and on July 3, 1808, Samuel Champlain laid the foundation of Quebec. The character “Medicine-Man” had its origin, according to tradition, among those early French colonists who corrupted the word “Meda” a word in the language of one of the Indian tribes of that day signifying chief, into “Medicine-Man,” and also called the religious ceremonies of the Indian “making medicine,” which was afterwards called, as the result, “medicine,” and which finally became in use among the Indians themselves, and has so continued to the present day. It was a religious ceremony for the propitiation of invisible spirits and practiced by all of the North American Indians, with scarcely an exception. The ancient Choctaws and Chickasaws had their Medicine Men, with many of whom I was personally acquainted in the years of the long ago. There were two kinds of Medicine (religious ceremonies) among the Choctaws and Chickasaws, the same as among all other tribes of their race, the tribal medicine and the individual, each peculiar to the individual tribe and individual person of that tribe. What the different ingredients were, which composed the tribal medicine, no one knew, or ever tried to know, except he who secretly collected and stored them away in the carefully dressed, highly ornamented...

The Discovery Of This Continent, it’s Results To The Natives

In the year 1470, there lived in Lisbon, a town in Portugal, a man by the name of Christopher Columbus, who there married Dona Felipa, the daughter of Bartolome Monis De Palestrello, an Italian (then deceased), who had arisen to great celebrity as a navigator. Dona Felipa was the idol of her doting father, and often accompanied him in his many voyages, in which she soon equally shared with him his love of adventure, and thus became to him a treasure indeed not only as a companion but as a helper; for she drew his maps and geographical charts, and also wrote, at his dictation, his journals concerning his voyages. Shortly after the marriage of Columbus and Felipa at Lisbon, they moved to the island of Porto Santo which her father had colonized and was governor at the time of his death, and settled on a large landed estate which belonged to Palestrello, and which he had bequeathed to Felipa together with all his journals and papers. In that home of retirement and peace the young husband and wife lived in connubial bliss for many years. How could it be otherwise, since each had found in the other a congenial spirit, full of adventurous explorations, but which all others regarded as visionary follies? They read together and talked over the journals and papers of Bartolomeo, during which Felipa also entertained Columbus with accounts of her own voyages with her father, together with his opinions and those of other navigators of that age his friends and companions of a possible country that might be discovered in the distant West, and the...

Fort Annapolis Royal

More by accident than by design the Sieur de Monts, in 1604, with his oddly assorted band of adventurers on the foggy Bay of Fundy, steered into the rocky entrance, which leads into the beautiful landlocked basin of present day Annapolis in Nova Scotia. One of his followers, the Baron de Potrincourt, was so enchanted by the beauty of the scene that he asked a grant of land here. This was given him, and upon this land in the next year he built himself first a fort, then a house, and then several more houses. This was the beginning of Port Royal, now known as Annapolis, the second oldest fortified place in the Western Hemisphere. The voyager today may repeat de Monts’s experience and with no design to do that, too. Fogs wrap the eastern and western coasts of Nova Scotia in an impenetrable blanket most of the time. The traveler who sails, let us say, from St. Johns, New Brunswick, for the Annapolis Basin, crosses sparkling waters, and then, as he enters the mountainous cleft which gives entrance to this beautiful bay, comes into the belt of mist which obscures all of the coast. He hears the fog horn on the point at the entrance, which de Monts did not hear, and then suddenly, like an apparition, the land looms into view; there is a lane of shrouded, uncertain water, between towering misty headlands; and, then, he is beyond the mists. Annapolis Basin, bright and blue with soft clouds overhead, like a highland lake, lies before him. At the far head of the Basin, where the delicate horizon...

Biography of Archibald Gammell

Archibald Gammell, county assessor and tax collector of Latah County, now residing in Moscow, is a native of Nova Scotia, his birth having occurred February 23, 1835. He is descended from Scotch-Irish ancestry, of Presbyterian faith. William Gammell was the progenitor of the family in the New World. He crossed the Atlantic to Nova Scotia about 1776, since which time three generations of the family have been born there. Industry, uprightness and reliability are the chief characteristics of the Gammells, and they are also noted for longevity, most of the name having attained the age of eighty years or more. John Gammell, the grandfather, and William K. Gammell, the father of our subject, were both born in Nova Scotia, and the latter married Miss Martha Millen, a native of Ireland. They had seven children, but three are now deceased. The mother departed this life in her eighty-first year, and the father survived her only twenty-eight days. They were about the same age, and had celebrated their fifty-sixth wedding anniversary. In religious belief they were Presbyterians, and their upright lives exemplified their faith. Archibald Gammell is now the eldest of the surviving members of the family. He was reared on his father’s farm, educated in the common schools, and entered upon his independent business career as an employee in a woolen factory. He also learned the miller’s trade in a flouring mill, and in 1875 removed to Petaluma, California, where he was engaged in the draying business for three years. He met with moderate success in that undertaking, and in 1878 came to Idaho, securing a farm on American ridge,...

Biographical Sketch of Cyrus S. Eaton

Eaton, Cyrus S.; public utility work; born, Nova Scotia; educated, Woodstock College, Ontario; McMaster’s University, Toronto, degree of B. A.; married, Cleveland, 1908, Margaret House; three children; organizer and operator of public utility properties: pres. continental Gas & Electric Corporation, and The Canada Gas & Electric Co., Beasdot Gas & Power Co.; member firm Abbott & Eaton, engineers and operators; director Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric R. R.; also officer and director in more than a score of other gas. electric-lighting, street railway and water companies, in the United States and Canada; member Union, Colonial and Athletic...

Biography of John B. Tays

John B. Tays is one of the early settlers and enterprising and progressive citizens of Ontario. He is the owner of forty acres of land in that colony and has for years been building up the horticultural industries of his section. His place is located on the south side of Thirteenth Street, east of Euclid Avenue. Mr. Tays purchased this land in 1883 and immediately commenced its improvement, planting trees and vines. He is justly ranked among the pioneer horticulturists of Ontario, and has produced one of the representative places of his section. He now has twenty acres in citrus fruits, of which fifteen acres are in oranges of the Washington Navel and Mediterranean Sweet varieties; five acres are in lemons. His fine vineyards contain twenty acres, fourteen acres being devoted to wine grapes of the Zinfandel, Berger and Riesling varieties, and six acres to Muscat raisin grapes. There are also 400 olive trees upon his laud, three years old. The products of his vineyards are cared for upon the ranch. He dries, packs and ships his raisins, and to dispose of his wine grapes has built a well-ordered and complete winery for distilling the brandies necessary to fortify his sweet wines. He is successful in this industry and his products find a ready sale at good prices. A neat and comfortable cottage residence, suitable outbuildings, etc., attest the well-ordered home. Mr. Tays has also been identified with building up the town of Ontario. Among his improvements in that respect was the improvements on the villa lot on the corner of D and Euclid avenues, where he lived for...

Biographical Sketch of Amos Stiles

Amos Stiles, retired, San Bernardino, was born in Kennebec, Maine, in 1823. His father, Israel Stiles, a farmer, moved to the northern part of New Brunswick. In 1843 the subject of this sketch went to Ohio, where he remained four years, and then returned to New Brunswick, where he remained until 1819. He was married in Nova Scotia, in 1849, to Miss Rebecca O’Brien, and soon after his marriage he moved to Utah, where he lived four years. In 1860 he left with teams for California, and arrived in San Bernardino in December of the same year. Here he bought land and engaged in general farming and stock raising, in which he has continued until quite recently. He is now practically retired and enjoying the labor of his hands. He has reared four children, viz.: Rebecca, now Mrs. Ephraim Beardsley; Edward, William E., and Rose, wife of Eli Sparks. Mr. Stiles is a man of education. He attended the Academy at Farmington, Ohio, and taught school for several terms. Religiously, he is a Free-thinker or...

Biography of George D. Cunningham

George D. Cunningham is one of the enterprising and representative business men of Riverside who have made that city second in enterprise to none in San Bernardino County. He has been associated with her leading business enterprises and building industries since 1876, during which time the small hamlet of a few hundreds has grown to a city of thousands. He was born in Nova Scotia in 1853. His parents were Herbert R. and Eleanor (McGregor) Cunningham. He was reared and schooled in his native place until sixteen years of age, and then came to the United States and located at West Amesbury, now Merrimac, Massachusetts; there be entered into an apprenticeship at the carriage and wagon makers’ trade. A close attention to business for four or five years resulted in making him a skilled workman, and a master of the practical details of the business. He then returned to his home in Nova Scotia, where he resided until 1876. In that year he decided to establish himself on the Pacific Coast, and came to Riverside. Upon his arrival he engaged in mercantile life as a clerk with R. F. Cunningham in the general merchandise business. After a few months in that employ he established himself in business as a carriage manufacturer and dealer in agricultural implements on Eighth Street. He was a master of his business and soon gained the confidence and support of the community. As his business increased he entered heartily in improving and building up the city. In 1883 he built the well-known Cunningham block on the corner of Main and Eighth streets. This was the...

Biographical Sketch of A. Shay

A. Shay, of San Bernardino, was born in Maine, May 1, 1812, but reared principally in Nova Scotia. He learned the cooper’s and carpenter’s trades. When a young man he went to New Orleans, where he was successful for three years. Seeing then a specimen of gold from California, in 1849, he at once set out for the gold fields, coming by water and the Isthmus of Panama. He worked in the mines for a time and made and lost a great deal of money-lost heavily by the floods in the upper country. Then he carried on a large sheep ranch at City creek for a number of years, and he lived also for some time in Los Angeles County, and finally he came to San Bernardino County, where he has dealt to a considerable extent in lands and has engaged in the rearing of live-stock and in fruit culture. In 1852 he married Eliza E. Gosey, a native of Arkansas, and they have five children: John, Thomas, William, Henry and Mary. The mother died several years ago. Mr. Shay has given all his children a comfortable home and a good start in...

Micmac Tribe

Micmac Indians, Mi’kmaq First Nation. (Migmak, ‘allies’; Nigmak, ‘our allies.’ Hewitt). Alternative names for the Micmac, which can be found in historical sources, include Gaspesians, Souriquois, Acadians and Tarrantines; in the mid-19th century Silas Rand recorded the word wejebowkwejik as a self-ascription.1 An important Algonquian tribe that occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Islands, the north part of New Brunswick, and probably points in south and west Newfoundland. While their neighbors the Abnaki have close linguistic relations with the Algonquian tribes of the great lakes, the Micmac seem to have almost as distant a relation to the group as the Algonquians of the plains2 Micmac Tribe History If Schoolcraft’s supposition be correct, the Micmac must have been among the first Indians of the north east coast encountered by Europeans, as he thinks they were visited by Sebastian Cabot in 1497, and that the 3 natives he took to England were of this tribe. Kohl believes that those captured by Cortereal in 1501 and taken to Europe were Micmac. Most of the early voyagers to this region speak of the great numbers of Indians on the north coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and of their fierce and warlike character. They early became friends of the French, a friendship which was lasting and which the English, after the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, by which Acadia was ceded to them, found impossible to have transferred to themselves for nearly half a century. Their hostility to the English prevented for a long time any serious attempts at establishing British settlements on the north coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick,...

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