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Lipan Apache Tribe

Lipan Apache Indians (adapted from Ipa-n’de, apparently a personal name; n’de=’people’). An Apache tribe, designating themselves Náizhan (‘ours,’ ‘our kind’), which at various periods of the 18th and 19th centuries roamed from the lower Rio Grande in New Mexico and Mexico eastward through Texas to the Gulf coast, gaining a livelihood by depredations against other tribes and especially against the white settlements of Texas and Mexico. The name has probably been employed to include other Apache groups of the southern plains, such as the Mescaleros and the Kiowa Apache. The Franciscan mission of San Saba was established among the Lipan in Texas in 1757, but it was soon destroyed by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita. In 1761-62 the missions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were also founded, but these met a like fate in 1767. In 1805 the Lipan were reported to be divided into 3 bands, numbering 300, 350, and 100 men, respective: this apparently gave rise to their subdivision by Orozco N, Berra in 1864 into the Lipajenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes de Abajo. In 1849, under chief Castro, they sided with the Texans againt the Comanche1 ; they were always friendly, with their congeners, the Mescaleros, and with the Tonkawa after 1855, but were enemies of the Jicarillas and the Ute. Between 1845 and 1850 they suffered severely in the Texan wars, the design of which was the extermination of the Indians within the Texas border. Most of them were driven into Coahuila, Mexico, where they resided in the Santa Rosa mountains with Kickapoo and other refugee Indians from the United States, until the...

Mimbreños Apache Tribe

Mimbreños (Spanish: ‘people of the willows’). A branch of the Apache who took their popular name from the Mimbres mountains, southwest New Mexico, but who roamed over the country from the east side of the Rio Grande in New Mexico to San Francisco River in Arizona, a favorite haunt being near Lake Guzman, west of El Paso, in Chihuahua. Between 1854 and 1869 their number was estimated at 400 to 750, under Mangas Coloradas. In habits they were similar to the other Apache, gaining a livelihood by raiding settlements in New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico. They made peace with the Mexicans from time to time and before 1870 were supplied with rations by the military post at Janos, Chihuahua. They were sometimes called Coppermine Apache on account of their occupancy of the territory in which the Santa Rita mines in southwest New Mexico are situated. In 1875 a part of them joined the Mescaleros and a part were under the Hot Springs (Chiricahua) agency, New Mexico. They are now divided between the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico, and Ft Apache agency, Arizona, but their number is not separately...

Apache Tribe

Apache Indians (probably from ápachu, ‘enemy,’ the Zuñi name for the Navaho, who were designated “Apaches de Nabaju” by the early Spaniards in New Mexico). A number of tribes forming the most southerly group of the Athapascan family. The name has been applied also to some unrelated Yuman tribes, as the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and Apache Yuma. The Apache call themselves N’de, Dĭnë, Tĭnde, or Inde, `people.’ They were evidently not so numerous about the beginning of the 17th century as in recent times, their numbers apparently having been increased by captives from other tribes, particularly the Pueblos, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful Indians, as well as from the settlements of northern Mexico that were gradually established within the territory raided by them, although recent measurements by Hrdlicka seem to indicate unusual freedom from foreign admixture. They were first mentioned as Apaches by Oñate in 1598, although Coronado, in 1541, met the Querechos (the Vaqueros of Benavides, and probably the Jicarillas and Mescaleros of modern times) on the plains of east New Mexico and west Texas: but there is no evidence that the Apache reached so far west as Arizona until after the middle of the 16th century. From the time of the Spanish colonization of New Mexico until within twenty years they have been noted for their warlike disposition, raiding white and Indian settlements alike, extending their depredations as far southward as Jalisco, Mexico. No group of tribes has caused greater confusion to writers, from the fact that the popular navies of the tribes are derived from some local or temporary habitat, owing to their shifting propensities, or...

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