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Old Stone Fort

Old Stone Fort is one of the most beautiful Native American archaeological sites. When the Scottish, Ulster Scots and English settlers first arrived in eastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia, they discovered a continuous chain composed of hundreds of fieldstone structures on the mountain and hill tops between Manchester, TN and Stone Mountain, GA. Some were merely piles of stones that archaeologists call cairns. Others formed small cylinders. Others were small rings. Still others were complex combinations of concentric rings with some perpendicular walls. At least two appeared to be walled villages. The Cherokees, who had moved into the region during the late 1700s, told the settlers that they didn’t build these structures. Some Cherokees told the Europeans that they had been built by the Creeks. Other Cherokees told of a legend that these mysterious sites had been built by “Mooneyes,” which the Europeans interpreted as being gray-eyed Europeans. The stories were elaborated to the point that most Whites assumed that the stone cairns and enclosures were built by Celts, specifically a colony of Welsh led by a Prince Madoc. There are several surviving enigmatic sites in the northern Georgia and western North Carolina that consist of dozens or hundreds of fieldstone cairns. The two largest are located in the Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield in Cobb County, GA and in Ball Ground, GA near the Etowah River. When in the path of suburban development, some of these cairns have been studied by archaeologists. Artifacts found in the vicinity of the cairns suggest a Late Archaic or Early Woodland construction date (1600 BC – 800 BC.) No human skeletons have been...

Slave Narrative of Ann Matthews

Person Interviewed: Ann Matthews Location: Nashville, Tennessee Place of Birth: Murfreesboro, Tennessee Place of Residence: 719 9th Ave. South, Nashville, Tennessee “I wuz bawn in Murfreesboro on Stones River. I dunno how ole I ez en hit meks me ‘shamed ter tell peeple dat, but mah mammy would hit me in de mouth w’en I’d ax how ole I wuz. She say I wuz jes’ tryin’ ter be grown.” “Mah mammy’s name wuz Frankie en mah daddy wuz Henry Ken Kannon. Don’ member much ’bout mah mammy ‘cept she wuz a sho’t fat Indian ‘oman wid a turrible tempah. She d’ed, durin’ de war, wid black measles.” “Mah daddy wuz part Indian en couldn’t talk plain. W’en he go ter de store he’d hab ter put his han’ on w’at he want ter buy. He d’ed eight months ‘fore de Centennial.” “Our marster en missis wuz Landon en Sweenie Ken Kannon. Dey wuz good ter us, en we had’n good things ter eat.” “I member de Yankee en Southern soldiers. One day me en mah young missis, en sum chilluns went up ter de road en we se’ed sum Yankee soldiers kumin’, I clum’ed on de fence, de urthurs run ‘way en hid. One ob de soldiers sezs ter me, ‘Lettle girl who wuz dat wid you,’ en I sezs, ‘Hit wuz Miss Puss en sum chilluns.’ He laughed en sezs, ‘You ez brave ain’ you?'” “Our missis let us go ter chuch. I ‘long ter de chuch ob Christ.” “I dunno ob but one slave dat got lan’ er nothin’ w’en freedum wuz ‘clared. We didn’t git nuthin...

Biography of Euclid Waterhouse Smartt, Jr.

Euclid Waterhouse Smartt, Jr., of Muskogee, whose varied interests and activities have ever maintained a well balanced character, while his recognition of the duties and obligations of life have made him a valued citizen through his business enterprise and through his cooperation in many projects for the public good, was born in Viola, Warren county, Tennessee, December 29, 1878, on the home farm of his parents E. W. and Nannie Elizabeth (Davis) Smartt. He completed his literary education in the Viola Normal School at Viola, Tennessee, in the year 1899 and became a law student in the office and under the direction of Cross & Ramsey, well known attorneys of Manchester, Tennessee, being admitted to the bar in 1901. He then located for practice in Manchester, where he devoted his attention to the profession until 1908, when he also became interested in the conduct of a lumber business, continuing to practice, however, until 1912. It was in that year that Mr. Smartt came to Muskogee and through the intervening period has resided in this city. His initial business connection was that of president and general manager of the Muskogee Transfer Company and as the years have passed he has utilized every opportunity which he believed offered chance for advancement and broader usefulness in the business world. He became interested in the retail tire and automobile accessories business and in October, 1918, he was appointed to the position of secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, acting in that capacity with good results for the organization until the 15th of June, 1921, when he resigned. He is now a director of...

Biographical Sketch of R. H. Richardson

R. H. Richardson, merchant and a prominent citizen of Tullahoma, was born in Bradford County, Tennessee, in November 1846, the son of Thomas E. Richardson, whose death occurred in Coffee County in 1850. When our subject was about six months old his parents moved to Coffee County, settling near Duck River in the Fourteenth District, where he was reared and attended the free schools. He finished his education at Manchester College. January 1, 1868, he came to Tullahoma and entered a store as clerk, and in 1878 began business for himself, and has since conducted a successful general store. He was married in November, 1868, to D. D. Zell, daughter of F. M. Zell of Bedford County. To them three children have been born as follows: Linda M., born November 8, 1880; Warren W., December 31, 1882; Thomas E., born October 30, 1885. Mr. Richardson is a member of the Masonic order and he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1881 he served as recorder of Tullahoma, and in 1882 and 1884 served on the board of aldermen of the same place. In politics he is a...

Biographical Sketch of F. N. Miller

F. N. Miller, editor of the Manchester Times and a prominent citizen of Manchester, was born at Port Hudson, Louisiana, December 5, 1853, the son of Albert and Delilah (Saunders) Miller, the former born October 18, 1822, in Indiana, and the latter May 1, 1832, in Kentucky, and still living in Port Hudson, Louisiana. The parents were married about 1846. In 1861 the elder Miller enlisted in the Confederate Company E. twenty first Mississippi Regiment Infantry, and was killed in the battle of Chickamauga in 1863. He was a successful brick mason. Our subject is the third of five children, and after a good academic education he served an apprenticeship as printer at Woodville, Mississippi, for four years. In 1869 he made a nine years’ tour of western cities, working in Texas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kentucky and Nebraska. Returning to Tennessee in 1879 he spent a year in Union City, and then bought a half interest in a journal called Our Country in Dresden. A year later he went to Nashville and entered the Banner office, and in 1881 came to Manchester and established the Times, which, through his constant attention and ability, has become recognized as one of the leading Democratic Journals of this section of the country. Published at $1 per year, it has a circulation of 600. December 14, 1880, our subject was married to Alice J. Castleman, born March 16, 1856, in Weakley County, Tennessee. She is a lady of intelligence and culture. The two children who were born to them (both daughters) died in infancy. Mr. Miller is a stanch democrat and the...

Biography of P.C. Isbell

P. C. Isbell. His parents were both born in Warren County, Kentucky. His father was of English descent; his mother of German and a granddaughter of Frederick Stump, an early settler in Davidson County, Tennessee. He was born in Warren County, Kentucky. His father moved to Jackson County, Missouri, when he was a small boy, where he grew up in the dark backwoods and never attended school. He had a fine working education. His mother taught him to spell, read, and write and a few rules in arithmetic, what she knew. He mastered Webster’s “blue back.” and then engaged as a schoolteacher, which he followed for several years, working his way up to a high grade in the English language. After leaving the schoolhouse, he continued his studies in all the departments useful in practical life. He came to Tennessee in 1850, read law in the office of Hon. W. P. Hickerson, in Manchester, was admitted to the bar in 1852, and has continued in the practice at that place ever since. His father was a Whig and an uncompromising supporter of Henry Clay. He was schooled in the doctrines of the Whig party, and the old Baptist Church doctrine, which his parents held sacred. He is one of the few men who have gotten away from all of their early political and religious teaching. He works up all the great questions involved in human life. He is independent in thought and action, without the slightest tinge of superstition. He is anxious to have an intelligent people, grand in purpose, noble in sentiment and just in action. He thinks...

Biography of W. P. Hickerson, Jr.

W. P. Hickerson, Jr., was born in Manchester, October 20, 1850, the son of Judge William P. and Mary S. (Martin) Hickerson, both of Scotch-Irish descent. The father, born in North Carolina, November 26, 1816, went when a child to Tennessee, and began life as a dry goods clerk at Manchester, and afterward read law under Colonel Charles L. Ready of Murfreesboro, and for a number of years was the leading lawyer of that section. For sixteen years he was judge of the Fifth District, and was appointed by Governor Marks as a judge of the State Arbitration Court. As a lawyer he was among the first in Tennessee. He died in Coffee County of heart disease, April 8, 1882, and his wife just one year before. Both are buried in the old family graveyard near Manchester. He was a prominent democrat in the state. The mother, born in Wilson County, Tennessee, February 13, 1825, died April 17, 1881. Our subject, the second of five children (two living), was educated chiefly at Manchester College, and then for ten months was a contractor in building the Illinois Central Railway, through west Tennessee, then known as the M. C. Railway. Afterward with an uncle, L. D. Hickerson, he leased the McMinnville & Manchester, and the Winchester & Alabama Railways. Three years after he sold the lease to the Chattanooga Company, altogether a successful speculation. He then became conductor for the Chattanooga Company for a year, on the McMinnville & Manchester Railway. In 1879 he began the Stone Fort Paper Company’s Mills, in which he has since owned a half interest, and...

Biographical Sketch of George W. Cross

George W. Cross, a prominent lawyer of Manchester, Tennessee, was born in Anderson County August 31, 1849. He is the son of William and Jane (Black) Cross, both of English descent and natives of Anderson County. The former, born in 1810, is still living; the latter, born about 1820, died February 26, 1885. Married in 1836 the elder Cross-engaged in farming. He is a democrat, and sympathizes with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of which his wife was a member. Our subject, the fifth of eight children, was educated chiefly at Cumberland University, at Lebanon, Tennessee, and the military school of Knoxville, Tennessee, from which he graduated in 1874. After three years’ teaching in Decherd and Salem, Tennessee, in September 1877, he took ten months at Vanderbilt University Law Department, and the professor granted him license to practice. Since 1878, when he came to Manchester, he has become one of the most successful lawyers of Coffee County and among the ablest in this section. January 17, 1882, he married Beulah Hickerson, born in 1861, the daughter of Judge W. P. Hickerson. She was a cultured lady. Her death occurred July 24, 1885. Mr. Cross is a decided...

Biographical Sketch of G. R. Crane

G. R. Crane, druggist and a prominent young citizen of Tullahoma, Tennessee, was born in Manchester, Tennessee, November 26, 1858, the son of Dr. William and M. A. (Alexander) Crane. At the age of two years he with his parents came to Tullahoma, which has since been his home. He acquired his education in the public schools, and has added much thereto by his practical experience. He began life for himself when but fifteen years of age as a clerk. At the age of twenty-one he began in the produce business, and continued in this for one year, when he engaged in the drug trade, in which he has met with success. He was married November 3, 1881, to Mary E. Lambert, and to them one child, G. R., Jr., was born August 20, 1882. In 1884 our subject was elected recorder of Tullahoma, and in 1886 he was elected a member of the board of aldermen to serve two years. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. Lodge, is a democrat, and himself and wife are members of the St. Barnabas Episcopal...

Biographical Sketch of John H. Ashley

John H. Ashley, High Sheriff of Coffee County, and a prominent citizen of Manchester, was born in Rutherford County, June 13, 1848. He is the son of W. F. and Lidia A. (Mankin), both natives of Tennessee and of English descent; the former was born near Beech Grove in 1822 and died November 5, 1878; the latter, still living, was born in Rutherford County in 1822. The elder Ashley was a farmer and a sound democrat. Our subject was the oldest of seven children; received his academic education at Beech Grove Academy chiefly, and for sixteen years successfully pursued agriculture. In 1884 he was elected High Sheriff of Coffee County and was honored by re-election two years later by a handsome majority. He has raised, a self-made man, to his present successful position. December 18, 1868, he was married to Mattie E. Hightower, born in Murfreesboro in 1859, and a graduate from the Female Institute in her native city. Two children were born to them: Freelin H. born February 11, 1881, and Mamie, born September 7, 1883. Mr. Ashley is a stanch democrat and a member of the Separate Baptist Church, while his wife belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is an influential...
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