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Ancient Tumuli on the Savannah River

Near the close of a spring day in 1776, Mr. William Bartram, who, at the request of Dr. Fothergill, of London, had been for some time studying the flora of Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, forded Broad River just above its confluence with the Savannah, and became the guest of the commanding officer at Fort James. This fort was situated on an eminence in the forks of the Savannah and Broad, equidistant from those rivers, and from the extreme point of land formed by their union. Fort Charlotte was located about a mile below, on the left bank of the Savannah. The stockade of Fort James was an acre in extent. Attended by the polite surgeon of the garrison, Bartram made an excursion up the Savannah River, “to inspect some remarkable Indian monuments,” four or five miles above the fort. Of them he writes as follows: “These wonderful labors of the ancients stand in a level plain very near the bank of the river, now 20 or 30 yards from it. They consist of conical mounts of earth, and four square terraces, &c. The great mount is in the form of a cone, about 40 or 50 feet high, and the circumference of its base two or three hundred yards, entirely composed of the loamy, rich earth of the low grounds; the top or apex is flat; a spiral path or track leading from the ground up to the top is still visible, where now grows a large, beautiful spreading red cedar1. There appear four niches excavated out of the sides of the hill, at different heights from the base,...

Treaty of June 29, 1796

A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded between the President of the United States of America, on the one Part, and Behalf of the said States, area the undersigned Kings, Chiefs and Warriors of the Creek Nation of Indians, on the Part of the said Nation. The parties being desirous of establishing permanent peace and friendship between the United States and the said Creek nation, and the citizens and members thereof; and to remove the causes of war, by ascertaining their limits, and making other necessary, just and friendly arrangements; the President of the United States, by Benjamin Hawkins, George Clymer, and Andrew Pickens, Commissioners whom he hath constituted with powers for these purposes, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and the Creek Nation of Indians, by the undersigned Kings Chiefs and Warriors, representing the whole Creek Nation, have agreed to the following articles: Article 1. The Treaty entered into, at New York, between the parties on the 7th day of August, 1790, is, and shall remain obligatory on the contracting parties, according to the terms of it, except as herein provided for. Article 2. The boundary line from the Currahee mountain, to the head, or source of the main south branch of the OconeƩ river, called, by the white people, Appalatchee, and by the Indians, Tulapocka, and down the middle of the same, shall be clearly ascertained, and marked, at such time, and in such manner, as the President shall direct. And the Indians will, on being informed of the determination of the President, send as many of their old chiefs, as...

Will of Thomas Hood – 1671

THOMAS HOOD, New York. “I, Thomas Hood, lately a souldier in ye Garrison of Fort James, being since my arrivall taken sick,” makes loving friends, Richard Patum and John Bugby, executors, and leaves them “my share of Log wood in the Ketch, ‘Society,’ now riding, at anchor in the road of New York, of which Thomas Edwards is master.” “I give ye summe of 300 guilders, wampum, or ye value thereof, to be spent among my fellow-souldiers in the Garrison of Fort James.” Legacies to friends John Clarke and Richard Charlton. Dated October 7, 1671. Witnesses, Francis Yates, John Laureson. Above executors were confirmed October 14, 1671. States that he had “formerly been a soldier, hut had lately come from the West Indies, in the ketch, ‘Society,’ and had a share of log wood, a chest of silks, and some other things.” LIBER 1-2, page...

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