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Black-Indian History

The first black slaves were introduced into the New World (1501-03) ostensibly to labor in the place of the Indians, who showed themselves ill-suited to enforced tasks and moreover were being exterminated in the Spanish colonies. The Indian-black inter-mixture has proceeded on a larger scale in South America, but not a little has also taken place in various parts of the northern continent. Wood (New England’s Prospect, 77, 1634) tells how some Indians of Massachusetts in 1633, coming across a black in the top of a tree were frightened, surmising that; ‘he was Abamacho, or the devil.” Nevertheless, inter-mixture of Indians and blacks has occurred in New England. About the middle of the 18th century the Indians of Martha’s Vineyard began to intermarry with blacks, the result being that “the mixed race increased in numbers and improved in temperance and industry.” A like inter-mixture with similar a results is reported about the same time from parts of Cape Cod. Among the Mashpee in 1802 very few pure Indians were left, there being a number of mulattoes1 Robert Rantoul in 18332 states that “the Indians are said to be improved by the mixture.” In 1890, W. H. Clark3 says of the Gay Head Indians: “Although one observes much that betokens the Indian type, the admixture of black and white blood has materially changed them.” The deportation of the Pequot to the Bermudas after the defeat of 1638 may have led to admixture there. The Pequot of Groton, Connecticut, who in 1832 numbered but 40, were reported as considerably mixed with white and black blood, and the condition of the few...

Will of Mary Gardiner – 1664

MARY GARDINER. “I, Mary Gardiner, of Maidstone, alias East Hampton, upon Long Island.” Widow of Lion Gardiner, “I give my Island, called Isle of Wight, alias Monchonock, to my son, David Gardiner, for life.” Then to his next male heire. If he die without male issue, then to the male heir of my daughter Mary. If she die without male issue, then to the heir male of my grandchild Elizabeth Howell, “and to be entailed to the heirs male of my deceased husband, Lion Gardiner, never to be sold, but to be a continuous inheritance forever.” Leaves to daughter Mary Conckling “my whole accommodation at East Hampton.” Mentions sons-in-law Jeremiah Conckling and Arthur Howell. Makes Mr. Thomas James, “minister of the Word of God,” Mr. John Mulford and Mr. Robert Bond, all of East hampton, the overseers of will. They are also the witnesses. Dated April 19, 1664. Codicil, dated January 15, 1664/5, mentions same persons and witnesses. Proved June 6, 1665. Letters of Administration granted to son, David Gardiner, October 5, 1665. [Her maiden name was Mary Deurcant.] LIBER 1-2, page...

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