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Woodland Complexes in Northeastern Iowa

This book, written by Wilfred D. Logan, an archeologist with many years of experience in the National Park Service, increases our understanding of the peoples whose burial mounds are preserved within the national monument and other sites in the surrounding locale. The volume presents data, not heretofore analyzed, from a large number of excavations in northeastern Iowa, and systematizes the material to develop a background against which to view the Effigy Mounds and the people who built them.

Contributions of the Old Residents’ Historical Association, Lowell MA

The Lowell Historical Society of Lowell Massachusetts published 6 volumes of “contributions” to the recording of the history of Lowell Massachusetts at the turn of the century. These contributions were continued by the contributions by the Lowell Historical Society. Volume I A Fragment, written in 1843, by Theodore Edson Boott, Kirk, by Theodore Edson Carpet-Weaving and the Lowell Manufacturing Company, by Samuel Fay Dana, Samuel L., Memoir of, by John O. Green Early Recollections of an Old Resident, by Josiah B. French East Chelmsford (now Lowell), Families Living in, in 1802, by Z. E. Stone Green, Benjamin, Biography of, by Lewis Green Hale, Moses, Early Manufacturer of Wool, &c., in E. Chelmsford, by Alfred Gilman History of an Old Firm, by Charles Hovey Jackson, General, in Lowell, by Z. E. Stone Jackson, Patrick T., by John A. Lowell Knapp, Daniel, Autobiography of Letters (Three) of Samuel Batchelder First Census of Lowell; the Hamilton Manufacturing Company; first Manufacture of the Power-Loom Drilling Letters (Three) of Samuel Lawrence John Brown; Milton D. Whipple; the Purchase of the Outlets of the N. H. Lakes, the sources of the Merrimack Lewis, Joel, Reminiscences of, by Joshua Merrill Livingston, William, by Josiah B. French Locke, Joseph, Life and Character of, by John A. Knowles Lowell and Harvard College, by John O. Green Contains a list of alumni and graduates of Harvard University, now or formerly residing in Lowell. July 1877. Lowell and the Monadnocks, by Ephraim Brown Lowell and Newburyport, by Thomas B. Lawson Lowell, Francis Cabot, by Alfred Gilman Lowell Institution for Savings, Semi-Centennial History of, by Geo. J. Carney Lowell, Mayors of...

Sir William Johnson and the Six Nations

The Mohawk Valley in which Sir William Johnson spent his adult life (1738-17 74) was the fairest portion of the domain of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. In this valley William Griffis had lived nine years, seeing on every side traces or monuments of the industry, humanity, and powerful personality of its most famous resident in colonial days. From the quaint stone church in Schenectady which Sir Johnson built, and in whose canopied pews he sat, daily before his eyes, to the autograph papers in possession of his neighbors; from sites close at hand and traditionally associated with the lord of Johnson Hall, to the historical relics which multiply at Johnstown, Canajoharie, and westward, — mementos of the baronet were never lacking. His two baronial halls still stand near the Mohawk. Local traditions, while in the main generous to Johnson’s memory, was sometimes unfair and even cruel. The hatreds engendered by the partisan features of the Revolution, and the just detestation of the savage atrocities of Tories and red allies led by Johnson’s son and son-in-law, had done injustice to the great man himself. Yet base and baseless tradition was in no whit more unjust than the sectional opinions and hostile gossip of the New England militia which historians have so freely transferred to their pages.

Catholic Sioux Herald Newspaper 1896-1912

By the treaty of Washington Apr. 19, 1858, the Yankton Sioux ceded all their lands in South Dakota, excepting a reservation on the north bank of Missouri river, where they have since remained in peace with the whites. Rev. Jerome Hunt and the St. Paul’s Catholic Indian Mission of the Yankton Tribe of the Sioux Indians, at Fort Trotten, published the S’ina sapa wocekiye taeyanpaha (short name of Eyanpaha) for at least the years of 1896-1912 in the Yankton Sioux native language and in English. This newspaper, who’s English translation of it’s name means the Catholic Sioux Herald was published for the Yankton Sioux residing on the reservation about Fort Trotten. Many of the issues from this newspaper have been retained and are presented below. Some of these are labelled as “supplements.” You’ll have to scrounge around a little to find articles in the English language, but they do exist.

Indian Wars of New England

To the student of Indian history of the early New England period the catalog of the librarian would allow one to infer that the ground had been already preempted by Mr. William Hubbard and some other well-known writers upon the tragedies of the early New England days, whose labors are more famous for being a quaint reflection of the times than for comprehensive treatment of the subject at hand. Without Mr. Drake’s labors, allied to those of Church and Belknap, the earlier story would be a meager one. It is to these authors one goes with assurance and infinite satisfaction, and one feels safe in accepting them as authorities upon the matters of which they write. Mr. Hubbard, who is most tedious in his narrative, leaves one at the threshold of Mr. Penhallow’s “Relation, “which brings one to the verge of 1726; while Mr. Palfrey’s consideration of the events which limit the scope of the present work is general rather than subjective. Unquestionably, Mr. Palfrey offers very little of the conflicts of the English settler with the Indians. His objective was a “History of New England,” to which the depredations of the Indians were necessarily incidental. With Gardener’s “Pequod Wars” and Church’s “Philip’s War” is ushered in a decade of peaceful years, the termination of which leaves one upon the threshold of a most sanguinary conflict which broke out anew in 1688, and in which the stage of activities was shifted from the purlieus of Mount Hope1 to the northern boundaries of New Hampshire and eastward about the marshes of old Scarborough and the islands of Merrymeeting Bay. Isolate...

Disbursements to Cherokees under the Treaty of May 6, 1828

Abstract of disbursements and expenditures made by George Vashon, Indian Agent for the Cherokees west of the Mississippi, under the stipulations of the Treaty with said tribe of 6th May, 1828, between the 16th September, 1830, and the 31st December, 1833. In total this list represents 390 Cherokee families and 1835 individuals who each received 25.75 as part of their payment under the 5th article of the treaty of 6th May, 1828.

The Native American History of Florida’s Lake Okeechobee Basin

The Lake Okeechobee region contained some of the most sophisticated indigenous cultures that ever existed north of Mexico. Its towns built large earthworks and ponds in the shape of the ceremonial scepters carried by leaders in the Southeastern Ceremonial Mound Culture, but they were built several centuries before the Southeastern Ceremonial Mound Culture appeared elsewhere. Its engineers constructed several hundred miles of canals and raised causeways to interconnect the towns. They even built locks to enable cargo canoes to bypass rapids. Yet despite all this cultural precociousness, so far there is no evidence that the people of South Florida ever practiced large scale agriculture. However, intensive cultivation of raised garden beds in a semi-tropical climate, also a practice of the Mayas, may have produced a far higher percentage of their diet than anthropologists currently presume.

Mayaimi People

The Mayaimi People lived around Lake Okeechobee from at least 300 BC to until around 1700 AD.1 Their ancestors probably lived in the region as early as 1000 BC, because some village sites show continual cultural development from that era forward. The Mayaimi were the progenitors of the Glades Culture. During the period from around 200 AD to 1150 AD, the ancestors of the Mayaimi lived in a sophisticated society of many towns that were interconnected by canals and raised causeways.2 They built ceremonials mounds, complex earthworks, ball courts, ornamental ponds and earthen effigies. Almost all the symbols associated with the Mississippian Culture between 900 AD and 1600 AD, could be found in Mayaimi towns as early as 500 AD or earlier. The canoes of the Mayaimi were identical in shape to those of the Mayas and quite different from the dugout canoes of advanced indigenous peoples farther north. The Mayaimi civilization collapsed around 1150 AD at the same time that the acropolis of Ocmulgee, 600 miles to the north was abandoned. There apparently was a connection between these two cultural collapses, but it has not been identified at the present time. Traditional folklore is that Maya-imi means “Big Water,” which is also the translation of the Itsate Creek word for Lake Okeechobee.3 North of Lake Okeechobee lived the Maya-koa (Mayaca in Spanish,) whose name in hybrid indigenous-Arawak meant “Maya People.” Most of the peoples that we now call Maya did not call themselves Maya.4 It was a province in the northern end of the Yucatan Peninsula. In 1502, Bartolomé Colon, the brother of Cristobal Colon, and Cristobal’s son,...

Tekesta People

The Tekesta were an indigenous maritime people, whose primary villages were near the mouths of rivers along the Atlantic Coast of what are now Miami-Dade, Broward and southern Palm Beach Counties.1 At certain periods in the past, they also occupied the Florida Keys, but Calusa artifacts outnumber those of Tekesta in Florida Key archaeological sites, 4:1. This suggests that most of the time, the Keys were occupied by people related to the Calusa. The Tekesta were closely allied to their immediate neighbors to the north, the Jaega. Tekesta is also written in its Spanish form of Tequesta. The Castilian alphabet was based on the Roman alphabet and did not use a letter K.2 Today, contemporary Spanish writers only use a K to spell foreign words. Little is known about the language of the Tekesta People. Few words survive. The meaning of the word, Tekesta is unknown. Since Spaniards typically changes Southeastern indigenous “te(” sounds to “ta(”, their actual name probably was Tekeste – utilizing the Itza suffix. “te” for “people.” There is a continuous development of indigenous ceramic styles in southeastern Florida from around 700 BC to 1600 AD.3 Archaeologists have interpreted this to mean that the Tekesta arrived in the region around 700 BC. That may or may not be true. Pottery was generally made by females. Males from another culture could have conquered the region at some time in the past, killed the indigenous males and taken the indigenous females as wives and concubines. The Tekesta were not agriculturalists and did not reside in permanent year-round villages. They migrated seasonally to take advantage of available natural food...

The Miami Circle

The Miami Circle was discovered in 1998 during excavation for the construction of a luxury condominium at Brickell Point in Downtown Miami near the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.1 The developer, Michael Baumann, tore down an existing apartment complex in 1998. Prior to initiating construction of the new tower, he was required to retain archaeologists to carry out a brief field survey the site by the city’s historic preservation ordinance. However, Baumann did not do this until pressured by the Miami-Dade Historic Preservation Division Director, Bob Carr, pressured him to do so. The survey was actually carried out by municipal employees, volunteers and members of the Archaeological & Historical Conservancy. Afterward, the 2.2 acre site was designated Miami Midden No. 2 or 8DA1212.2 During what was intended to be a brief survey consisting of random post hole size pits, a volunteer came upon an ancient hole cut into the soft Oolithic limestone bedrock that was rectangular and about two feet deep.3 More holes were discovered after Carr directed further exploration. A pattern appeared. A surveyor, Ted Riggs, suspected that the team had found a circular pattern, 38 feet (12 m) in diameter. He did this by calculating the center associated with the uncovered holes. Using CADD, he then projected the probable locations of the other holes. Excavation soon revealed that there were 24 holes forming a perfect circle. The structure is currently estimated to have been built at some time between 0 AD and 300 AD.4 This estimate is based on radiocarbon dating of decomposed wood particles found inside several of the holes in the limestone. Opponents of this...

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