Topic: Yuman

Walapai Tribe

Walapai Indians (Xawálapáya, ‘pine tree folk.’ – Harrington). A Yuman tribe originally living on middle Colorado River, above the Mohave tribe, from the great bend eastward, well into the interior chiefly by the chase and on roots and seeds. They are said to have been brave and enterprising, but physically inferior to the Mohave. The Havasupai, who are an offshoot, speak a closely-related language. The Walapai numbered 728 in 1889, 631 in 1897, and 498 in 1910. They are under the administration of a school superintendent on the Walapai Reservation of 730,880 acres in north west Arizona, and are making little progress in civilization. They cultivated only 57 acres during 1904, but owned 2,000 horses. The name Santa Margarita was applied by the Spaniards to one of their...

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Coanopa Tribe

Coanopa Indians. A tribe, apparently Yuman, residing probably on or in the vicinity of the lower Rio Colorado early in the 18th century. They visited Father Nino while he was among the Quigyuma and are mentioned by him in connection with the Cuchan (Yuma) and other tribes 1Venegas, History of California, i, 308, 1759 2Coues, Garcés Diary, 551, 1900 . Possibly the Cocopa. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Venegas, History of California, i, 308, 1759 2. ↩ Coues, Garcés Diary, 551,...

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Cajuenche Tribe

Cajuenche Indians. A Yuman tribe speaking the Cocopa dialect and residing in 1775-76 on the east bank of the Rio Colorado below the mouth of the Gila, next to the Quigyuma, their rancherias extending south to about lat. 32° 33º and into central south California, about lat. 33° 08′, where they met the Comeya. At the date named the Cajuenche are said to have numbered 3,000 and to have been enemies of the Cocopa 1Garcés, Diary, 443, 1900 . Of the disappearance of the tribe practically nothing is known, but if they are identical with the Cawina, or Quokim, as they seem to be, they had become reduced to a mere remnant by 1851, owing to constant wars with the Yuma. As of 1905 Bartlett reported only 10 survivors living with the Pima and Maricopa, only one of whom understood his native language, which was said to differ from the Pima and Maricopa. Merced, San Jacome, and San Sebastian have been mentioned as Cajuenche rancherias. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Garcés, Diary, 443,...

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Mohave Tribe

Mohave Indians (from hamok ‘three’, avi ‘mountain’). The most populous and war like of the Yuman tribes. Since known to history they appear to have lived on both sides of the Rio Colorado, though chiefly on the east  side, between the Needles (whence their name is derived) and the entrance to Black Canyon. Ives, in 1857, found only a few scattered families in Cottonwood Valley, the bulk of their number being below Hardyville. In recent times a body of Chemehuevi have held the river between them and their kinsmen the Yuma. The Mohave are strong, athletic, and well developed, their women attractive; in fact, Ives characterized them as fine a people physically as any he had ever seen. They are famed for the artistic painting of their bodies. Tattooing was universal, but confined to small areas on the skin. According to Kroeber 1Kroeber, Am. Anthrop., IV, 284, 1902 their art in recent times consists chiefly of crude painted decorations on their pottery. Though a river tribe, the Mohave made no canoes, but when necessary had recourse to rafts, or balsas, made of bundles of reeds. They had no large settlements, their dwellings being scattered. These were four-sided and low, with four supporting posts at the center. The walls, which were only 2 or 3 feet high, and the almost flat roof were formed of brush covered with sand. Their...

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Comeya Tribe

Comeya Indians. Apparently a collective name indefinitely applied to the Yuman tribes from San Diego eastward to the lower Rio Colorado. By many authors it has been assumed to be synonymous with Diegueno, which doubtless it was in part. Just what tribes it included can not now be told, but the term is here applied only to interior tribes, the Diegueno about San Diego being excluded. When visited by Anza, Garcés, and Font, in 1775, the “Quemayá” wore sandals of maguey fiber and descended from their own territory (which began at the mountains, in lat. 33 08 , some 100 m. to the N. w. of the mouth of New r. in N. E. Lower California, and extended as far as San Diego) to eat calabashes and other fruits of the river. They were described as “very dirty, on account of the much mezcal they eat; their idiom is foreign to those of the river” 1Garcés, Diary, 1775, 165, 197, et seq., 1900. They were also visited in 1826 by Lieut. Hardy 2Hardy, Trav. in Mex., 368-372, 1829, who found them on the Colorado just above the mouth of the Gila, and who described them, under the name Axua (which, he says, is their tribal name), as being very numerous and filthy in their habits; to overcome vermin they coated their hair with mud, with which they also painted...

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Havasupai Tribe

Havasupai Indians (blue or green water people). A small isolated tribe of the Yuman stock (the nucleus of which is believed to have descended from the Walapai) who occupy Catract canyon of the Rio Colorado in north west Arizona.  Whipple 1Whipple , Pac. R.R. Rep., III, pt, 1, 82, 1856 was informed in 1850 that the “cosninos” roamed from the Sierra Mogollon to the San Francisco mountains and along the valley of the Colorado Chiquito. The tribe is a peculiarly interesting one, since of all the Yuman tribes it is the only one which has developed or borrowed a culture similar to, though less advanced, than that of the Pueblo peoples; indeed, according to tradition, the Havasupai (or more probably a Pueblo clan or tribe that became incorporated with them) formerly built and occupied villages of a permanent character on the Colorado Chiquito east of the San Francisco Mountains, where ruins were pointed out to Powell by a Havasupai chief as the former homes of his people. As the result of war with tribes farther E., they abandoned these villages and took refuge in the San Francisco Mountains, subsequently leaving these for their present abode. In this connection it is of interest to note that the Cosnino caves on the upper Rio Verde, near the north edge of Tonto basin, central Arizona, were named from this tribe, because of...

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