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Topic: Native American Treaties

Winnipeg, October 10th, 1876. – Part B

To The Honorable Alexander Morris, Lieutenant Governor, Fort Garry. Sir, –I have the honor to inform you that in compliance with your instructions, a copy of which I hereunto annex, I proceeded, accompanied by Mr. Reid, to the Dog Head and Berens River on Lake Winnipeg, and there successfully secured the adhesion of the Island and Grand Rapids of Berens River Bands of Indians to Treaty Number Five, and, having paid the annuities to the Berens River Indians, returned to the Stone Fort. As mentioned in the joint report submitted to you by Mr. Reid and myself, I had the greatest difficulty in procuring a boat to take me on my mission, and only through the kindness of Mr. Flett, of the Hudson’s Bay Company, at the Stone Fort, was I able to obtain even the loan of one as far as Berens River, from where I had to return it…. I left the Stone Fort for the Grand Rapids, on the morning of the 17th of August, and after a very fast, though rough and dangerous passage, reached the mouth of the Saskatchewan River, early on the morning of the 26th. I found, on entering the river, that the Indians were encamped near its mouth, on the south bank, where I landed, and arranged to meet them at noon that day. As the provisions were stored at the...

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Treaty of 3 October 1873

Sir, –I have the honor to enclose copy of a treaty made by myself, Lieut. -Col. Provencher, Indian agent and S. J. Dawson, Esq., Commissioner, acting on behalf of Her Majesty, of the one part, and the Saulteaux tribe of Ojibway Indians on the other, at the North-West Angle of the Lake of the Woods, on the 3rd of October, for the relinquishment of the Indian title to the tract of land therein described and embracing 55,000 square miles. In the first place, the holding of the negotiation of the treaty had been appointed by you to take place at the North-West Angle before you requested me to take part therein, and Mr. Dawson had obtained the consent of the Indians to meet there on the 10th of September, but they afterwards changed their minds, and refused to meet me unless I came to Fort Francis. I refused to do this, as I felt that the yielding to the demand of the Indians in this respect would operate injuriously to the success of the treaty, and the results proved the correctness of the opinion I had formed. I therefore sent a special agent (Mr. Pierre Levaillier) to warn them that I would meet them as arranged at the North-West Angle on the 25th, or not at all this year, to which they eventually agreed. I left here for the...

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The Treaties At Forts Carlton And Pitt – Morleyville, Bow River, Rocky Mountains

October 23rd, 1875. To His Honor Lieutenant-Governor Morris. Sir,–In accordance with my instructions, I proceeded with as little delay as possible to Carlton, in the neighborhood of which place I met with forty tents of Cree. From these I ascertained that the work I had undertaken would be much more arduous than I had expected, and that the principal camps would be found on the south branch of the Saskatchewan and Red Deer Rivers. I was also informed by these Indians that the Cree and Plain Assiniboin were united on two points: 1st. That they would not receive any presents from Government until a definite time for treaty was stated. 2nd. Though they deplored the necessity of resorting to extreme measures, yet they were unanimous in their determination to oppose the running of lines, or the making of roads through their country, until a settlement between the Government and them had been effected. I was further informed that the danger of a collision with the whites was likely to arise from the officious conduct of minor Chiefs who were anxious to make themselves conspicuous, the principal men of the large camps being much more moderate in their demands. Believing this to be the fact, I revolved to visit every camp and read them your message, and in order that your Honor may form a correct judgment of their disposition...

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Winnipeg, October 14th 1876 – Part C

To The Hon. Alexander Morris, Lieut. -Governor. Sir, –Referring to your letter of instructions under date of the 14th of July, relative to the payment of the Norway House and Cross Lake bands of Indians, I have the honor to submit the following report: — Having, in co-operation with the Hon. Thomas Howard, paid the Indians of Berens River and successfully secured the adhesion of the Island and Upper Berens River bands of Indians to Treaty Number Five, on the morning of Saturday, the 5th of August, I left for Norway House, which place, owing to stormy weather and strong head winds, I did not succeed in reaching until the morning of the 12th. On the way I was met by Indians proceeding to inspect their reserve at Fisher’s River, who brought a letter from the Chiefs of Norway House and Cross Lake, stating that the Indians were all assembled, and requesting to be paid at the earliest possible date. On reaching this place, Norway House, after having camp pitched at a short distance from the fort, I dispatched messengers to the several camps and villages, notifying the Indians of my arrival and desiring the Chiefs to meet me on the Monday morning following. On Sunday evening divine service was held within the fort by the Rev. Mr. Ruttan, Wesleyan missionary, at which a large number of Indians were...

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Lower Fort Garry, July 20th, 1871

Sir,–I have the honor to inform you that on Monday last I came to this Fort with the Commissioner to meet the Indians called here, with a view to negotiate a treaty, intending to open the business on Tuesday morning. It appeared, however, on inquiry, that some bands of Indians had not arrived on Tuesday morning, and we were therefore obliged to postpone the opening of the meeting till Thursday. On that day the Indians from all the sections of the country to which the invitation extended were found present to the number of about one thousand. A considerable body of half-breeds and other inhabitants of the country were also present, awaiting with some anxiety to learn what should be announced as the policy of the Government. I enclose you a memorandum of the observations with which I opened the meeting. On reading them you will observe one or two points which may require some explanation. At the time of the treaty with the Earl of Selkirk, certain Indians signed as Chiefs and representatives of their people. Some of the Indians now deny that these men ever were Chiefs or had authority to sign the treaty. With a view therefore to avoid a recurrence of any such question we asked the Indians, as a first step, to agree among themselves in selecting their Chiefs and then to present them...

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The Selkirk Treaty

This indenture, made on the eighteenth day of July, in the fifty-seventh year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King George the Third, and in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and seventeen, between the undersigned Chiefs and warriors of the Chippeway or Saulteaux Nation and of the Killistine or Cree Nation, on the one part, and the Right Honorable Thomas Earl of Selkirk, on the other part: Witnesseth, that for and in consideration of the annual present or quit rent hereinafter mentioned, the said Chiefs have given, granted and confirmed, and do, by these presents, give, grant and confirm unto our Sovereign Lord the King all that tract of land adjacent to Red River and Ossiniboyne River, beginning at the mouth of Red River and extending along same as far as Great Forks at the mouth of Red Lake River, and along Ossiniboyne River, otherwise called Riviere des Champignons, and extending to the distance of six miles from Fort Douglas on every side, and likewise from Fort Doer, and also from the Great Forks and in other parts extending in breadth to the distance of two English statute miles back from the banks of the said rivers, on each side, together with all the appurtenances whatsoever of the said tract of land, to have and to hold forever the said tract of land and appurtenances to...

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Indian Treaties Caddo to Crow

Treaties for the Caddo, Cahokia, Calapooia, Cayuga, Cayuse, Chasta, Cherokee, Cheyenne Chickasaw, Chippewa, Choctaw, Christian Indians, Clack-A-Mas, Columbia Colville, Comanche, Creek, and Crow Tribes. Names in (parentheses) are other names used for tribe Caddo Treaties (Cadoe) Treaty of July 1, 1835 Treaty of May 15, 1846 Cahokia Treaties Treaty of September 25, 1818 Calapooia Treaties (Kalapuya) Treaty of January 22, 1855 Treaty of November 29, 1854 Cayuga Treaties Treaty of October 22, 1784 Treaty of January 9, 1789 Agreement of August 23, 1792 Treaty of January 5, 1838 Cayuse Treaties Treaty of June 9, 1855 Chasta Treaties Treaty of November 18, 1854 Cherokee Treaties Treaty of November 28, 1785 Treaty of July 2, 1791 Treaty of June 26, 1794 Treaty of October 2, 1798 Treaty of October 24, 1804 Treaty of October 25, 1805 Treaty of October 27, 1805 Treaty of January 7, 1806 Elucidation of a Convention, September 11, 1807 Treaty of September 8, 1815 Treaty of March 22, 1816 Second Treaty of March 22, 1816 Treaty of September 14, 1816 Treaty of July 8, 1817 Treaty of February 27, 1819 Treaty of May 6, 1828 Treaty of February 14, 1833 Agreement of March 14, 1835 Treaty of August 24, 1835 Treaty of December 29, 1835 Treaty of August 6, 1846 Agreement of September 13, 1865 Treaty of July 19, 1866 Treaty of April 27, 1868 Cheyenne Treaties...

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Treaty of October 19, 1818

Treaty with the Chickasaws, to settle all territorial controversies, and to remove all ground of complaint or dissatisfaction, that might arise to interrupt the peace and harmony which have so long and so happily existed between the United States of America and the Chickesaw nation of Indians, James Monroe, President of the said United States, by Isaac Shelby and Andrew Jackson, of the one part, and the whole Chickesaw nation, by their chiefs, head men, and warriors, in full council assembled, of the other part, have agreed on the following articles; which, when ratified by the President and Senate of the United States of America, shall form a treaty binding on all parties. Article I. Peace and friendship are hereby firmly established and made perpetual, between the United States of America and the Chickesaw nation of Indians. Article II. To obtain the object of the foregoing article, the Chickesaw nation of Indians cede to the United States of America, (with the exception of such reservation as shall be hereafter mentioned,) all claim or title which the said nation has to the land lying north of the south boundary of the state of Tennessee, which is bounded south by the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude, and which lands, hereby ceded, lies within the following boundary, viz:      Beginning on the Tennessee river, about thirty-five miles, by water, below colonel George Colbert’s...

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Treaty of August 4, 1825

For the purpose of perpetuating the friendship which has heretofore existed, as also to remove all future cause of discussion or dissension, as it respects trade and friendship between the United States and their citizens, and the Crow tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America, by Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the United States’ army, and Major Benjamin O’Fallon, Indian agent, with full powers and authority, specially appointed and commissioned for that purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs, Head men and Warriors, of the said Crow tribe of Indians, on behalf of their tribe, of the other part, have made and entered into the following Articles and Conditions; which, when ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall be binding on both parties—to wit: Article I. It is admitted by the Crow tribe of Indians, that they reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection.—The said tribe also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade and intercourse with them. Article II. The United States agree to receive the Crow tribe of Indians into their friendship, and under their protection, and to extend to them, from time to time, such benefits and acts of kindness as may be convenient, and seem...

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Treaty of July 29, 1837

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Peters (the confluence of the St. Peters and Mississippi rivers) in the Territory of Wisconsin, between the United States of America, by their commissioner, Henry Dodge, Governor of said Territory, and the Chippewa nation of Indians, by their chiefs and headmen. Article 1. The said Chippewa nation cede to the United States all that tract of country included within the following boundaries: Beginning at the junction of the Crow Wing and Mississippi rivers, between twenty and thirty miles above where the Mississippi is crossed by the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude, and running thence to the north point of Lake St. Croix, one of the sources of the St. Croix river; thence to and along the dividing ridge between the waters of Lake Superior and those of the Mississippi, to the sources of the Ocha-sua-sepe a tributary of the Chippewa river; thence to a point on the Chippewa river, twenty miles below the outlet of Lake De Flambeau; thence to the junction of the Wisconsin and Pelican rivers; thence on an east course twenty-five miles; thence southerly, on a course parallel with that of the Wisconsin river, to the line dividing the territories of the Chippewas and Menomonies; thence to the Plover Portage; thence along the southern boundary of the Chippewa country, to the commencement of the boundary line dividing...

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Treaty of June 16, 1820

Articles of a treaty, made and concluded at the Saúlt de St. Marie, in the Territory of Michigan, between the United States, by their Commissioner Lewis Cass, and the Chippeway tribe of Indians. Article I.The Chippeway tribe of Indians cede to the United States the following tract of land: Beginning at the Big Rock, in the river St. Mary’s, on the boundary line between the United States and the British Province of Upper Canada; and, running thence, down the said river, with the middle thereof, to the Little Rapid; and, from those points, running back from the said river, so as to include sixteen square miles of land. Article II.The Chippeway tribe of Indians acknowledge to have received a quantity of goods in full satisfaction of the preceding cession. Article III. The United States will secure to the Indians a perpetual right of fishing at the falls of St. Mary’s, and also a place of encampment upon the tract hereby ceded, convenient to the fishing ground, which place shall not interfere with the defenses of any military work which may be erected, nor with any private rights. Article IV. This treaty, after the same shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, shall be obligatory on the contracting parties. In witness whereof, the said Lewis Cass,...

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Treaty of September 24, 1819

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Saginaw, in the Territory of Michigan, between the United States of America, by their Commissioner, Lewis Cass, and the Chippewa nation of Indians. Article I. The Chippewa nation of Indians, in consideration of the stipulations herein made on the part of the United States, do hereby, forever, cede to the United States the land comprehended within the following lines and boundaries: Beginning at a point in the present Indian boundary line, which runs due north from the mouth of the great Auglaize river, six miles south of the place where the base line, so called, intersects the same; thence, west, sixty miles; thence, in a direct line, to the head of Thunder Bay River; thence, down the same, following the courses thereof, to the mouth; thence, northeast, to the boundary line between the United States and the British Province of Upper Canada; thence, with the same, to the line established by the treaty of Detroit, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seven; thence, with the said line, to the place of beginning. Article II. From the cession aforesaid the following tracts of land shall be reserved, for the use of the Chippewa nation of Indians: One tract, of eight thousand acres, on the east side of the river Au Sable, near where the Indians now live. One tract, of...

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Elucidation of a Convention, September 11, 1807

Elucidation of a convention with the Cherokee Nation, September 11, 1807. Whereas, by the first article of a convention between the United States and the Cherokee nation, entered into at the city of Washington, on the seventh day of January, one thousand eight hundred and six, it was intended on the part of the Cherokee nation, and so understood by the Secretary of War, the commissioner on the part of the United States, to cede to the United States all the right, title and interest which the said Cherokee nation ever had to a tract of country contained between the Tennessee river and the Tennessee ridge (so called); which tract of country had since the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety four, been claimed by the Cherokees and Chickasaws: the eastern boundary whereof is limited by a line so to be run from the upper part of the Chickasaw Old Fields, as to include all the waters of Elk river, any thing expressed in said convention to the contrary notwithstanding. It is therefore now declared by James Robertson and Return J. Meigs, acting under the authority of the executive of the United States, and by a delegation of Cherokee chiefs, of whom Eunolee or Black Fox, the king or head chief of said Cherokee nation, acting on the part of, and in behalf of said nation, is one,...

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Indian Treaties Aionai to Assinaboine

Treaties for: Aionai, Anadarko, Apache, Appalachicola, Arapaho, Arikara, and Assinaboine Tribes. Names in (parentheses) are other names used for tribe. Aionai Treaties (I-On-I) Treaty of May 15, 1846 Anadarko Treaties (Ana-Da-Ca) Treaty of May 15, 1846 Apache Treaties Treaty of July 1, 1852 Treaty of October 17, 1865 Treaty of July 27, 1853 Treaty of October 21, 1867 Memorandum to Treaty of October 21, 1867 Appalachicola Treaty of October 11, 1832 Treaty of June 18, 1833 Arapaho (Arrapahoe, Arapahoe) Treaty of September 17, 1851 Treaty of February 15, 1861 Treaty of October 14, 1865 Treaty of October 17, 1865 Treaty of October 28, 1867 Treaty of April 29, 1868 Treaty of May 10, 1868 Treaty of September 17, 1851 Arikara (Ricara, Arickaree) Treaty of July 18, 1825 Treaty of September 17, 1851 Agreement of July 17, 1866 Assinaboine Treaty of September 17,...

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Indian Treaties Bannock to Brothertown

Treaties for the Bannock, Belantse, Blackfeet, Blood, and Brothertown Tribes. Names in (parentheses) are other names used for tribe. Bannock Treaty of July 3, 1868 Belantse-Etoa Treaties (Belantse-Etea, Belantse-Eta, Minnetaree) Treaty of July 30, 1825 Blackfeet (Blackfoot, Blackfoot Nation) Treaty of October 17, 1855 Treaty of October 19, 1865 Blood Treaty of October 17, 1855 Brothertown Treaty of January 15,...

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