Topic: Sioux

Treaty of September 10, 1836

Convention with the Sioux of Wa-ha-shaw’s tribe. In a convention held this tenth day of September 1836, between Col. Z. Taylor Indian Agent, and the chiefs, braves, and principal men of the Sioux of Wa-ha-shaw’s tribe of Indians, it has been represented, that according to the stipulations of the first article of the treaty of Prairie du Chien of the 15th July, 1830, the country thereby ceded is” to be assigned and allotted under the direction of the President of the United States, to the tribes now living thereon, or to such other tribes as the President may locate thereon for hunting and other purposes,” and, whereas, it is further represented to us, the chiefs, braves, and principal men of the tribe aforesaid, to be desirable that the lands lying between the State of Missouri and the Missouri river should be attached to and become a part of said State, and the Indian title thereto be extinguished but that, notwithstanding, as these lands compose a part of the country embraced by the provisions of said first article of the treaty aforesaid, the stipulations thereof will be strictly observed, until the assent of the Indians interested, is given to the proposed measure. Now we, the chiefs, braves, and principal men of the above named tribe of Indians, fully understanding the subject, and well satisfied from the local position of the...

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Cattle Ranchers and Native Americans of Brown County, Nebraska

Cattle ranches were the first settlements made in northwest Nebraska. The surplus stock from these ranches was bought by the United States government at good prices, so the business was a profitable one for a few years. To the west of Brown county several large outfits were found very early, previous to 1880: Boiling Springs ranch owned by Carpenter and Morehead; the JP ranch on the Niobrara about twelve miles below Boiling Springs; the Newman ranch twenty-one miles west of Boiling Springs; and the Hunter ranch about due south of where Gordon is now located. The herds owned by these outfits were driven into this country from Texas over the old “Chisholm Trail”. They were the Texas longhorns, a breed no longer seen in this state. These ranchers were in continual warfare with the Indians and many lonely graves are found in the hills along the Niobrara river where rest the remains of cowboys who were shot and scalped by Sioux. Each year the Sioux became more dissatisfied and warlike. Many treaties were made with them by commissioners sent out by the United States government, but they were made only to be broken, both the government and the Indians: being equally faithless. Due to the loss of their buffalo herds, the Indians were starving. They blamed the white settlers: for their troubles, and as these troubles increased so did...

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Treaty of July 15, 1830

Articles of a treaty made and concluded by William Clark Superintendent of Indian Affairs and Willoughby Morgan, Col. of the United States 1st Regt. Infantry, Commissioners on behalf of the United States on the one part, and the undersigned Deputations of the Confederated Tribes of the Sacs and Foxes; the Medawah-Kanton, Wahpacoota, Wahpeton and Sissetong Bands or Tribes of Sioux; the Omahas, Ioways, Ottoes and Missourias on the other part. The said Tribes being anxious to remove all causes which may hereafter create any unfriendly feeling between them, and being also anxious to provide other sources for supplying their wants besides those of hunting, which they are sensible must soon entirely fail them; agree with the United States on the following Articles. Article 1. The said Tribes cede and relinquish to the United States forever all their right and title to the lands lying within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the upper fork of the Demoine River, and passing the sources of the Little Sioux, and Floyds Rivers, to the fork of the first creek which falls into the Big Sioux or Calumet on the east side; thence, down said creek, and Calumet River to the Missouri River; thence down said Missouri River to the Missouri State line, above the Kansas; thence along said line to the north west corner of the said State, thence to the...

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Red Cloud

Far away in Wyoming lived the Sioux Indians, a fierce and warlike tribe. They called themselves Dakotas; but their enemies said that when they fought they did everything in a mean, hidden way so that it was hard to know what to expect, and they called them Sioux, which means “snake-like-ones.” To this tribe belonged a young brave who wanted very much to become a chief. His father was a fierce warrior and had taught him how to fight, but he was not satisfied to follow the leaders of his tribe, for he wanted to lead other Indians himself. When this young man was only eighteen years old he had already learned to use the bow, could ride Indian ponies and swim deep rivers, and was a great buffalo-hunter; besides, he often danced in war dances with older braves. In some way he managed to get a rifle which fired several times without reloading, and after that he began to feel of much more importance than other young Indians. At first the young braves were angry with him, but he soon showed them that he was a skillful warrior, and before long many young Indians chose him for their leader. Now he could wear an eagle feather in his war bonnet, and was a real chief. At this time Uncle Sam had promised to give each Indian a good...

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Treaty of August 19, 1825

Treaty with the Sioux and Chippewa, Sacs and Fox, Menominie, Ioway, Winnebago, and a portion of the Ottawa, and Potawattomie Tribes. The United States of America have seen with much regret, that wars have for many years been carried on between the Sioux and the Chippewas, and more recently between the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes, and the Sioux; and also between the Ioways and Sioux; which, if not terminated, may extend to the other tribes, and involve the Indians upon the Missouri, the Mississippi, and the Lakes, in general hostilities. In order, therefore, to promote peace among these tribes, and to establish boundaries among them and the other tribes who live in their vicinity, and thereby to remove all causes of future difficulty, the United States have invited the Chippewa, Sac, and Fox, Menominie, Ioway, Sioux, Winnebago, and a portion of the Ottowa, Chippewa and Potawatomie Tribes of Indians living upon the Illinois, to assemble together, and in a spirit of mutual conciliation to accomplish these objects; and to aid therein, have appointed William Clark and Lewis Cass, Commissioners on their part, who have met the Chiefs, Warriors, and Representatives of the said tribes, and portion of tribes, at Prairie des Chiens, in the Territory of Michigan, and after full deliberation, the said tribes, and portions of tribes, have agreed with the United States, and with one...

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Treaty of September 17, 1851

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, in the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, commissioners specially appointed and authorized by the President of the United States, of the first part, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves of the following Indian nations, residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, Crows, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arrickaras, parties of the second part, on the seventeenth day of September, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. Article I. The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty. having assembled for the purpose of establishing and confirming peaceful relations amongst themselves, do hereby covenant and agree to abstain in future from all hostilities whatever against each other, to maintain good faith and friendship in all their mutual intercourse, and to make an effective and lasting peace. Article II. The aforesaid nations do hereby recognize the right of the United States Government to establish roads, military and other posts, within their respective territories. Article III. In consideration of the rights and privileges acknowledged in the preceding article, the United States bind themselves to protect the aforesaid Indian nations against the commission of all depredations by the people of the said United States,...

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Treaty of September 23, 1805

Conference Between the United States of America and the Sioux Nation of Indians. 1This treaty does not appear among those printed in the United States Statutes at Large. It was, however, submitted by the President to the Senate, March 29, 1808. The Senate committee reported favorably, on the 13th of April, with the following amendment to fill the blank in article 2, viz: “After the word ‘States’ in the second article insert the following words: ‘shall, prior to taking possession thereof, pay to the Sioux two thousand dollars, or deliver the value thereof in such goods and merchandise as they shall choose.'” In this form the Senate, on the 16th of April, 1808, advised and consented to its ratification by a unanimous vote. An examination of the records of the State Department fails to indicate any subsequent action by the President in proclaiming the ratification of this treaty; but more than twenty-five years subsequent to its approval by the Senate the correspondence of the War Department speaks of the cessions of land described therein as an accomplished fact. Whereas, a conference held between the United States of America and the Sioux Nation of Indians, Lieut. Z. M. Pike, of the Army of the United States, and the chiefs and warriors of the said tribe, have agreed to the following articles, which when ratified and approved of by the proper...

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Sioux Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Eastman, Charles Alexander (Ohiyesa, ‘the Winner’). A Santee Dakota physician and author, born in 1858 near Redwood Falls, Minn. His father was a full-blood Sioux named Many Lightnings, and his mother the half-blood daughter of a well-known army officer. His mother dying soon after his birth, he was reared by his paternal grandmother and an uncle, who after the Minnesota massacre in 1862 fled with the boy into Canada. Here he lived the life of a wild Indian until he was 15 years of age, when his father, who in the meantime had accepted Christianity and civilization, sought him out and brought him home to Flandreau, S. Dak., where a few Sioux families had established themselves as farmers and homesteaders. Ohiyesa was placed in the mission school at Santee, Nebr., where he made such progress in 2 years that he was selected for a more advanced course and sent to Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. After 2 years spent there in the preparatory department he went to Knox College, Galesburg, Ill., thence to Kimball Academy and Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. He was graduated from Dartmouth in 1887, and immediately entered the Boston University school of medicine, receiving the degree of M. D. in 1890. Dr Eastman was then appointed Government physician to the Pine Ridge agency, S. Dak., and served there nearly 3 years, through the ghost-dance disturbance and afterward....

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Sioux Indians

Siouan Family, Siouan Tribe, Sioux Tribe. The most populous linguistic family North of Mexico, next to the Algonquian. The name is taken from a ‘term applied to the largest and best known tribal group or confederacy belonging to the family, the Sioux or Dakota, which, in turn, is an abbreviation of Nadowessioux, a French corruption of Nadowe-is-iw, the appellation given them by the Chippewa. It signifies ‘snake,’ ‘adder,’ and, by metaphor, ‘enemy.’ Before changes of domicile took place among them, resulting from contact with whites, the principal body extended from the west bank of the Mississippi northward from the Arkansas nearly to the Rocky Mountains, except for certain sections held by the Pawnee, Arikara, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Comanche, and Kiowa. The Dakota proper also occupied territory on the east side of the river, from the mouth of the Wisconsin to Mille Lacs, and the Winnebago were about the lake of that name and the head of Green bay. Northward Siouan tribes extended some distance into Canada, in the direction of Lake Winnipeg. A second group of Siouan tribes, embracing the Catawba, Sara or Cheraw, Saponi, Tutelo, and several others, occupied the central part of North Carolina and South Carolina and the Piedmont region of Virginia 1see Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, Bull. B. A. E., 1894 , while the Biloxi dwelt in Mississippi along the Gulf coast, and...

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Blackfeet Tribe in War

The Blackfeet were a warlike people. How it may have been in the old days, before the coming of the white men, we do not know. Very likely, in early times, they were usually at peace with neighboring tribes, or, if quarrels took place, battles were fought, and men killed, this was only in angry dispute over what each party considered its rights. Their wars were probably not general, nor could they have been very bloody. When, however, horses came into the possession of the Indians, all this must have soon become changed. Hitherto there had really been no incentive to war. From time to time expeditions may have gone out to kill enemies, for glory, or to take revenge for some injury, but war had not yet been made desirable by the hope of plunder, for none of their neighbors any more than themselves had property which was worth capturing and taking away. Primitive arms, dogs, clothing, and dried meat were common to all the tribes, and were their only possessions, and usually each tribe had an abundance of all these. It was not worth any man’s while to make long journeys and to run into danger merely to increase his store of such property, when his present possessions were more than sufficient to meet all his wants. Even if such things had seemed desirable plunder, the amount...

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Yesterday and Today

“We then proceeded on for a mile, and anchored off a willow island, which, from the circumstances which had just occurred, we called Badhumored Island.” This is quoted, not for the chronicles of Swiss Family Robinson, but from a much nearer source, the journal of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804-6; and it sums up the impression left by the first meeting of the party with the Teton Sioux, one of the three great branches of that numerous tribe more properly known as Dakota. Of all the Indians on the long journey into the wilderness that the United States had just acquired through the Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark found the Sioux the most quarrelsome, the most menacing of future trouble. In this first encounter at the mouth of the stream they called Teton River, the chiefs accepted the gifts and hospitality of the white men, then strove to detain them and demanded further tribute. Intimidation had been their rule with the traders who had hitherto given them their only contact with the white race; and they did not realize that behind this new group lay the power of a young and growing nation that was spreading over the land that had once been the red man’s alone. Arrows were fixed in their bow’s for flight, and swords were drawn; but the incident passed over without an actual...

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The Minnesota Massacre

The line established between the Sioux and the Chippewa by the treaty of 1825 ran in a south-easterly direction across what is now the State of Minnesota, from a point near where Fargo now stands, crossing the Mississippi River at St. Cloud. Below this line were the four bands of the Eastern division of the Sioux. With the exception of a tract set apart for Fort Snelling by treaty made with Lieutenant Pike, there was until 1837 no authority for white settlement within the region. Yet settlers had come; at first the French traders, later Americans from the east....

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The New Day

So though the tepee still stands beside the house of wood, though incantations are still heard where the sick man lies, we can only be surprised that so much of the old life has vanished that so much of the new has taken its place; that so many steps have already been taken by these sturdy people on their strange way, the “white man’s road.”

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The US Peace Policy with the Sioux

So read the treaty of 1868, made at fort Laramie, Dakota, with a dozen or more tribes of Sioux who had been at war continuously for a half dozen years. For between the nine treaties of 1865 and this new agreement warfare had been going on unceasingly, the annihilation of Fetterman’s command near Fort Phil Kearney being one of the outstanding events of this officially peaceful period.

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