Topic: Siouan

Wateree Tribe

Wateree Indians (perhaps from Catawba wateran, ‘to float on the water.’ Gatschet). One of the early tribes of the Carolinas, probably Siouan. As described by Juan de la Vandera in his account of the expedition of Juan de Pardo in 1567, they then lived at a great distance from the coast, near the Cherokee frontier. In 1670 Lederer, whose statement is doubtful, places them apparently in North Carolina, on the extreme upper Yadkin, far to the north west of their later habitat, with the Shoccore and Eno on the north east and the Cheraw on the west. In 1700 they lived on Wateree River, below the present Camden, South Carolina. On a map of 1715 their village is placed on the west bank of Wateree river, perhaps in Fairfield County. Moll’s map of 1730 locates their village on the east bank of the river. When Lawson met them, in 1700, they were a much larger body than the Congaree, and spoke an entirely different language, which was unintelligible to the latter people. The Yamasee War broke the power of the Wateree, and according to Adair (1743) they became confederates of the Catawba, though still retaining their own village and language. Vandera says they were ruled by two female chiefs, who held dignified court, with a retinue of young men and women. He also describes them as being rather the...

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Waxhaw Tribe

Waxhaw Indians. A small tribe that lived in the 17th century in what is now Lancaster County, South Carolina, and Union and Mecklenburg Counties, North Carolina. They were connected with the neighboring Sugeree, and both were apparently related to the Catawba, and therefore were Siouan. The custom of flattening the head, practiced by the Waxhaw, was also mentioned as a custom of the Catawba. Lederer (1672) says they were subject to and might be considered a part of the Catawba. Lawson visited the Waxhaw in 1701 and was hospitably received. He mentions two of their villages situated about 10 miles apart. He describes the people as very tall, and notes particularly their custom of artificially flattening the head during infancy. The dance ceremonies and councils were held in a council house, much larger than the ordinary dwellings. Instead of being covered with bark, like the domiciles, it was neatly thatched with sedge and rushes; the entrance was low, and around the walls on the inside were benches made of cane. Near the Waxhaw were the Catawba, or more likely a band of that tribe. They were probably so reduced by the Yamasee War of 1715 as to have been obliged to incorporate with the Catawba. For Further Study The following articles and manuscripts will shed additional light on the Waxhaw as both an ethnological study, and as a people....

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Wahpekute Tribe

Wahpekute Indians (wakhpe, leaf; kute, to shoot: shooters in the leaves’). One of the 7 primary divisions of the Dakota. Although the name Santee was originally applied only to the Mdewakanton, it was early extended to the Wahpekute, so closely were the two tribes connected, and eventually by the Teton also to the two other tribes of the eastern Dakota. Historic and linguistic evidence proves the close affinity of the tribes of this group. The Wahpekute were doubtless living in the vicinity of the Mdewakanton of Mille Lac, Minn., when first visited by the French (1678-1680), and were still so closely combined with them as to be included under the one term. In 1766 Carver met the Wahpekute somewhere on Minnesota river. They were in 1804, according to Lewis and Clark, on both sides of that stream below Redwood river, and numbered about 150 men. Pike (1806) spoke of them as the smallest band of the Sioux, residing generally between Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and hunting commonly at the head of Des Moines river. He characterizes them as “the most stupid and inactive of all the Sioux.” Long 1Exped. St. Peter’s River, 1, 386, 1824 says: “This tribe has a very bad name, being considered to be a lawless set of men. They have a regular hereditary chief, Wiahuga (‘the raven’), who is acknowledged as such by the Indian...

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Otherday, Wahpeton Indian Chief

Otherday, John (Aagpetu-tokecha) A Wahpeton Sioux, son of Zitkaduta, or Red Bird, and nephew of Big Curly, chief of the Wahpeton at Lac qui Parle, Minn.; born at Swan lake, Minn., in 1801. It is said that when a young man he was “passionate and revengeful, and withal addicted to intemperance, and he lived to lament that he had slain three or four of his fellows in his drunken orgies” (Sibley). Yet at times he manifested the same devotion to his tribesmen as he afterward showed to the whites, on one occasion, in a battle with the Chippewa at St Croix river, bearing from the field “Onelegged Jim,” who had been severely wounded, and, during the same action, saving the life of another Indian called Fresniere’s Son. But he early became desirous of following the ways of the white men, adopting their dress, later becoming a devoted member of Dr Williamson’s church, and abandoning his intemperate habits. When in 1857 the wily Inkpaduta, “too vile to be even countenanced by the Sioux,” fell upon and massacred the settlers at Spirit lake, in the present South Dakota, and carried Miss Abigail Gardner and Mrs Noble into captivity, Otherday and Paul Mazakutemani volunteered to follow the outlaw’s trail, rescuing Miss Gardner, but arriving too late to save the life of the other captive. At the time of the Sioux outbreak of...

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Wahpeton Tribe

Wahpeton Indians (wakhpe, ‘leaf’; tonwan (French nasal n), ‘a village’; hence probably ‘dwellers among leaves’). One of the 7 primary divisions of the Dakota. Historic and linguistic evidence proves the affinity of this tribe with the Sisseton, Wahpekute, and Mdewakanton. Hennepin (1680) mentions them as living in the vicinity of Mille Lac, Minnesota, near the Mdewakanton, Sisseton, and Teton. On his map they are placed a little to the northeast of the lake. Le Sueur (1700) places the Oudebatons, or “river village,” among the eastern Sioux, and the Ocapetons, “village of the leaf,” among the Sioux of the west. As both these names seem to be forms of Wahpeton, it is probable that they are applied to different villages of the tribe, which was subsequently found most of the time in two bands. It was not until Lewis and Clark and Pike visited the northwest that the name appeared again in history. According to the former (1804) they resided on Minnesota river, just above its mouth, and claimed the country to the mouth of Chippeway river, thence northeast to Crow Wing river. Pike (1806) says: “They hunt on the St. Peter’s [Minnesota river.], also on the Mississippi, up Rum river, and sometimes follow the buffalo on the plains.” They gradually moved up Minnesota river, so that in 1849 they lived north and west of the Wahpekute, their villages extending...

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Two Kettles Sioux Tribe

Two Kettle Indians, Two Kettle Lakota, Oohenonpa Tribe, Oohenonpa Indians,  (‘two boilings’ ). A division of the Teton Sioux, commonly known as Two Kettle Sioux, or Two Kettles; also a subdivision thereof. No mention of it is made by Lewis and Clark, Long, or other earlier explorers. It is stated in a note to De Smet’s Letters (1843) that the band was estimated at 800 persons. Culbertson (1850) estimated them at 60 lodges, but gives no locality and says they have no divisions. Gen. Warren (1856) found them much scattered among other bands and numbering about 100 lodges. Gumming 1Rep. Ind. Aff. for 1856 places them on the south side of the Missouri. Hayden (1862) says they passed up and down Cheyenne river as far as Cherry creek and Moreau and Grand rivers, not uniting with other bands. Their principal chief then was Matotopa, or Four Bears, a man of moderate capacity but exercising a good influence on his people. They lived entirely on the plains, seldom going to war, and were good hunters and shrewd in their dealings with the traders. They treated with respect white men who came among them as traders or visitors. They were on the warpath in 1866 at the time of the Ft Phil. Kearney massacre, yet it is not certain that they took an active part in this attack. By treaty made...

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Sugeree Tribe

Sugeree Indians. A small tribe, supposed to have been Siouan, that lived near the Waxhaw in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, and York County, South Carolina.  They occupied a fertile district and, according to Lawson 1Hist. Car. 76, 1860 inhabited many towns and settlements.  They were doubtless greatly reduced by the Yamasee War of 1715 and later merged in the Catawba. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Hist. Car. 76,...

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Teton Sioux Tribe

Teton (contr. of Titonwan, ‘dwellers on the prairie’). The western and principal division of the Dakota or Sioux, including all the bands formerly ranging west of Missouri river, and now residing on reservations in South Dakota and North Dakota. The bands officially recognized are: Oglala of Pine Ridge agency Brule of Rosebud and Lower Brule agencies Blackfoot Miniconjou Sans Arc Two Kettle of Cheyenne River agency Hunkpapa, etc., of Standing Rock agency. Their history is interwoven with that of the other Dakota and is little more than a recountal of attacks on other tribes and on border settlers and emigrants. They were first met by Hennepin (1680) 20 or 30 leagues above the falls of St Anthony in Minnesota, probably at Sauk rapids, on Mississippi river, about 70 miles above Minneapolis. He places them in the neighborhood of Mille Lacs, far to the east of their later home. Lahontan also enumerates them among the tribes on the upper Mississippi, which leads to the conclusion that a part at least of the Teton formerly lived in the prairie region, near the upper Mississippi, though the main body may have been near upper Minnesota river Le Sueur in 1700 included them in the western Sioux, who lived between the upper Mississippi and the Missouri. On a map of De I’Isle (1701) Lahw Traverse is surrounded by villages of wandering Teton. Pachot...

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Sisseton Sioux Tribe

Sisseton Sioux Indians, Sisseton Indians, Sisseton Tribe (‘lake village’). One of the seven original tribes of the Dakota. They appear to have formed a link between the eastern and western tribes, though generally included in the eastern division, with which they seem to have the closest affinity. Riggs says that the intercourse between the Mdewakanton on the Mississippi and lower Minnesota rivers. and the Wahpeton, Wahpekute, and a part of the Sisseton has been so constant that but slight differences are discoverable in their manner of speaking, though the western Sisseton show greater difference in their speech. This tribe was in existence at the coming of the whites. Rev. T. S. Williamson, who was well acquainted with the history, traditions, languages, and customs of the eastern Dakota, says: “From what was written on this subject by Hennepin, La Hontan, Le Sueur, and Charlevoix, and from the maps published under the superintendence of these authors, it is sufficiently clear that in the latter part of the 17th century the principal residence of the Isanyati Sioux [Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, Wahpekute, and Sisseton] was about the headwaters of Rum river, whence they extended their hunts to St Croix and Mississippi rivers, and down the latter nearly or quite as far as the mouth of the Wisconsin.” 1Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll, I, 295, 1872 . The first recorded mention of the tribe is probably that of...

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Sissipahaw Tribe

Sissipahaw Indians. A former small tribe of North Carolina, presumably Siouan, from their alliance and associations with known Siouan tribes. They must have been an important tribe at one time, as Haw River, the chief head stream of Cape Fear River, derives its name from them, and the site of their former village, known in 1728 as Haw Old Fields, was noted as the largest body of fertile land in all that region. It was probably situated about the present Saxapahaw on Haw River, in the lower part of Alamance County, North Carolina. They were mentioned by Lawson in 1701, but he did not meet them. Nothing more is known of them beyond the general statement that they and other tribes of the region joined the Yamasee against the English in the war of...

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Sitting Bull Sioux Indian Chief

(Tatanka Yotanka, ‘sitting buffalo bull’). A noted Sioux warrior and tribal leader of the Hunkpapa Teton division, born on Grand Rivers, South Dakota, in 1834, his father being Sitting Bull, alias Four Horns, a subchief. As a boy he was first known as Jumping Badger. He manifested hunting ability when but 10 years of age, in the pursuit of buffalo calves. When he was 14 he accompanied his father on the warpath against the Crows and counted his first coup on the body of a fallen enemy. On the return of the party his father made a feast, gave...

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Sioux Indians

Siouan Family, Siouan Tribe, Sioux Tribe. The most populous linguistic family North of Mexico, next to the Algonquian. The name is taken from a ‘term applied to the largest and best known tribal group or confederacy belonging to the family, the Sioux or Dakota, which, in turn, is an abbreviation of Nadowessioux, a French corruption of Nadowe-is-iw, the appellation given them by the Chippewa. It signifies ‘snake,’ ‘adder,’ and, by metaphor, ‘enemy.’ Before changes of domicile took place among them, resulting from contact with whites, the principal body extended from the west bank of the Mississippi northward from the Arkansas nearly to the Rocky Mountains, except for certain sections held by the Pawnee, Arikara, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Comanche, and Kiowa. The Dakota proper also occupied territory on the east side of the river, from the mouth of the Wisconsin to Mille Lacs, and the Winnebago were about the lake of that name and the head of Green bay. Northward Siouan tribes extended some distance into Canada, in the direction of Lake Winnipeg. A second group of Siouan tribes, embracing the Catawba, Sara or Cheraw, Saponi, Tutelo, and several others, occupied the central part of North Carolina and South Carolina and the Piedmont region of Virginia 1see Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, Bull. B. A. E., 1894 , while the Biloxi dwelt in Mississippi along the Gulf coast, and...

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Shakori Tribe

Shakori Indians. A small tribe associated with the Eno and Adshusheer in North Carolina in the 17th century. It is doubtful, from their physical characteristics, whether they were of Siouan stock, though they were allied with Siouan tribes. As the Shakori were constantly associated with the Eno they were probably linguistically related to them. They are first mentioned by Yardley (1654), who says a Tuscarora Indian described to him among other tribes of the interior “a great nation called Cacores,” of dwarfish stature, not exceeding. that of boys of 14 years, yet exceedingly brave and fierce in fight and active in retreat, so that even the powerful Tuscarora were unable to conquer them. They were then near neighbors of the Eno. Lederer (1672) found the villages of the two tribes about 14 miles apart, that of the Shakori being farthest west. In 1701 Lawson found the two tribes confederated, and the Adshusheer with them. Their village, which he calls Adshusheer, was on Eno river about 14 miles east of the Occaneechi village, probably a short distance north east of the present Durham, North Carolina. They resembled the Eno in their customs. According to Col. Barnwell, commander in the Tuscarora War of 1711, they are identical with the Sissipahaw. For Further Study The following articles and manuscripts will shed additional light on the Abenaki as both an ethnological study, and...

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Santee Sioux Tribe

Santee Indians, Santee Sioux Indians (Isañyati, from isañ ‘knife,’ contraction of isañta-mde ‘knife lake,’ Dakota name for Mille Lacs, and ati, ‘to pitch tents at’ ). An eastern division of the Dakota, comprising the Mdewakanton and Wahpekute, sometimes also the Sisseton and Wahpeton. Hennepin (1680), who probably included only the Mdewakanton, says 1Hennepin, Descr. La., Shea’s trans., 203, 1880 : “In the neighborhood of Lake Buade are many other lakes, whence issue several rivers, on the banks of which live the Issati, Nadouessans, Tinthonha (which means prairie-men), Ouadebathon River People, Chongaskethon Dog, or Wolf tribe (for chonga among these nations means dog or wolf), and other tribes, all which we comprise under the name Nadouessiou [Sioux]” In Le Sueur’s list (1700) the Issati are omitted and the Mdewakanton (written Mendeoucantons) inserted, for the first time. The name Santee was applied by the Missouri River Dakota to all those of the group living on Mississippi and lower Minnesota rivers, the Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Wahpeton, and Sisseton. Ramsey 2Ramsey in Rep. Ind. Aff. for 1849, 74, 1850 and Riggs limit the use of the term to designate the Mdewakanton. McGee 3McGee in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 160, 1897 includes only the Wahpekute, which has been the usual application of the term since 1862, when the two tribes were gathered on the Santee Rivers in Knox County, Nebraska. Reyata is mentioned as a...

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Santee Tribe

Santee Indians. A tribe, probably Siouan, formerly residing on middle Santee River, South Carolina, where Lawson in 1700 found their plantations extending for many miles. One of their villages was called Hickerau. While friendly to the white people, they were at war with the coast tribes. According to Rivers 1Rivers, Hist. S. C., 94, 1874 , they had two villages with 43 warriors in 1715, and were then settled 70 miles north of Charleston. Bartram (Tray., 54, 1791) tells us that in 1715 they sided with the Yamasee against the British, and that they were attacked and reduced by the Creeks, who were allies of the British. It appears from South Carolina colonial documents that the Santee and Congaree were cut off by the “Itwans and Cossabos,” coast tribes in the English interest,’ and the prisoners sold as slaves in the West Indies in 1716. Those that escaped were probably incorporated with the Catawba. Lawson states that their chief was an absolute ruler with power of life and death over his tribe, an instance of despotism very rare among Indians. Their distinguished dead were buried on the tops of mounds, built low or high according to the rank of the deceased, with ridge roofs supported by poles over the graves to shelter them from the weather. On these poles were hung rattles, feathers, and other offerings from the relatives...

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